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Full text of "Reports of the Division of Minimum Wage (1920-1939)"

1919-5^ 
03 



Ctie CommontDealti) of jnasisiactiusiettg 
Department OF Labor and Industries 



REPORT 




DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE 



REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 

FOR THE 

YEAR ENDING NOVEMBER 30, 1920 




BOSTON 

IGHT & POTTER PRINTING COMPANY, STATE PRINTERS 
32 DERNE STREET 
1921 




DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES. 



I PUBLICATIONS OF THE DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE. 

Annual reports, First to seventh, 1913-1919. 
Bulletins: 

No. 1. Wages of Women in the Brush Factories in Massachusetts, "Janu- 
ary^ 1914.1 - ■ 

No. 2. Wages of Women in the Corset Pactories in Massachusetts, Janu- 
ary, 1914.1 

No, 3. Statement, and Decree concerning the Wages of Women in the 
Brush Industry in Massachusetts, August 15, 1914. 

No. 4. Wages of Women in the Oandy Factories in Massachusetts, Octo- 
ber, 1914. » 

No. 5. Wages of Women in the Laundries in Massachusetts, October, 
1914. 

No. 6. Wages of Women in Retail Stores in Massachusetts, March, 
1915.1 

No. 7. The Effect of the Minimum Wage Decree on the Brush Industry 

in Massachusetts, September 16, 1915. 
No. 8. Wages of Women in the Paper Box Factories in Massachusetts' 

September, 1915.1 

No. '9. Wages of Women in Women's Clothing Factories in Massachiisetts, 
September. 1915. " 

No. 10. Wages of Women in Hosiery and iCnit Goods Factories in Mas- 
sachusetts, January, 1916. 

No. 11. Report of the Minimum Wage Commission, 1915 (Commissioner!' 
report and appendices of the Third Annual Report), January, 1916.^ 

No. 12. Preliminary Report on the Effect of the Minimum Wage in Mas- 
sachusetts Retail Stores, November, 1916. 

No. 13. Wages of Women in Men's Clothing and Raincoat Factories in 
Massachusetts, December, 1916. 

No. 14. Wages of Women in Muslin Underwear, Petticoat, Apron, 
Kimono, Women's Neckwear and Children's Clothing Factories in Mas- 
sachusetts, May, 1917. 

No. 15. Wages of Women in Shirt, Workingmen's Garment and Furnish- 
ing Goods Factories in Massachusetts, December, 1917. i 
No. 16. Wages of Womfen employed as Office and Other Building Cleaners 

in Massachusetts, May, 1918. i 
No. 17. Wages of Women in Hotels and Restaurants in Massaehusetta, 
September, 1918. 

No. 18. Supplementary Report on Wages of Women in Candy Factories 
in Massachusetts, January, 1919. 

No. 19. Wages of Women employed in Canning and Preserving Estab- 
lishments in Massachusetts, March, 1919. 

No. 20. Report on the Wages of Women in the Millinery Industry in 
Massachusetts, May, 1919. ^ - 

No. 21. Second Report on the Wages of Women in Corset Factories in 
Massachusetts, November, 1919. . 

No. 22. Second Report on the Wages of Women employed in Paper Box 
Factori^ in Massachusetts, September, 1920. , 



1 PublicatioDB out of print. 



tlTfie ComtnontDealtf) of ilIasisiac{)U£iett£t 



Department of Labor and Industries ; iwU, 
REPORT 



DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE 



REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 



Year ending November 30. 1920 




BOSTON 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING COMPANY, STATE PRINTERS 
32 DERNE STREET 
1921 



OCT 141921 
STATE HOUS^ BOSTON 



Publication of this Document 

approved by the 
Supervisor of Administration. 



• 3 3/, 

3 



OFFICIALS 

OF THE 

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES. 



Commissioner. Assistant Commissioner. 

E. LEROY S\^T:ETSER. ETHEL M. JOHNSON. 



Associate Commissioners. 

(Constituting the Division of Minimum Wage and the 
Board of Conciliation and Arbitration.) 



EDWARD FISHER. 
SAMUEL ROSS. 
HERBERT P. WASGATT. 



E 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



Organization and Functions, ......... 7 

Summary of the Work for 1920, 7 

Outline of Activities, .......... 8 

Legislation enacted in 1920, ......... 10 

Results of Investigations, . . . . . .11 

Wages of Women employed by Firms manufacturing Druggists' Prepa- 
rations, Compounds and Proprietary Medicines, . . . .11 

Wages of Women employed in Establishments manufacturing Stationery 
Goods and Envelopes, . . . . . . . . .12 

Results of Wage Board Activities, . . . . .13 

Corset Wage Board, . . . . . . . .14 

Men's Clothing and Raincoat Wage Board, ..... 14 

Knit Goods Wage Board, , . . . . . . .15 

Women's Clothing Wage Board, . . .15 
Paper Box Wage Board, . . . . . . . . .16 

Men's Furnishings Wage Board, . . . .16 

Minor Lines of Confectionery and Food Preparations Wage Board, . 17 
OflBce and Other Building Cleaners Wage Board, . . .17 
Summary, . . . . . . . . . . .17 

Enforcement of Wage Decrees, . . . . . .18 

Outlook for the Future, 22 

Revision of Rates, .......... 22 

Uniformity of Rates, . . . . . . . .22 

The Question of Uniform Enforcement, ...... 24 

Recommendations regarding Appropriation, . . .25 

Financial Statement, . . . . . . . .26 

Appendix No. 1 : — 

Membership of Wage Boards in Session in 1920, . .29 

Appendix No. 2: — 

Chronology of Minimum Wage Legislation in Massachusetts, • . .32 
Appendix No. 3: — 

Itemized Cost of Living Budgets adopted by Massachusetts Wage 

Boards, 34 

Appendix No. 4: — 

Estimate of Increase in the Cost of Living Budget for the Working 
Girl since the Various Decrees were entered, ..... 35 
Appendix No. 5: — 

Minimum Wage Decrees established in Massachusetts up to February 
1, 1921 36 



REPORT OF THE MINIMUM WAGE 
COMMISSION. 



To the Commissioner of Labor and Industries. 

The Minimum Wage Commission herewith respectfully sub- 
mits the following report which contains an account of the 
investigations and proceedings conducted during the fiscal 
year ending November 30, 1920. 

Organization and Functions. 

Through the consolidation of State departments, December 
1, 1919, the functions of the former Minimum Wage Com- 
mission were transferred to the three Associate Commissioners 
of the Department of Labor and Industries, who, when act- 
ing in minimum wage matters, are designated the Minimum 
Wage Commission. The work is conducted by the Division 
of Minimum Wage, and is under the immediate supervision 
of the Assistant Commissioner. 

The duties of the Commission, as in the past, cover four 
main lines of activity. These are the investigation of wage 
conditions in occupations where women are employed; the 
organization of wage boards to determine minimum rates for 
women and minors; the entering of decrees based upon the 
determinations of the boards; and the inspection of establish- 
ments covered by decrees to ascertain compliance with their 
provisions. 

Summary of the Work for 1920. 
In view of the work in progress at the time of reorganization, 
it was decided to complete the unfinished business before un- 
dertaking new activities. Consequently the major part of the 
work during the year just ended has consisted in carrying 
out this program. The wage boards which had been author- 
ized have been convened, and the wage investigations planned 
have been conducted. In addition, complete inspections have 



I 



8 MIXDIOI WAGE COiNIMISSIOX. 

been made under all of the decrees entered this year, as well 
as under five of the decrees entered by the former commission. 

Wage decrees establishing minimum rates for women have 
been entered for five occupations. Of these, three represent 
initial decrees and two supersede earlier ones. Three wage 
boards, including one new board, and two reconvened boards 
are in session at the present time.^ 

The first half of the year was characterized by a continued 
increase in the cost of li\'ing. This increase has been reflected 
to some extent in the minimum rates recommended by the 
wage boards. The decrees entered during this period represent 
the highest minima established in the State. 

Legislation providing for greater elasticity in the operation 
of the law with respect to the formation of wage boards and 
the revision of rates has been enacted. An outline of the 
various acti\'ities conducted during the year with a detailed 
account of the more important lines of work is given in the 
sections that follow. 

OuTLixE OF Activities. 

Publications. — The following publications have been is- 
sued : — 

Seventh Annual Report of the Minimum Wage Commission, Public 

Document Xo. 102. 
Second Report on the Wages of Women emploj-ed in Corset Factories in 

Massachusetts, Bulletin Xo. 21. 
Second Report on the Wages of Women employed in Paper Box Factories 

in Massachusetts, Bulletin Xo. 22. 
Report on the Wages of Women employed in the Manufacture of Minor 

Lines of Confectioner}^ and Food Preparations, Bulletin Xo. 23. 

In addition a new and revised edition of the Handbook of 
Information for Wage Board Members has been published, 
and a circular^ giving minimum wage legislation to date, issued. 

Several of the early bulletins and decrees which were out of 
print have been reprinted. 



1 These are the minor confectionery and food preparations wage board, the office and other 
building cleaners wage board (reconvened), and the men's furnishings wage board (reconvened). 

2 Labor Law Leaflet Xo. 1. 



OUTLINE OF ACTIVITIES. 



9 



Wage Boards. — During the year wage boards for the fol- 
lowing occupations have been in session : — 

Corset board (established by the former commission; work completed 
under the present Commission) . 

Men's clothing and raincoat board (reconvened by the former commis- 
sion; work completed under the present Commission). 

Knit goods board (estabhshed by the former commission; work com- 
pleted under the present Commission) . 

Women's clothing board (reconvened by the former commission; work 
completed under the present Commission) . 

Paper box board (established by the former commission; work com- 
pleted under the present Commission) . 

Men's furnishings board (reconvened by the former commission; work 
conducted under the present Commission. In session). 

Office and other building cleaners board (reconvened, and work conducted 
under present Commission) . 

Minor Hues of confectionery and food preparations board (authorized by 
the former commission; board organized and work conducted by the 
present Commission. In session) . 

Hearings. — Public hearings with regard to the acceptance 
of wage board recommendations as provided by law have been 
held for employers manufacturing men's clothing and rain- 
coats, women's clothing, knit goods, paper boxes and corsets. 

Decrees entered. — Decrees fixing minimum rates for women 
and girls in the respective occupations represented have been 
entered by the Commission as follows : — 

For corset factories, a minimum rate of S13, effective March 1, 1920. 
For women's clothing shops, a minimum rate of $15.25, effective 
July 1, 1920. 

For men's clothing and raincoat factories, a minimum rate of S15 a 
week, effective Feb. 1, 1920. (The recommendations of the men's cloth- 
ing and raincoat wage board, on which this decree is based, had been 
provisionally approved by the former commission.) 

For knit goods factories (manufacturing sweaters and miscellaneous 
knit goods), a minimum rate of $13.75, effective July 1, 1920. 

For paper box factories, a minimum rate of $15.50, effective July 1, 
1920. 

Tmyections. — Inspections to determine compliance with the 
Commission's recommendations have been made under the de- 
crees listed below. They include all of the decrees entered in 
1920, and five of those entered in 1918 and 1919. 



10 



MixDioi WAGE comirssiox. 



Occupations. 



Candy. 

Canning and preserving. 



Milliner}' (retail). 

Muslin underwear. 

Office and other building cleaners. 

Paper box. 



Corset. 
Knit goods. 



Men's clothing, reconvened. Women's clothing. 

Enforcement of Decrees. — Full compliance has been secured 
under all of the decrees, with the exception of those for women's 
clothing and paper box factories. Although a number of cases 
have been adjusted through reinspection, there are still several 
cases in women's clothing shops, and a considerable number in 
paper box factories, outstanding. 

Investigations. — During the year the Commission has in- 
vestigated the wages paid to women employees in two occu- 
pations. These are druggists' preparations, compounds and 
proprietary medicines, and stationery- goods, envelopes and mis- 
cellaneous paper goods. 



Legislation increasing the powers of the Commission with 
respect to the selection of wage board members, and with 
respect to the reconvening of wage boards, has been enacted 
by the General Court during the past year. These changes 
are effected by two amendments to the law based upon recom- 
mendations of the Commission. 

The first amendment ^ is intended to give the Commission 
opportunity for choice in making wage board appointments in 
order to insure fair representation for the various interests af- 
fected by the work of the boards. Formerly it was possible 
for employers or employees to determine the selection of mem- 
bers by nominating only the number of candidates required 
for the places on the board. The law now provides that un- 
less twice the number of nominations required are received, 
the Commission shall appoint not less than half of the persons 
so nominated, and may fill the remaining places by appoint- 



Legislatiox exacted IX 1920. 



1 General Laws, chapter 151, Bection 2. 



RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS. 



11 



ments made directly from employers or employees, as the case 
may be. 

The other amendment^ makes it possible for the Commis- 
sion, on its own initiative, to reconvene a wage board when in 
its opinion such action is necessary to meet changes in the 
cost of living. Previously it was impossible to take such ac- 
tion except on petition from employers or employees in the 
occupation covered by the decree. As this provision of the 
law was not very generally known it was seldom exercised; 
consequently a decree once entered w^as apt to remain un- 
changed regardless of variations in the cost of living. The 
legislation enacted this year provides for greater flexibility in 
the operation of the law. 

Results of Investigations. ^ 
A summary of the results of the two wage investigations 
conducted by the Commission in 1920 is given below. 

Wages of Women employed by Firms manufacturing Druggists' 
Preparations, Compounds and Proprietary Medicines. 

An inquiry into the wages paid to women employed in es- 
tablishments manufacturing druggists' preparations, compounds 
and proprietary medicines was made by the Commission in 
the spring of 1920. The field work for this investigation was 
conducted in April. The time covered by the study is the 
three-month period, January through March, 1920. Agents of 
the Commission visited 50 establishments representing 10 local- 
ities. Pay-roll records for women employees for the three 
months specified were secured from 33 firms. Individual 
wage records were secured for 2,180 women employed by these 
firms. Of this number, 1,485 records were available for tabu- 
lating average weekly earnings. The remainder, because of 
insufficient data, could not be used for this purpose. 

The concerns engaged in this business are, for the most 
part, comparatively small, the majority employing less than 



1 General Law-s, chapter 151, section 5. 

2 Tables showing the wage situation in the industries investigated are on file in the office of 
the Commission. 



12 



MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION. 



20 women. The scope of the industry is represented by such 
products as patent medicines for the cure or mitigation of 
disease, patent compounds not intended for medical use, per- 
fumery and cosmetics. 

The work performed by women in these estabhshments is 
mainly unskilled or semi-skilled. The majority are employed 
in filling, labeling and packing. In the smaller concerns there 
is little division of labor, the women changing from one process 
to another as need arises. The prevailing method of pa\Tnent 
is by the week, 95 per cent of the entire number of women for 
whom records were used being on time rates. A few of the 
more skilled workers are on piece rates. These include the 
women with the highest earnings. 

Of the 1,485 women for whom wage data were available, 
88.6 per cent had actual earnings below $15 a week, and 68.5 
per cent less than S12 a week. In the case of the adult women, 
93.1 per cent were scheduled to receive less than $ld a week for 
full-time employment, and 21 per cent less than $12 a week. 
Since the majority of the workers are on time rates, the in- 
formation secured regarding rates gives a fair idea of wage 
conditions in the occupation. For the majority of the women, 
both rates and earnings are below the minimum found by the 
w^age boards in session during the past year as representing 
the necessary cost of living. As part of its investigation the 
Commission has arranged for a public hearing for employers 
in the occupation with reference to the question of estab- 
lishing a wage board. 

Wages of Women employed in Establishments manufacturing 
Stationery Goods and Envelopes. 
A study of the wages of women employed in the manufac- 
ture of stationery goods, envelopes and miscellaneous paper 
products was made by the Commission in May following the 
completion of the field work in the study of druggists* com- 
pounds and proprietary medicines. This investigation cov- 
ered 11 cities, and included visits to 36 establishments. Pay- 
roll records for women employees for the three-month period, 
February through April, 1920, were secured from 26 firms and 



WAGE BOARD ACTIVITIES. 



13 



for 2,851 individuals. Of these records, 2,256 were available 
for tabulation. 

The establishments included in the study manufacture com- 
mercial paper, letter heads, tablets, pads, notebooks, stationery, 
tissue paper, filing equipment, greeting and colored post cards, 
calendars, crayons and envelopes. Women comprise nearly 
two-thirds of the working force in the industry. A consider- 
able part of the work performed by women is represented by 
machine tending and bench work. Approximately two-fifths 
of the women employed are machine operators. Some of the 
processes involve considerable skill; others are semi-skilled 
mechanical operations. There is consequently marked con- 
trast in the earnings of the different groups of workers. 

Over one-half of the women are on piece rates. These in- 
clude a majority of the machine operators, and represent the 
highest paid workers. From the tabulation of the wage re- 
turns it appears that 23.5 per cent of the women have earn- 
ings of $18 and over a week. On the other hand, 55.5 per cent 
have earnings below $15 a week, and 27.4 per cent earnings 
below $12 a week. Of the 1,158 women for whom rates were 
available, 64.2 per cent are scheduled to receive less than $15 
a week, and 11.3 per cent less than $12 a week. The contrast 
between these workers and the skilled employees is marked. 
Of the 976 piece-rate workers, only 21.5 per cent have poten- 
tial earnings for full-time employment below $15 a week. In 
connection with the figures, however, it should be remembered 
that they represent not actual earnings, but possible earnings 
under the most favorable conditions. 

Results of Wage Board Activities. 
Eight wage boards have been in session during the year. 
Of these, five have completed their work, and three are still 
sitting. Four of the boards, those for men's clothing, women's 
clothing, men's furnishings, and ofiice and other building clean- 
ers, were reconvened. Two boards, the corset and the paper 
box, were the second to be established for their respective 
occupations. With the exception of the wage board for office 
and other building cleaners, all of the boards were established 
or authorized prior to the consolidation. Three boards, those 



14 MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION. 



for corsets, knit goods, and men's clothing, were in session at 
the time the reorganization was effected. One of these, the 
men's clothing and raincoat wage board, ^ had submitted its 
report. An account of the work of the various boards for the 
year is given in the following pages. 

Corset Wage Board. 
The work of the corset wage board was practically com- 
pleted at the time of the reorganization. Its report recommend- 
ing a minimum rate of $13 a week, and special rates of S8 and 
SIO, respectively, for minors and inexperienced workers, was sub- 
mitted on December 9, 1919. This report was signed by six of 
the seven members. The Commission provisionally approved 
the determinations, and gave a public hearing thereon for 
employers in the occupation. At this hearing no one appeared 
in opposition to the board's determinations. The Commission 
thereafter finally approved the determinations and entered a 
decree for the occupation to become effective March 1, 1920. 
With this exception, all of the boards in session during the 
year have submitted unanimous reports. 

Men's Clothing and Raincoat Wage Board. 

The determinations of the men's clothing and raincoat wage 
board, providing a minimum rate of S15 a week for experienced 
women, and special rates of $7 and SIO a week for beginners 
and apprentices, according to their length of employment, had 
been provisionally approved by the former commission. A 
public hearing on the determinations was held by the present 
Commission on December 27, 1919. At this hearing no one 
appeared in opposition to the findings of the board. The 
Commission thereafter finally approved the determinations, and 
entered a decree for the occupation effective February 1, 1920. 

This decree is of interest for several reasons. The wage 
board on whose recommendations it is based was the first 
board to be formally reconvened on petition for revision of 
rates. The findings represent an increase of approximately 



1 The men's clothing wage board submitted its report November 26, 1919. As the work of a 
board is not completed until final action has been taken on its determinations, it is included here, 
although all of its sessions were held during the preceding year. 



WAGE BOARD ACTIVITIES. 



15 



50 per cent over the former findings with respect to the cost 
of living, and an increase of 66.7 per cent over the former 
award. The minimum estabhshed was considerably higher 
than any rate previously entered, the nearest being the $12.50 
rate for the candy occupation. 

Knii Goods Wage Board. 

A wage board covering all lines of knit goods, with the ex- 
ception of standard lines of hosiery and underwear, was es- 
tablished in the fall of 1919. This action was taken follow- 
ing an investigation into the wages of women employed in the 
manufacture of sweaters and miscellaneous knit goods. 

After nine meetings, the board, on February 19, 1920, sub- 
mitted a report of its determinations. The board found the cost 
of living for a self-supporting woman in the occupation to be 
$15.30. Owing to the financial condition of the industry a 
minimum rate of $13.75 was recommended for experienced 
workers, with a special rate of $8.50 for all others. 

After provisionally approving this report and holding a 
public hearing thereon, at which no one appeared in opposition, 
the Commission finally approved the determinations of the 
board and entered a decree to become effective July 1, 1920. 

Women's Clothing Wage Board. 
Arrangements for reconvening the women's clothing wage 
board were made in the fall of 1919, following a petition from 
employees in the occupation for a revision of rates. Owing 
to difficulties in filling vacancies the board did not meet until 
January 14, 1920. Ten of the 15 members of the original 
board served on the reconvened board. The remaining va- 
cancies were filled by appointments from names submitted by 
employers and employees in the occupation. The board held 
nine meetings, and on March 31, 1920, submitted a unanimous 
report of its determinations. The majority of the members 
were in favor of a cost of living budget of $15.25, representing 
an increase of approximately 70 per cent over the budget 
adopted by the board in its former sessions. Basing its find- 
ings upon this estimate, the board recommended a minimum 
wage of $15.25 a week for an experienced worker, and rates of 



16 



MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION. 



$10 and $12 for minors and apprentices. After a public hear- 
ing, at which no opposition was presented, the Commission 
approved these determinations and entered a decree to be- 
come effective July 1, 1920. 

Paper Box Wage Board. 
The establishment of a wage board for the paper box occu- 
pation was authorized by the former commission, following 
an investigation into the wages of women employed in paper 
box factories, conducted in the spring and summer of 1919. 
The completion of the board and the supervision of its work 
were under the direction ■ of the present Commission. This 
was the second board to be established for the occupation, and, 
like the first, was made up of 15 members. The first meeting 
was held on March 18, 1920. After four meetings the board, 
on April 29, 1920, submitted a unanimous report to the Com- 
mission, presenting an estimate of $15.50 as the amount re- 
quired to meet the cost of living, and recommending that this 
amount be fixed as the minimum for an experienced worker, 
and that rates of $9 and $11 be fixed for learners and appren- 
tices according to age. After a public hearing, at which three 
employers appeared in opposition, the Commission, after re- 
viewing the matter, finally approved the determinations and 
entered a decree effective July 1, 1920. 

Men's Furnishings Wage Board. 
Acting on a petition from employees in the industry for a re- 
vision of rates, the former commission, in the fall of 1919, voted 
to reconvene the wage board for the men's furnishings occu- 
pation. In accordance with this recommendation the board 
was brought together by the present Commission in the spring of 
1920. Nine of the 17 members on the original board served on 
the reconvened board. The vacancies were filled by appoint- 
ments from nominations submitted by employers and employees 
in the occupation. One of the representatives of the public was 
appointed chairman in place of the former chairman who re- 
signed. Another representative of the public was appointed 
directly to fill the remaining vacancy. The board has held 
eight meetings, the first on April 14, and is still in session. 



WAGE BOAED ACTIVITIES. 



17 



Minor Lines of Confectionery and Food Preparations Wage Board. 

An inquiry into the wages paid to women employed in the 
manufacture of minor lines of confectionery and food prepa- 
rations was conducted in the fall of 1919. As a result of this 
investigation the Commission recommended that a wage board 
be established. This recommendation was carried out in the 
fall of the present year, when a board of 15 members was 
formed for the occupation. Its scope includes, in addition to 
minor lines of confectionery, fruit syrups, soda fountain sup- 
plies, flavoring extracts and miscellaneous food preparations. 
The board has held four meetings up to the close of the period 
covered in this report, the first being on October 21. It is still 
in session. 

Office and Other Building Cleaners Wage Board. 
The first wage board to be reconvened under authorization 
of an amendment enacted this year, permitting the Commis- 
sion to take such action without petition, was that for office 
and other building cleaners. This is a board of 15 members. 
There were two vacancies, one for chairman and one for a 
representative of employers. Both were filled by appoint- 
ments made by the Commission. The board has held five 
meetings during the present year, the first being on October 
28, and is still in session. 

Summary. 

In connection with the wage board work for the year, cer- 
tain developments are of significance. With one exception, 
all of the wage boards have submitted unanimous reports. 
Only one board has recommended a minimum rate below its 
findings as to the cost of living. The boards have shown a 
tendency to consider a somewhat higher standard of living 
than formerly, as indicated by the inclusion in their budgets 
of such items as sickness insurance, reserve for deficiency and 
self-improvement.^ The rates established have been consider- 
ably higher than those of previous years, three of the rates 



1 In all, 7 boards have made provision for this item. Of these, 3 were boards reporting during 
the past year. 



18 



MINIMUM WAGE COMIVIISSION. 



entered being for S15, $15.25 and S15.50, respectively. All 
were based upon the unanimous recommendations of the wage 
boards. The problem of adjusting the rates to meet changes 
in the cost of living has been considered by several boards. 
One board, that for the paper box occupation, recommended 
that the Commission revise the rates periodically upward or 
downward as the cost of living changes, using the index num- 
bers prepared by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics 
as basis for the adjustments. Another board, that for the 
women's clothing occupation, in its report calls attention to 
the problem of seasonability and the inadequacy of any at- 
tempt that might be made to provide in the budget for the 
attendant unemployment. The board recommended that a 
study of seasonability be made by the Department of Labor 
and Industries. 

Enforcement of Wage Decrees. 
Instead of presenting a report of the inspection work under 
each decree, as has been done in previous years, the Com- 
mission is giving only a summary of the entire inspection. 
This is in accordance with the policy adopted of not publish- 
ing wage statistics for any occupation. The tables and text 
showing the wage situation and the adjustments made under 
the individual decrees are on file in the office of the Commis- 
sion, and are available for any one desiring them. The sum- 
mary follows. 

In the inspection work for the year visits were made by the 
Commission's agents to 1,126 establishments located in 67 
cities and towns. Wage records were secured for 23,349 
women and girls employed in these establishments. In ad- 
dition, a number of establishments were visited several times 
in the follow-up work to adjust cases of non-compliance. In 
all, 983 cases of non-compliance were found. Of this number, 
681 have been adjusted, — 366, or more than one-half, by in- 
crease in wages, and 71 by transfer of the workers in ques- 
tion from time rates to piece rates, at which they were able 
to earn the minimum or more. Special licenses were granted 
to 44 women, and 21 additional cases were adjudged of special 
license type. In 160 instances the women voluntarily left the 
employ of their respective firms. As far as could be ascer- 



ENFORCEMENT OF WAGE DECREES. 19 



tained, this was due not to the effect of the decree, but to 
the general unrest and consequent high labor turnover which 
characterized the first half of the year, and to the business 
depression and attendant unemployment of the latter half of 
the year. In 20 cases women who were earning less than the 
minimum were discharged. 

There are 301 cases unsettled at the close of the period 
covered by this report. Of these, 91 represent non-compli- 
ances under the women's clothing occupation decree; and the 
remainder, 2 10, are non-compliances under the paper box oc- 
cupation decree. With the exception of these two industries, 
full compliance has been secured under all of the Commis- 
sion's decrees. These cases, although numerically large, rep- 
resent only 1.3 per cent of the entire records included in the 
inspection returns for the year.^ Reinspection for the purpose 
of adjusting these cases has already been instituted. As a 
result of this work the number of non-compliances will prob- 
ably be materially reduced. It is hoped that all of the out- 
standing cases may be settled by this method. 

Although the primary purpose of the inspection is to ascer- 
tain compliance with the wage awards, the result is of interest 
in indicating the effect of the decrees upon the general level 
of wages in the occupations covered. In this connection it 
should be noted that the adjustments mentioned in the pre- 
ceding sections refer to the settlement of non-compliances, 
and do not furnish an index of the actual wage advances. 
The majority of the firms affected make the necessary adjust- 
ments on or before the date the decree goes into operation, so 
that at the inspection following that date their establishments 
show full compliance. In the case of an initial inspection, 
comparison of the wage situation found at the time of the in- 
spection with that existing at the preliminary investigation 
affords the best evidence of the change which is available. 
For all of the recently entered decrees, such comparison shows 
a substantial increase in wages. Other factors besides the de- 
crees have undoubtedly contributed to this advance; how 
many, and to what extent, it is impossible to determine. In 
view, however, of the absence of any very marked advances in 



1 The result of the inspection work under the different decrees is shown in the table on 
page 21. 



20 



MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION. 



the industries of the State in general during this period, it is 
safe to ascribe a considerable part of the increase in these 
particular industries to the effect of the wage investigation and 
subsequent award. 

An interesting development in connection with the inspec- 
tion wwk is the indication that the adoption of minimum 
rates tends to promote industrial efficiency. In 71 of the cases 
coming up for adjustment girls who were not considered 
worth the minimum were changed from time work to piece 
work at the regular piece rate of the factory, and in each 
case were able to earn the minimum or over. In this con- 
nection the method employed by a large manufacturer in 
meeting the requirements of the decree is significant. Each 
of the foremen in the factory was held responsible for seeing 
that the girls under his supervision earned the minimum. 
This was accomplished by ascertaining that the employees 
were properly instructed about their work, and by adjusting 
them to the tasks for which they were best suited. When a 
girl fell below the minimum the foreman looked into the mat- 
ter to see whether she needed more training, or whether she 
was on the right kind of work. She was then given further 
instruction or transferred to another process, as the situation 
warranted. As a result of this method the firm reported that 
not only were they able to meet the decree without discharg- 
ing a single employee, but the efficiency of their workers had 
been increased and production stimulated. 

That all who are affected by the decree do not take this at- 
titude is evidenced by the 301 cases still outstanding, the 
largest number at any time in the Commission's history. It 
should be recognized that a great deal of time and consider- 
able expense is involved in the effort to adjust these cases; 
that even when they are adjusted, as many, perhaps all of 
them, will be, it is possible to secure the payment of the 
minimum only from the date the adjustment is effected, and 
not from the date the decree became operative. The situ- 
ation resulting is unfair to the employees, who are deprived 
for several months of the benefit of the award; it is unfair 
to the employers who accept the decrees promptly and abide 
by them; and it is unfair, in the disproportionate cost of the- 
adjustment, to the commission and to the public. 



ENFORCEMENT OF WAGE DECREES. 



<yi n 



CO CS CO CO 



CO CO 



O OO lO 



si 



t>. to OS 



■«»H t>. 



«8 



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OS <M 



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eq 



lO «o 



CO CO I I 



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lO ^ 00 O O 

O i-H (M <M r-l 



1 s s 

bO ^ 

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W OQ 02 



.2 Q 



22 



MINEMOI WAGE COMMISSION. 



Outlook for the Future. 

Minimum wage legislation has been in effect in Massachu- 
setts now for something more than seven years. The ex- 
perience gained during this period serves to emphasize certain 
problems connected with the operation of the law in its pres- 
ent form. Principal among these problems are the revision 
of rates to meet changes in the cost of living, provision for 
securing greater uniformity in rates, and the question of uni- 
form enforcement of decrees. 

Various amendments have been enacted strengthening the 
law in certain respects, particularly with reference to making 
inspections and requiring the keeping of records and the post- 
ing of notices, as well as providing for greater flexibility in the 
selection of wage board members and in the reconvening of 
wage boards. The law, however, in its essential character- 
istics remains unchanged. It is recommendatory in its appli- 
cation. It requires separate decrees for each occupation con- 
sidered. Decrees once entered can be revised only through 
the action of a wage board. 

Revision of Rates. 
Although the Commission now has authority to reconvene 
a board without waiting for a petition, if in its opinion such 
action is necessary to meet changes in the cost of living, the 
process is still cumbersome, and several months must neces- 
sarily elapse before a new rate can be put into operation. 
Some modification which would insure prompt and definite 
action would seem desirable. One of the wage boards has 
recommended that the Commission revise the rates periodically 
to correspond with changes in the index numbers for the cost 
of living. This would not only give much-needed elasticity 
to the rates, but would afford an impartial and scientific basis 
for revision. 

Uniformity of Rates. 
As the work of the Commission develops, and an increasing 
number of decrees are put into operation, each with varying 
provisions and requirements, the importance, from an ad- 



OUTLOOK FOR THE FUTURE. 



23 



ministrative point of view, of greater uniformity in rates be- 
comes apparent. There are, however, other considerations in- 
volved more essential than economy in time and in expense of 
operation. In fairness to the employers and employees affected 
by the decrees there should be greater uniformity. In the 
case of an establishment which is manufactm-ing a number 
of distinct lines which would bring it under several decrees, 
there is not only the disadvantage of being subjected to nu- 
merous inspections, but the practical necessity of being obliged 
to put the highest rate into operation for all lines, although 
competitors in some of these lines may enjoy a lower rate. 
On the other hand, employees in an occupation with a low 
minimum rate fail to understand why the cost of living should 
be considered less for them than for women in an occupation 
covered by a higher rate, and feel that they are discriminated 
against unfairly. This situation causes dissatisfaction among 
employees, and during periods of labor shortage tends to in- 
crease the labor turnover. It is true that the provision of 
the law which requires the boards to take into consideration 
the financial condition of the industry is responsible for part 
of the variation in rates for different occupations. By far the 
greater part of the variation, however, is due to the delay in 
revising decrees that are out of date, and to the fact that 
wage boards sitting at the same time, and basing their recom- 
mendations upon their findings as to the cost of living, fre- 
quently reach conclusions that differ considerably with respect 
to the minimum and with respect to the conditions qualifying 
the minimum. As a matter of fact, the actual cost of living 
for a working woman at a given time does not vary greatly 
from one occupation to another. So long, however, as the 
work is performed by separate wage boards, these variations 
will probably continue. 

One of the most serious objections to the system of separate 
wage boards, and consequently separate rates for each occu- 
pation, is the length of time involved in covering the different 
employments. This means that many women are deprived of 
the protection intended by the law; that many employers are 
subjected to unfair competition; and that the expense of op- 
eration is greatly in excess of what it would otherwise be. 



24 



IMINIMUiVI WAGE COM]\IISSION. 



The educational value of the wage board work is one of 
the strongest arguments for continuing the present method. 
The special problems of each occupation are given consider- 
ation in this way, and the decrees, based as they are on the 
recommendations of employers and of employees in a particu- 
lar industry, are perhaps more readily accepted than other- 
wise. It should be possible, however, to retain much that is 
of value in the wage board form of procedure under a system 
that would insure more uniform results. An arrangement that 
would permit the establishment of a single rate for large 
groups of occupations, or for all occupations, might very well 
utilize the medium of a wage board. Such a board should in- 
clude labor, management and the public, and should be made 
up of representatives nominated and selected as at the present 
time, only instead of representing an individual industry it 
would represent all industries. It would be the function of a 
general board like this to determine the cost of living and 
the minimum rate for the adult woman of ordinary ability. 
Separate boards could be established on petition to consider 
the question of special rates for minors and apprentices in oc- 
cupations where these classes are important; and also to con- 
sider the financial condition of a particular industry if such 
action should be felt necessary. These are suggestions that 
look toward the future development of the work. Eventually 
some change will be necessary to meet the problem created 
by a number of decrees, each with distinct provisions, with 
varying rates, and in some instances with conflicting juris- 
diction. 

The Question of Uniform Enforcement. 
The most serious problem in minimum wage work is that 
of securing uniform enforcement of the decrees. Without such 
enforcement the purpose of the law is defeated. It is impos- 
sible to afford protection to all the women and girls needing 
such protection. It is impossible to insure impartial treatment 
for all employers affected by the decrees. The law in its 
present form provides no direct penalty for non-compliance 
other than publicity. So far the Commission has not been 
obliged to resort to advertisement. Compliance with the de- 
crees has been secured through the voluntary co-operation of 



RECOMMENDATIONS. 



25 



employers, and the adjustment of cases outstanding has been 
secured through repeated inspections, follow-up letters and 
conferences with individual employers. Although this method 
has involved considerable time and expense, it has proved 
effective. It should be noted in this connection that the 
Commission has been able to make complete inspection to de- 
termine compliance only since the decision of the Supreme 
Judicial Court, rendered in the fall of 1918. The fact that 
for eighteen months following this decision there was a con- 
tinued rise in prices and a constant labor shortage doubtless 
made it easier to secure compliance with decrees entered under 
a recommendatory law than might otherwise have been the 
case. The real test of such a law will be in the ability to se- 
cure compliance during a period of falling prices and unem- 
ployment. Difficulties have already been encountered, due in 
part to the situation first mentioned, and in part to dis- 
satisfaction with the law in its present form. Although 
reinspections and follow-up work have materially reduced the 
non-compliances, there are still a considerable number of cases 
outstanding. If the Commission is able to secure adjustment 
of these cases by the methods previously described, that will 
demonstrate the effectiveness of the present law. If, however, 
compliance with the decrees cannot be secured under the ex- 
isting legislation, there may be need for such modification of 
the law as will insure its impartial enforcement. 

Recommendations regarding Appropriation. 
An appropriation of $18,600 was authorized for the use of 
the Division for 1920. An account of the expenditures under 
this appropriation is given in the financial statement follow- 
ing. The estimate for 1921 is §19,300, an increase of S700. 
This includes an advance of S300 in wage board expenses to 
cover increase in railroad rates; $200 in contingent for ex- 
pense of agents; and $200 in salaries. In connection with the 
salary increases recommended, it should be noted that with 
three exceptions the employees in this Division did not re- 
ceive any increases in 1920. 



26 



MINIMUM WAGE COMIVIISSION. 



Financial Statement. 

A'ppro'priations. 

Salaries, . $12,000 00 

Compensation and expenses of wage boards, . 3,000 00 
Traveling and contingent expenses, . . . 3,600 00 

S18,600 00 



Expenditures. 

Salaries, $11,096 98 

Compensation and expenses of wage boards, . 2,988 72 
Traveling and contingent expenses : — 



Traveling expenses. 


$799 


26 


Telephone and telegraph, . 


29 


27 


Express and messenger. 


8 


45 


Stationery and office supplies, . 


580 


34 


Printing, 


1,668 


63 


Postage, 


197 


30 


Books, periodicals, clippings. 


140 


23 


Typewriting, 


138 


96 



3,562 44 



$17,648 14 

Unexpended balance reverting to the State 
treasury: — 

Salaries, $903 02 

Compensation and expenses of wage 

boards, 11 28 

TraveUng and contingent expenses, 37 56 

951 86 

$18,600 00 



Respectfully submitted, 

EDWARD FISHER. 
HERBERT P. WASGATT. 
SAMUEL ROSS. 



APPENDICES 



I 



Appendix No. 1 



MEMBERSHIP OF WAGE BOARDS IN SESSION IN 1920. 

The Commission takes this opportunity to acknowledge the 
generous assistance of the men and women who have freely 
given their time to public service on wage boards, and to whose 
devoted efforts is due the success of the wage board work. 

Following is a list of the members of the wage boards that 
were in session during the 3'ear: — 



Corset Wage Board. 

Representing the Public. 
Chester T. Porter, Chairman. 

Representing the Employers. Representing the Employees. 

Albert W. Darling. Edith Farnam (Mrs.). 

Henry H. Hayes. Mary Madden. 

John J. Linehan. Margaret Veazie (Mrs.). 



Knit Goods Wage Board. 

Representing the Public. 
Edward C. Mason, Esquire, Chairman. 



Representing the Employers. 
Stephen Bowen. 
Samuel C. Feuerstein. ^ 
Samuel P. Kaplan. 



Representing the Employees. 
Fannie Cherkofski. 
Annie Markell. 

Mary Gordon Thompson (Mrs.). 



Men's Clothing Wage Board (Recon\^ened). 

Representing the Public. 
Charles C. Ramsay, Esquire, Chairman. 
Maurice B. Hexter. 
Frances Van Baalen.^ 



1 Appointed in place of Frank O. Bryan, resigned, November 28, 1919. 

2 Members who served on the first wage board. 



30 



MIXIMOI WAGE C0M:\IISSI0N. 



Representing the Employers. 
^lorris B, Anderson. 
Benjamin Asher. ^ 
Joseph Barron. ^ 
Walter C. Billings. 
Ira F. Bumham. ^ 
Luther C. T\liite. 



Representing the Employees. 
Nathan Biller. ^ 
Jack Blume. ^ 
Sarah F. Landsberg. 
Leon Lebovitz. ^ 
Fred Monosson. 
Harry Nuremberg. 



Men's Furnishings Wage Board (Reconvened; in Session). 
Representing the Public. 

LawTence G. Brooks, ^ Esquire, Chairman. 
B. Preston Clark. 
Alice H. Grady, i 



Representing the Employers. 
Moses Brody. ^ 
Herbert G. Evans. 
A. G. Hildreth. i 
P. A. Hodgdon. 
Robert Pritchard. 
Frank J. "Whitney. ^ 
A. M. Ziegler. 



Representing the Employees. 
Margaret C. Hartnett. ^ 
Clara Luftman, 
Anna Stearns Ober (Mrs.). ^ 
Ida Plotkin. ^ 
Nettie Simons. 
Christine Tucker. 
Anna Weinstock. ^ 



Minor Lines of Confectionery and Food Preparations Wage 
Board (in Session). 

Representing the Public. 
Joseph D. Taylor, Esquire, Chairman. 
Mary P. FoUette. 
Charles A. Littlefield. 



Representing the Employers. 
Harold C. DeLong. 
Norman S. DiUingham. ^ 
R. Lee Smith. 
John Rickaby. 
C. S. M. Tice. 
C. E. Vawter. ^ 



Representing the Employ eei 
Ida FarioU (Mrs.). 
Susan G. Haley (Mrs.). 
Margaret E. McAfee. 
Isabelle McNulty (Mrs.). 
Alice V. Murphy. 
E. Mary Post (Mrs.). 



Office and Other Building Cleaners Wage Board (Reconvened). 
Representing the Public. 
Edward G. Fischer, Esquire, Chairman. 
Wenona 0. Pinkham (Mrs.). ^ 
Ehner C. Potter. ^ 

1 Members who served on the first wage board. 

2 Vice William A. Barton, resigned. 

3 Vice Oliver F. Kidder, resigned. 



MEMBERSHIP OF WAGE BOARDS. 31 



Representing the Employers. 
William B. Baker. ^ 
Daniel F. Carew. ^ 
Robert E. L. Chapman. ^ 
Frank A. Ewart. ^ 
Walter Rose. ^ 
Archibald Williams. 



Representing the Employees. 
Agnes Bonney (Mrs.). ^ 
EHzabeth Dominaitis (Mrs.) . ^ 
Bridget Dunn (Mrs.). ^ 
Katherine Leary (Mrs.) . ^ 
Margaret Masterson (Mrs.). ^ 
Nora Regan (Mrs.). ^ 



Paper Box Wage Board. 
Representing the Public. 
Nathan Heard, Esquire, Chairman. 
Leonora S. Little (Mrs.). 
Lothrop Withington, Esquire. 



Representing the Employers. 
Edward T. ChurchUl. 
Joseph H. Perry. 
Russell I. Rhodes. 
Clarence E. Shaw. 
George W. Sprague. 
Edmund C. Went worth. 



Representing the Employees. 
Lottie 0. Baldwin. 
Celia Crissell (Mrs.). 
Molly Galvin. 

Winifred Thompson Lane (Mrs.). 
Julia McCleary. 2 
Edith M. Thornton. 



Women's Clothing Wage Board (Reconvened). 
Representing the Public. 
Herbert B. Ehrmann, ^ Esquire, Chairman. 
Esther M. Andrews (Mrs.). ^ 
Robert G. Morse. ^ 



Representing the Employers. 
Samuel Bloom. 
Herman Feffer. ^ 
Charles Franck. 
David J. Goldberg. 
Harris Gordon. ^ 
Joseph Rudy. ^ 



Representing the Employees. 
Emma Cashner. ^ 
Rose Doucett. ^ 
William H. Haskins. ^ 
Samuel Jacobson. ^ 
Sarah Shanin. 
Esther Sugarman. 



1 Members who served on the first wage board. 

2 Vice Stella Marshall of Lowell, resigned. 



32 



MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION. 



Appendix No. 2. 



CHRONOLOGY OF MINIMUM WAGE LEGISLATION IN 
MASSACHUSETTS. 

May 11, 1911. — Resolution providing for the appointment of a com- 
mission to investigate the wages of women and minors, and to 
report on the advisabiUty of estabhshing minimum wage boards. 
(Acts and Resolves of 1911, chapter 71.) 

January 10, 1912. — Report of Commission on Minimum Wage Boards 
to Legislature recommending establishment of permanent com- 
mission. (House Bill No. 1697 of 1912.) 

June 4, 1912. — Enactment of measure establishing Minimum Wage 
Commission and providing for the determinations of minimum 
wages for women and minors. (General Laws, chapter 151.) 

March 21, 1913. — Amendment to facilitate the gathering of informa- 
tion relative to the wages of women and minors. (General Laws, 
chapter 151, section 8.) 

May 19, 1913. — Amendment to increase the powers and further define 
the duties of the Minimum Wage Commission. (General Laws, 
chapter 151, sections 3, 4 and 10.) 

A'pril 17, 1914' — Amendment relative to the determination of minimum 
wages for women and minors. (General Laws, chapter 151, sections 
2, 4, 8 and 10.) 

June 2, 1916. — Amendment to establish certain quaUfications for 
members of the Minimum Wage Commission. (General Acts of 
1916, chapter 303.) 

December 12, 1917. — Argument of test case involving constitutionality 
of minimum wage law. (Holcombe v. Creamer, 231 Mass. 99.) 

September 24, 1918. — Decision of Supreme Judicial Court of Massa- 
chusetts upholding constitutionaUty of minimum wage law. (Hol- 
combe V. Creamer, 231 Mass. 99.) 

April 3, 1919. — Amendment to provide for filling vacancies on wage 
boards. In effect July 2, 1919. (General Laws, chapter 151, sec- 
tions 1 and 2.) 

April 4, 1919. — Amendments to require employers to keep records 
of the working hours of women and minors in certain cases, and to 
provide for the posting of notices of hearings, nominations for 
wage boards, and of decrees of the Minimum Wage Commission. 
In effect July 3, 1919. (General Laws, chapter 151, sections 8 and 
14.) 



MINIMOI WAGE LEGISLATION. 



33 



July 23, 1919. — Act to organize in departments the executive and 
administrative functions of the Commonwealth. By this act the 
Minimum Wage Commission is abohshed and its work transferred 
to the Board of ConciHation and Arbitration acting under the 
Department of Labor and Industries. (General Laws, chapter 23.) 

December 1, 1919. — Consolidation act in effect. 

February 20, 1920. — Amendment to allow Commission more freedom 
in the choice of w^age board members. In effect May 21, 1920. 
(General Laws, chapter 151, section 2.) 

A'pril 30, 1920. — Amendment to allow Commission, upon petition of 
either employers or employees, or, if in its opinion such action is 
necessary, to reconvene the wage board or establish a new wage 
board. In effect July 29, 1920. (General Laws, chapter 151, section 
5.) 



34 



MIXIMOI WAGE COMMISSION. 



■(0Z61 'Snudg) 


OU5Q 0«0«0000»« O 

oim3 lo 1-1 c<i lo »fs <m I ■= 1 


$15 50 


•(0Z6T 


o>o»ooooooot^oo 

«>& 


$15 25 


•(6161 

'IIM) pJ'Boa spooQ ^yuH 


O «C O "5 o o o o o o o oo 

»C <N «« CO « »rS (N CO 1 ~<M 1 
tJO M 


$15 30 


(6161 pj^og ^lasjoo 


o S 5 S 12 M CO eo 


$13 00 


■(6161 

'3nudg) pa^og ApuB3 


O S § t2 M ^ SS § M M c5 "=2 


$12 50 


(6X61 '2uudg) pJBog 
SutAJasajj puB SulUUBQ 


O M ^ c5 ?o 12 S § S S ^ S 


$11 00 


•(8161 pJBog 


O O S M M 22 2 § S M 2 PI 


$12 50 


z-(8T6T '3uudg) 
pjBog sjauB8i3 aoyjo 


o »n o o «5 CO ^ lo o m >o lo 

O CO 50 TJ< — « (M CO , 1 1 


$11 54 


•(8I6I '3uH<iS) 


O CM O O O 1-1 ^ «0 U5 >o us OO 
O 05 CO !0 <M -H »-< eO C<« CM (M rtCM 


$11 64 


•(8I6I 

pjBog JB9MJ8pu:i ui[sni\[ 


00>OQCO oo 

o >n CM o ■<*< »-i 1 ^ ^ocM ^ ^ ^ 


$9 65 


■(ZI6I 'Jarauing) 
pxBogsauiqsiuJTij^ s,uaj^ 


O "3 O O O O lO »oo»co 
O r~ CO CO CM .-1 « CO CM lO ^ « 


$10 45 


i (ZT6I 'SuTJdg) 


oo»rto«50if5mtcoo«o 

USOCO-^CM^— ^CMCMirtCMr-c 


$10 00 


•(9T6I 'SuiJdg) 


«00>00>«OOOlOlO>00 
t^lf5C^rtC<l^»-ieMCMCMi-i 


$8 98 


•(5I6I 

'ja^utw) pJBog XjpanBT[ 


inoooio-^cooo 
CM»mooe<«i-i^cMCM 

1 1 1 1 1 1 


$8 77 


•(^161 

'jauinmg) pJBog ApuBQ 


»oo»oo»o-HrtOO 
CM>o-<*><oeMi-i«c<ieM 


t- 

(O 

eo 
«» 


■{mi 

'AjBUuBf) pJBog qsnjg 


iC->*<oOOOOc::t^ 
<MTt<U5t^CM-«-^rtr-< 

ITS ^ 


$8 71 




Board and lodging, 

Clothing, 

Laundry, 

Car fares, 

Doctor and dentist. 

Church • . 

Newspapers and magazines. 

Vacation, 

Recreation, 

Incidentals, 

Organization dues, 

Insurance, ..... 

Self-improvement, 

Benefit associations, . 

Total, 



"3 ti 'c. 



3 S S 
S2 2 



= ° t: 

»^ 

t Si 
o 



o 2 o 



C5 ,-( '''42 



I- o o 



C " 

111 

9 =3 
0) M >. 

>.Sf * 
c S » 



f 



INCREASE IN COST OF LIVING. 



35 



Appendix No. 4. 



ESTIMATE OF INCREASE IN THE COST OF LIVING BUDGET 
FOR THE WORKING GIRL SINCE THE VARIOUS 
DECREES WERE ENTERED. 



Approximate Per Cent of Increases from Specified 
Dates to February, 1921. 



Items, i 


De- 
cem- 
ber, 
1914,a 


De- 
cem- 
ber, 
1915,6 


De- 
cem- 
ber, 
1916, c 


De- 
cem- 
ber, 
1917, <i 


June, 
1918, e 


De- 
cem- 
ber, 
1918,/ 


June, 
1919,(7 


De- 
cem- 
ber, 
1919, h 


June, 
1920, i 


De- 
cem- 
ber, 
1920, i 


Food 


67 


67 


41 


14 


4 


—52 


—12 


—82 


—202 


—52 


Clothing (women's), . 


191 


170 


136 


94 


56 


31 


17 


—62 


—122 


—32 


Rent, fuel and light, . 


65 


65 


57 


44 


35 


28 


27 


20 


10 




Sundries, 


97 


94 


70 


42 


31 


21 


19 


9 


3 




Total (weighted), 3 


95 


91 


67 


40 


24 


12 


11 


1 


—102 


—32 



1 From the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, Monthly Labor Review, February, 1921, 
and from index numbers prepared by the Massachusetts Commission on the Necessaries of Life. 

2 Decrease. 

3 The total increase is obtained by weighting the four items quoted according to their relative 
importance in the working girl's budget, estimated as follows: food, 4f; rent, 2; clothing, 2; 
sundries, IJ. In connection with these estimates it should be noted that in the case of food and 
rent the actual increase for the individual will frequently be above the amounts quoted, for these 
figures represent family budgets. Advances in these items reach the self-dependent working girl 
in the form of increased rates for her lodgings, and higher prices in the dining rooms and delica- 
tessen shops upon which she depends. 



Minimum cost of living budgets adopted by — 

a. Brush Board, January, 1914; Candy Board, June, 1914; Laundry Board, February, 1915. 

b. Women's Clothing Board, April, 1916. 

c. Men's Clothing Board, June, 1917. 

d. Men's Furnishings Board, July, 1917; Muslin Underwear Board, Januarj', 1918. 

e. Retail Millinery Board, April, 1918; Office Cleaners Board, May, 1918. 
/. Wholesale Millinery Board, October, 1918. 

g. Canning and Preserving Board, June, 1919; Candy Board (second), June, 1919. 

h. Corset Board, November, 1919; Knit Goods Board, November, 1919; Women's Clothing 

Board (reconvened), March, 1920. 
I. Paper Box Board, April, 1920. 

j. Oflflce Cleaners Board (reconvened), December, 1920. 



MINIMUM 



WAGE COMMISSION. 















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MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION. 



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MINIMUM WAGE DECREES. 



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MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION. 



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-I 



DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES. 



ADMINISTRATION 0F7ICES. 

Rooms 469-473, State House, Boston. 
Includes ofl5ces of commissioners and directors of divisions. 
The office of the Director of Standards is Room 194, State House. 

BRANCH OFFICES. 

Diyision of Industrial Safety. 

Fall River, Globe Building. North Adams, New Kimbell Building. 

Lawrence, Bay State Building. Springfield, 21 Besse Place. 

Worcester, Slater Building. 



PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT OFFICES. 

Boston, 8 Kneeland Street. Worcester, 48 Green Street. 

Springfield, Water and Worthington streets. 




Statement and Decree concerning the Wages 
dustry in MaesachuBetta, August 15, 1914. 

Statement and Decree concerning the Wages of Women in Laundries in 
Massachusetts, July 1, 1915. . . / 

Btatepaent and Decree concerning the Wag^ t>f W6m«i in Retail Store ^ 
in Massachusetts, September 15, 1915. 

Statement and Decree' concerning the Wages of Women in Women's 
" Clothing Factories in Massachusetts, September 28, 1916. 

Statement and Decree* concerning the Wages of Women in Men's 
Clothing and Raincoat Factories in Massachusetts, August 31, 1917. ^ 

Statement and Decree concerning the Wages of Women employed in tho 
Manufacture of Men's and Boys' Shirts, Overalls and other Working- 
men's Garments, Men's Nectwear and other Fiimiahinga, and Men ^, 
Women's and Children's Garters and Suspenders in Massachusetts, 
October 2&, 1917. 

Statement and Decree concerning the Wages of Women in Muslin 
Underwear, Petticoat, Apron, Kimono, Women's Neckwear and Chil- 
dren's Clothing Factories in Massachusetts^ July 1, 1918. 

Statement and Decree concerning the Wages of Women in Retail Milli- 
nery Workrooms in Massachusetts, July 1, 1918. 

Statement and Decree concerning the Wages of Women in the Wholesale 
Millinery Occupation in Massachusetts, November 30, 1918. 

Statement and Decree concerning the Wages of Women employed as 
Office and Other Building Cleaners in Massachusetts, January 27, 1919. ^ 

Statement and Decree concerning the Wages of Women in the Candy 
Making Occupation in Massachusetts, July 19, 1919. 

Statement and Decree concerning the Wages of Women employed in the 
Canning and Preserving Occupation in Massachusetts, July 21, 1919. 

Statement and Decree concerning the Wages of Women employed in the 
Careet Occupation in Massachusetts, December 27, 1919. * 

Statement and Decree concerning the Wages of Women omploj-ed in the 
Men's Qothing and Raincoat ' i I : r 

27, 1919. » 

Statement and Decree concerning the Wages of Women employed in the 

Knit Goods Occupation in Massachusetts, March 13, 1920. * 
Statement and Decree concerning the Wages of Women in the Women's 

Clothing Occupation in Massachusetts, May 6, 1920. * 
Statement and Decree concerning the Wages of Women in the Paper Box 

OocapatioB in Massachusetts, May 26, 1920. ^ 
Statement and Decree concerning the Wages of Women employed as 

Office and Other BuHding Cleaners in Massachusetts, December 30, 

1920. 



Biiscetlaneous: 

Wage Boards and Their Work (A 
• Board Members)^ 1920 (revised). 



Handbook of Iniornj. 



r \; 



Pnbiicationa oat ot pnnt. 
■ Superseded by new decree entered on May 5, 19"20. >ee belo-^-. 
" buperseded by new decree entered on December 27, 1919. See bebw. 
« SaiKraeded by new decree entered on December 30, 1920. See below. 
• Entered by tiMTAssociate Commiaeioners of the Department of Lab^r ar. J li 



F Labor and Industries 



REPOR 

OF TriE 

N OF MINIMUM WAGE 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 

rOH THE 

Year ending NovexMber 30. 1921 




STATE PRINTERS 




DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE. 



Annual reports, First to eighth, 1913-1920. 
Bulletins: 

No. 1. Wages of Women in the Brush Factories in Massachusetts, Janu- 
ary, 1914. 1 

No. 2. Wages of Women in the Corset Factories in Massachusetts. Janu« 
ary, 1914.1 

No. 3. Statement and Decree concerning the Wages of Women in the 
Brush Industry in Msissachusetts, August 15, 1914. 

No. 4. Wages of Women in the Candy Factories in Massachusetts, Octo- 
ber, 1914. » 

No. 5. Wages of Women in the Laundries in Massachusetts, October, 
1914. 

No. 6. Wages of Women in Retail Stores in Massachusetts, March, 
1916. « 

No. 7. The Effect of the Minimum Wage Decree on the Brush Industry 

in Massachusetts, September 16, 1915. 
No. 8. Wages of Women in the Paper Box Factories in Massachusetts, 

September. 1915. » 

No. 9. Wages nf Women in Women's Clothing Factories in Massachusetts, 
September. 1915. 

No. 10. Wages of Women in Hosiery and Knit Goods Factories in Mas- 
sachusetts, January, 1916. 

No. 11. Report of the Minimum Wage Commission, 1915 (Commissioners* 
report and appendices of the Third Annual Report), January, 1916. * 

No. 12. Preliminary Report on the Effect of the Minimum Wage in Mas- 
sachusetts Retail Stores, November, 1916. 

No. 13. Wapres of Women in Men's Clothing and Raincoat Factories in 
Massachusetts, December. 1916. 

No. 14. Wages of Women in Muslin Underwear, Petticoat, 
Eamono, Women's Neckwear and Children's Clothing Factories 
sachusetts. May, 1917. ^ 

No. 15. Wapes of Women in Shirt, Workingmen's Garment and Furnish- 
ing Goods Factories in Massachusetts, December, 1917.' 

No. 16. Wages of Women employed as OiSce and Other Building Cleanen 
in Massachusetts, May, 1918. i 

No. 17. Wages of Women in Hotels and Restaurants in Massachusetts. 
September, 1918. ^ 

No. 18. Supplementary Report on Wages of Women in Candy Factories 

in Massachusetts, January, 1919. 
No. 19. Wages of Women employed in Canning and Preserving Estab- 
lishments in Massachusetts, March, 1919. 
No. 20. Report on the Wages of W^omen in the Millinery Industry in 

Massachusetts, May, 1919. 
No. 21. Second Report on the Wages of Women in Corset Factories in 

Massachusetts, November, 1919. 
No. 22. Second Report on the Wages of Women employed in Paper Box 

Factories in Massachusetts, September, 1920. 
No. 23. Report on the Wages of Women employed in the Manufacture 

of Food Preparation and Minor lines of Confectionery in Massachu- 

Betts, November, 1920. 



* Publicatioaa out ol 




Olommnmuealttj nf MuBsntiimstU: 

Department of Labor and Industries: 

REPORT 



DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE 



REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 



Year ending November 30, 1921 




BOSTON 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING COMPANY. STATE PRINTERS 
32 DERNE STREET 
1922 



^TilTE LIBR/lSy CF Mi 

Al": 18 1922 
STATE HOUSE, BOSTOW 



Pl-blication of this Document 

approved by the 
Supervisor of Administration. 



35/. ^l.iS'Md 



OFFICIALS 

OF THE 

EPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES. 



Commissioner. Assistant Commissioner. 

LEROY SWEETSER. ETHEL M. JOHNSON. 



Associate Commissioners. 

(Constituting the Division of Minimum Wage and the 
Board of Conciliation and Arbitration.) 

EDWARD FISHER. 
SAMUEL ROSS. 
HERBERT P. WASGATT. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Summary of the Work for 1921 7 

Outline of Activities 8 
Investigation : 

Wages of Women employed in the Public Housekeeping Occupation . 9 
Result of Wage Board Activities ........ 11 

Office and Other Building Cleaners Wage Board . . . , .11 
Minor Lines of Confectionery and Food Preparations Wage Board . 11 
Retail Store Wage Board ......... 12 

Men's Furnishings Wage Board ....... 12 

Summary of Wage Board Work ....... 12 

Enforcement of Wage Decrees . ....... 13 

Recommendations for Mandatory Minimum Wage Law .... 16 

Recommendations regarding Appropriation ...... 17 

Financial Statement .......... 17 

Appendix No. 1 : 

Membership of Wage Boards in Session in 1921 . . . .21 
Appendix No. 2 : 



Opinion of the Attorney-General as to Obligation of the Commission to 
publish the Names of Employers refusing to comply with the Decrees . 23 
Appendix No. 3: 

Estimate of Change in the Cost of Living Budget for the Working Girl 
since the Various Decrees were entered ...... 27 

Appendix No. 4 : 

Itemized Cost of Living Budgets adopted by Massachusetts Wage Boards 28 
Appendix No. 5: 

Minimum Wage Decrees established in Massachusetts up to July 1, 1922 30 



REPORT OF THE MINIMUM WAGE 
COMMISSION. 



Edward Fisher, Chairman, Herbert P. Wasgatt, Samuel Ross. 
Ethel M. Johnson, Acting Director. 



Summary of the Work for 1921. 

On account of the number of wage decrees requiring revi- 
sion, the Commission felt it advisable to attend to this work 
before undertaking new activities. Accordingly the emphasis 
has been placed upon inspections to determine compliance with 
the existing decrees, and arrangements for reconvening wage 
boards. Four w^age boards, including three reconvened boards 
and one new board, have been in session during the year. 
Three of these began their work the previous year. Five 
other boards are being reconvened at the present time, and a 
new board, the third for the occupation, is being formed for 
the paper box industry. Inspection has been made under the 
two decrees entered this year, as w^ell as under six of the 
earlier decrees. In addition the Commission conducted an 
investigation of the w^ages of women employed in the public 
housekeeping occupation. 

The year just ended has been a serious one for minimum 
wage work. The business situation increased the problems of 
the wage boards and made it difficult to secure compliance with 
the recommendations. The Commission has this year for the 
first time been obliged to publish the names of employers 
violating its decrees. This action was taken in the case of 
eleven paper box firms and one office building owner. Accord- 
ing to the opinion of the Attorney-General, the law imposes on 
the Commission the obligation to proceed in this manner in the 
case of non-compliance. 

An effort to secure greater uniformity in the w^age deter- 
minations of the different boards has been made through re- 
convening several boards at the same time and arranging for 
conferences between representatives of the public on the various 



8 



MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION. [Jan. 



boards. An outline of the activities conducted during the 
year follows. Detailed account of the more important lines 
of work is presented in the succeeding sections. 

Outline of Activities. 
Publications. • — The following publications have been issued: — 

Report of the Minimum Wage Commission for year ending November 
30, 1920, constituting the eighth annual report of the Commission. 
(Included in the annual report of the Department of Labor and 
Industries for 1920. Published also as a reprint with certain supple- 
mentary material.) 

Statement and Decree for Office and Other Building Cleaners. 

Wage Boards. — During the year wage boards for the follow- 
ing occupations have been in session : — 

Office and other building cleaners board (reconvened the previous year; 

work completed during the present year) . 
Minor lines of confectionery and food preparations board (organized the 

previous 3"ear; work completed during the present year). 
Men's furnishings board (reconvened; in session the previous year; work 

continued during the present year. In session). 
Retail store board (reconvened and in session this year). 

In addition the following boards are being reconvened: 
brush, laundry, muslin underwear, women's clothing and 
men's clothing and raincoat. A third board is being formed 
for the paper box occupation. 

Hearings. — Public hearings on the question of acceptance 
of wage board determinations have been held, as provided by 
law, for employers in the office and other building cleaners 
occupation, and for manufacturers of minor lines of con- 
fectionery and food preparations. A hearing on the question 
of establishing a wage board for druggists' preparations, com- 
pounds and proprietary medicines w^as held December, 1920. 

Decrees entered. — Decrees have been entered by the Com- 
mission fixing minimum rates of wages for women and girls in 
two occupations, as follows : — 

For office and other building cleaners, a minimum rate of 37 cents an 
hour, and S15.40 a week, effective February 1, 1921. 

For minor hues of confectionery and food preparations estabhshments, a 
minimum rate of $12 a week, effective November 1, 1921. 



1922.] 



INVESTIGATION. 



,9 



Inspections. — Inspections to determine compliance with the 
Commission's recommendations have been made under the 
decrees Hsted below. They include the two entered in 1921, 
and seven of those entered in 1918, 1919 and 1920. 



Occupatit 

Candy (two inspections, spring and 
fall). 

Canning and preserving. 

Corset. 

Knit goods. 

Minor lines of confectionery and 
food preparations. 



? covered. 

Office and other building cleaners. 
Paper box. 
Wholesale millinerj\ 
Women's clothing. 



Enjorcement of Decrees. — Compliance with the decrees has 
been secured in the canning and preserving, corset, and whole- 
sale millinery occupations. A few cases pending under the 
candy, knit goods, and minor lines of confectionery decrees will 
probably be adjusted. 

Investigations. — During the year the Commission has con- 
ducted an investigation into the wages of women employed in 
the public housekeeping occupation. Inquiry as to the cost of 
Hving for working girls in different sections of the State has 
been made for the purpose of collecting data for the wage 
boards. 

Investigation. 

A summary of the result of the wage investigation is given 
in the section following. This includes a statement of the 
method and scope of the inquiry and mention of the general 
level of wages. The tables showing the wage situation in the 
occupation are not presented. This material is on file in the 
office of the Commission, and may be consulted there by persons 
interested. 



Wages of Women employed in the Public Housekeeping Occu- 
pation. 

The investigation of the public housekeeping occupation in- 
cluded both summer hotels and those open throughout the year, 
restaurants, tea rooms, apartment houses, clubs, hospitals and 



10 



MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION. [Jan. 



similar institutions. A study of the wage situation in hotels 
and restaurants was made by the Commission in 1916 and 
1917. 

The field work for the present investigation was conducted 
in the months May through August. Agents of the Commis- 
sion visited 308 establishments, including 148 hotels, 129 restau- 
rants and tea rooms and 31 apartment houses, clubs and insti- 
tutions, located in 65 cities and towTis throughout the State. 
Wage records available for tabulation covering one week's pay 
were secured for 7,311 women and girls. These comprise 
records for 2,305 women employed in hotels open the year 
around, and 1,202 women in summer hotels, 2,834 women in 
restaurants and tea rooms, and 970 women in clubs, apartment 
houses, hospitals and other institutions. 

The wage situation in these institutions is complicated by 
the fact that payment in the form of meals and lodging is fre- 
quently made in addition to a money wage. Of the women 
employed in hotels open all the year, more than one-half, 
1,106, or 50.7 per cent, received room and three meals a day. 
Approximately one-fifth, 487, or 22.3 per cent, received three 
meals without lodging. In the summer hotels, 1,158 women, or 
96.3 per cent, received board and lodging, and 2.5 per cent 
three meals alone. Of the women employed in restaurants and 
tea rooms, 1,129, or nearly one-half, 47.9 per cent, received 
three meals a day as a part of their wage. Of those in clubs, 
apartment houses, hospitals and other institutions, 402, or 51.6 
per cent, received room and board, and 177, or 22.7 per cent, 
received three meals without room. Of the women living out 
but receiving three meals a day as part of their wages (1,823, 
or 25 per cent of the entire number of whom wage data were 
secured), 43.7 per cent in all-year hotels, 80 per cent in summer 
hotels, 32.2 per cent in restaurants, and 44.1 per cent in in- 
stitutions were receiving a money wage of less than $10 a 
week. The general level of wages for women employed in hotels 
and restaurants has been raised since the investigation made in 
1916. No comparison for institutions is possible, as they were 
not included in the former study. 



1922.] 



WAGE BOARD ACTIVITIES. 



11 



Result of Wage Board Activities. 

Four wage boards, those for office and other building 
cleaners, men's furnishings, minor lines of confectionery and 
food preparations, and retail stores, have been in session during 
the year. Of these, the retail store and men's furnishings 
boards are still sitting. With the exception of that for minor 
lines of confectionery and food preparations, all of the boards 
were reconvened. Only one board, that for retail stores, was 
convened this year. An account of the work of the individual 
boards follows. 

Office and Other Building Cleaners Wage Board. 
The w^age board for office and other building cleaners was 
reconvened the preceding year. Its sessions were completed 
and the report submitted during the present year. This report 
was signed by fourteen of the fifteen members of the board, 
including all of the representatives of the public and all of the 
employer members. The determinations provided a minimum 
hourly rate of 37 cents for less than forty-two hours per week, 
and a minimum weekly rate of SI 5.40 for forty-two hours or 
more per week. After a public hearing at which one employer 
appeared in opposition, the Commission finally approved the 
determinations and entered a decree effective February 1, 1921. 
This decree supersedes the one entered in 1919. 

Minor Lines o/. Confectionery and Food Preparations W age 

Board. 

The sessions of the minor lines of confectionery and food 
preparations wage, board were started in 1920 and continued 
in 1921. 

Because of the business situation and the fluctuating prices, 
the board adjourned for two months in the hope that condi- 
tions might be more stable w^hen the work was resumed. 
After sixteen meetings, the board, on June 24, 1921, submitted 
to the Commission a unanimous report of its determinations. 
The wage board found the cost of living for a self-supporting 
woman in the occupation to be $13.50 a week. Owing to the 
financial condition of the industry, a minimum rate below the 



12 



MIXD1U:M wage commission. [Jan. 



cost of living was recommended. The determinations sub- 
mitted provided a minimum of 812 for experienced workers, and 
special rates of SIO, 89 and 88 for learners and apprentices. 
After provisionally approving this report and holding a public 
hearing thereon at which no one appeared in opposition, the 
Commission approved finally the determinations of the board, 
and entered a decree effective November 1, 1921. 

Retail Store Wage Board. 
Acting under authorization of an amendment passed last 
year permitting the Commission to reconvene wage boards on 
its own initiative when in its opinion such action is necessary 
to meet changes in the cost of living, the Commission voted to 
reconvene six of the former boards. The first of these to start 
work was the retail store wage board. Eleven of the fifteen 
members of the original board, including the chairman, all of 
the employee representatives and four of the employer repre- 
sentatives, are serving on the reconvened board. The vacancies 
were filled by appointments made by the Commission. The 
board has held one meeting, and is still in session. 

Men's Furnishings Wage Board. 
The men's furnishings wage board was reconvened by action 
of the former Minimum Wage Commission. Its session starting 
on April 14, 1920, has continued over a period of twenty 
months. During this time the board has held eleven meetings. 
No agreement has been reached at the close of the period 
covered by this report. 

Summary of Wage Board Work. 
The business depression of the past year, with the attendant 
unemployment, the downward trend in prices, together with 
the agitation for deflation of labor costs, have all contributed 
to make the work of the wage boards particularly difficult. 
Only four boards have been in session as compared with eight 
boards the previous year. The sessions of existing boards have 
tended to be unduly protracted. It has been harder than 
usual for the members of the boards to reach an agreement. 



1922.] ENFORCE^IENT OF WAGE DECREES. 13 

Of the two boards reporting, one submitted a majority report, 
and the other reached an agreement by accepting a minimum 
below its findings as to the cost of living. 

Part of these difficulties are due to the business situation 
just mentioned. To a certain extent, however, they are en- 
couraged by the method of wage board procedure. There has 
been in the past no limit on the deliberations of the boards. 
This has led to unnecessary delays and interruptions in the 
work. To prevent such delays in the future, the Commission 
has requested that wage boards complete their work and submit 
their report within three months from the date of the first 
meeting, unless extension of time is authorized; and that, in 
the case of reconvened boards, the work be completed within 
two months. 

A conference with the representatives of the public on the 
various boards which are being reconvened has been held for 
the purpose of adjusting some of the problems common to all 
of the wage boards, and securing greater uniformity in the wage 
determinations. Following this conference the representatives 
of the public submitted recommendations to the Commission, 
with the request that they be transmitted to the various 
boards. 

Enforcement of Wage Decrees. 

In accordance with the policy adopted by the present Com- 
mission, the wage data for the different occupations collected 
in the inspections made this year are not published, a summary 
only of the entire inspection being given. The tables and text 
showing the wage situation in the separate occupations covered, 
and the adjustments made under the individual decrees, are on 
file in the oflfice of the Commission, and are available there for 
any one desiring to consult them. 

In the inspection work for the year, wage records were 
secured for 14,690 women and girls in 649 estabUshments 
located in 68 cities and towns. Additional visits were made to 
a number of these establishments in the follow-up work to 
adjust cases of non-compliance. 

A total of 658 cases of non-compliance were found in 99 
establishments. This is in addition to the 301 cases unsettled 
at the close of the previous year. Of that number, 109 cases, 



14 



MINIMUM WAGE COMIMISSION. [Jan. 



59 in women's clothing firms and 50 in paper box firms, have 
been adjusted. There were 160 cases in the 11 paper box firms 
advertised, and 32 cases remain under the women's clothing 
decree. The majority of these involve the question of classifi- 
cation under one of two branches of the clothing industry, and 
were left pending decision as to the scope of the decree, as the 
wage boards for both branches ^ in question are being recon- 
vened. 

Of the 658 new cases of non-compliance arising in the course 
of the inspection work of the present year, 384, or 58.4 per 
cent, have been adjusted, 229, or almost 60 per cent, by increase 
in wages. In 81 cases, under the office and other building 
cleaners decree, the number of working hours was reduced so 
that the hourly rate was brought into compliance with the 
decree; and in 7 other cases, under the same decree, the 
number of hours was reduced and the wage slightly raised to 
bring the hourly rate to the minimum fixed by the decree. In 
15 cases women voluntarily left the employ of their respective 
firms, and 51 women were discharged, all but one of these being 
employed in office buildings. Only one special license was 
issued during the year. 

There were 106 cases of non-compliance in the establishment 
advertised under the office and other building cleaners decree. 
In addition there are 168 cases unsettled at the close of the 
period covered by this report, representing 1.1 per cent of the 
entire records included in the inspection returns for the year. 
The largest number of these cases, 78, come under the paper 
box decree. There are 56 under the minor lines of confectionery 
and food preparations decree, 28 under the office and other 
building cleaners decree, 4 under the candy, and 2 under the 
knit goods decree. A summary of the inspection, together 
with a list of the non-compliances outstanding at the close of 
the year, is given in the table following: — 



1 Women's clothing and muslin underwear. 



1922.] ENFORCEMENT OF WAGE DECREES. 15 



Total. 




Women's 
Clothing. 


CO at U3 ^ »-( eo 


Minor 
Confec- 
tionery 
and Food 

Jrrep- 
arations. 


to i-< to «o 


Candy 
(No- 
vember). 


oor^oiO'-iooi 1 1 1 1 leoi-, 
o» CO CO e>j -H 

CO 


Paper 
Box. 


<M CO 'H 


Knit 
Goods. 


oeo-«i<t~«0'<»'i 1 1 1 1 ic«l 

1 CO C-^ »-" <— 1 .—c 


Canning 
and 

Preserv- 
ing. 


'irf<<Moo-^-*eoi 1 1 1 1 I'll 1 1 1 

CO e<« 

<M 


Office 
and Other 
Building 
Cleaners. 


io-<*<ooior.<e<il 1 1 i^r>..-iocoooi 

OO-^OOC^IOitO 00 kOOC4 
O CO CI (M >-t 


Candy 
(Feb- 

March). 


t*coe«to»oeoi 1 1001 1 1 1 

g -H O CO CO C<1 


Corset. 


Ot^JOCOCOCOl 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 


Whole- 
sale 
Millinery. 


^^^llllllllllllll 


Disposition of Cases. 


Number of records secured 

Number with full compliance 

Number of cases of non-compliance .... 

Wages raised 

Earning minimum at reiaspection «... 
Covered by piece-rate ruling .... 

Wages raised and hours reduced .... 

Left 

Discharged ........ 

Question of classification 



T3 

a 

M 

o 

s 

^ I 

2 o S3 

ill 



^ "3 >> 

t-t 



16 



MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION. 



[Jan. 



Among the problems encountered in the inspection work of 
the year, one of the most difficult to deal with has been the 
evasion of the decrees through violating their intent while 
technically meeting the requirements. This has occurred 
principally under the office and other building cleaners decree. 
Although the majority of the building managers accepted the 
spirit as well as the letter of the decree, some discharged part 
of the women and required the remainder to do all of the 
work in proportionally less time. In this adjustment 50 women 
were discharged. The number is large in comparison w^ith that 
under other decrees. It represents, however, only a small 
part of the entire number of women under this decree. More- 
over, the unemployment which characterized the period made 
it easier to take such action than would otherwise have been 
the case. 

The industrial situation complicated the w^ork under all of 
the decrees. Other factors, however, contributed. The dif- 
ficulty in enforcing the decrees, the large number of viola- 
tions, and the necessity for publication of names all point to 
a growing dissatisfaction with the law in its present form. 

Recommendations for Mandatory Minimum Wage Law. 

On account of the difficulties encountered in securing com- 
pliance with the decrees under the present law, recommendation 
is made for an amendment to make the wage decrees manda- 
tory. This request is included in the recommendations of the 
Department for legislative action. The present law makes no 
provision for enforcement other than the publication of the 
names of employers refusing to comply. The experience of the 
Commission during the past year has demonstrated that this 
method is unsatisfactory. The expense of the reinspection and 
advertising in the case of the paper box firms refusing to 
comply with the decree was nearly six times as much as that 
for the initial inspection for those firms. A number of em- 
ployers have requested that the law be made mandatory. 
Several employers have refused to comply with the decrees 
until this change is made. 

The law in its present form is unfair to the great majority 
of employers w^ho voluntarily accept and abide by the decrees; 



1922.] 



FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 



17 



it is unfair to the employees who fail to receive the rate 
recommended; and it is unfair to the Commonwealth in the 
unnecessary amount of time and expense involved in ad- 
ministering it. Massachusetts is the only State having mini- 
mum wage legislation that does not have a mandatory law. 

Recommendations regarding Appropriation. 

An appropriation of $17,800 was authorized for the use of 
the Division for 1921. An account of the expenditures under 
this appropriation is given in the financial statement following. 
The estimate for 1922 is S19,540, an increase of Sl,680. Part 
of this increase is to cover the expenses of the wage boards which 
are now being reconvened. The Commission is convening seven 
boards, and it is probable that several other boards will be 
reconvened during the year, also that one or two new boards 
may be formed. The estimate presented is intended to provide 
for compensation and expenses for ten wage boards. An in- 
crease of $664.16 in traveling and other expenses is requested 
for the additional inspection work that will be required. The 
salary increases recommended are S280 on a six months' basis. 



Financial Statement. 





1921 

Appropria- 
tions. 


Exi)endi- 
tures. 


Unexpended 
Balance. 


1922 

Estimated 

Ex- 
penditures. 


Division of Minimum Wage: 

Personal services 

Expenses 

Totals 

Wage boards: 
Personal services and expenses 

Grand total 


$11,800 00 
3,000 00 


$10,957 92 
2,749 261 


$842 08 
250 74 


$12,120 00 
3,670 00 


$14,800 00 
3,000 00 


$13,707 18 
1,548 32 


$1,092 82 
1,451 68 


$15,790 00 
3,750 00 


$17,800 00 


$15,255 50 


$2,544 50 


$19,540 00 



1 This includes outstanding bills estimated at $65. 



APPENDICES 



Appendix No. 1 . 



MEMBERSHIP OF WAGE BOARDS IN SESSION IN 1921. 

The Commission takes this opportunity to acknowledge the 
generous assistance of the men and women who have freely 
given their time to public service on wage boards, and to whose 
efforts is due the success of the wage board work. 

Following is a list of members of the wage boards that were 
in session during the year: — 



Men's Furnishings Wage Board (Reconvened; in Session). 
Representing the Pvhlic. 
Lawrence G. Brooks, ^ Esquire, Chairman. 
B. Preston Clark. 
AHce H. Grady, i 



Representing the Employers. 
Moses Brody. ^ 
Herbert G. Evans. 
Andrew G. Hildreth. ^ 
Phineas A. Hodgdon. 
Robert Pritchard. 
Frank J. Whitney. ^ 
Alfred M. Ziegler. 



Representing the Employees. 
Margaret C. Hartnett. ^ 
Clara Luftman. 
Anna Stearns Ober (Mrs.). ^ 
Ida Plotkin. ^ 
Nettie Simons. 
Christine Tucker. 
Anna Weinstock. ^ 



Minor Lines of Confectionery and Food Preparations Wage 
Board (in Session). 

Representing the Public. 
Joseph D. Taylor, Esquire, Chairman. 
Mary P. FoUett. 
Charles A. Littlefield. 



Representing the Employers. 
Harold C. DeLong. 
Norman S. Dilhngham. 2 
R. Lee Smith. 
John Rickaby. 
Claudius S. M. Tice. 
Charles E. Vawter. ^ 



Representing the Employees. 

Ida FarioH (Mrs.). 

Susan G. Haley (Mrs.). 

Margaret McAfee. 

Isabelle McNulty (Mrs.). 

E. Mary Post (Mrs.). 

Alice V. (Murphy) Wells (Mrs.), 



* Members who served on the first wage board. 
' Vice William A Barton, resigned. 

• Vice Oliver F. Kidder, resigned. 



22 



:\rixiMrM wage commission. 



[Jan. 



Office and Other Building Cleaners Wage B(iard (Reconven'ed). 

Representing the Public. 

Edward 0. Fisher, Esquire, C hair tun n. 
Wenona 0. Pinkham (Mrs.). * 
Elmer C. Potter. ^ 



Represetiting the Employers. 
William B. Baker. ^ 
Daniel F. Carew. ^ 
Robert E. L. Chapman. ^ 
Frank A. Ewart. ^ 
Walter Rose. ^ 
Archibald Williams. 



Reqyresenting the Employees. 
Agnos Bonnoy (Mrs.). * 
Ehzabeth Dominaitis (Mrs.).' 
Bridget Dunn (Mrs.). ^ 
Katherine I^ary (Mrs.).^ 
Margaret Masterson (Mrs.).^ 
Nora Regan (Mrs.). ^ 



Retail Store Wage Board (Recon\ened ; in Session). 
Representing the Public. 
Professor Carroll W. Doten, Chairman. ^ 
Bertha M. Wood. 
Dr. W^illiam M. Tenney. 



Representing the Employers. 
Edward A. Bardol. ^ 
Harry Chabby. 
Walter A. Hawkins. ^ 
•George B. Johnson. ^ 
Abbott B. Rice. ^ 
Felix Vorenberg. 



Representing the Employees. 
Grace M. Brown (Mrs.). ^ 
Margaret Fitzgerald. ^ 
Angela Maguire (Mrs.).^ 
Nicholas J. Nally. ^ 
Juha S. O'Connor. ^ 
Joseph O'Keefe. ^ 



^ Members who served on the first wage board. 



1922.] OPINION OF ATTORNFA-GENERAL. 23 



Appendix No. 2. 



OPINION OF THE ATTORNEY- GENERAL AS TO OBLIGA- 
TION OF THE COMMISSION TO PUBLISH THE NA:^IES 
OF EMPLOYERS REFUSING TO COMPLY WITH DECREES. 

Boston. August 16, 1921. 

Mr. Edward Fisher, Chairman, Minimum Wage Commission. 

Dear Sir: — You state that the Minimum Wage Commission 
in 1920 entered a decree for the paper box occupation establishing 
minimum rates, which became effective July 1, 1920; that several 
employers in the occupation have failed to comply with this 
decree, and have notified the Commission in writing that they 
would not accept its recommendations; and that the Comniis- 
sion has not as yet exercised the authority given in G. L., c. 151, 
§ 4, to publish the names of employers whom it finds to be 
following or refusing to follow such recommendations; nor has 
the Commission yet complied with the provisions of section 11, 
which appear to require the Commission to publish the names of 
employers found to be violating such decree. 

You ask my opinion on the following questions: — 

1. Under the provisions of section 11 of chapter 151 of the General 
Laws is it mandatory upon the Commission, having ascertained that cer- 
tain employers in this occupation are not obeying its decree, including 
employers who have refused to accept the same, to publish the names of 
all such employers in the manner therein provided; or is it optional with 
the Commission whether or not such action shall be taken? 

2. Are members of the Commission Uable in any action for damages 
for pubHshing the names of such employers, provided publication is made 
in good faith in comphance with the provisions of said chapter 151? 



G. L., c. 151, relates to the powers and duties of the Minimum 
Wage Commission. The Commission was first established and 
its powers and duties provided in St. 1912, c. 706. 

Sections 1, 2 and 3 of said chapter 151 provide for the in- 
vestigation of wages paid to female employees in any particular 
occupation called in question, the estabHshment of a wage 
board to determine suitable minimum wages for female em- 



24 



MCsDIOI WAGE COMMISSION. 



[Jan. 



ployees, learners, apprentices and minors, and the report of such 
determination to the Commission. Section 4 requires the Com- 
mission to review the report of the wage board, and, if it ap- 
proves any or all of its determinations, to give a public hearing 
to employers paying less than the minimum wage approved, 
and, if after such public hearing it finally approves the deter- 
minations, to enter a decree of its findings. 

I understand that the procedure which you have followed has 
been in compliance with these provisions, and that the minimum 
wages determined by the wage board and approved by the 
Commission are minimum wages for female employees, beginners 
and minors, respectively. 

Said section 4 continues as follows: — 

. . . The commission shall thereafter publish at such time and in such 
manner as it may deem ad\'isable a summar\' of its findings of its recom- 
mendations. It shall also at such time and in such manner as it shall 
deem ad\isable pubhsh the facts, as it may find them to be, as to the ac- 
ceptance of its recommendations by the employers engaged in the indus- 
try to which any of its recommendations relate, and may pubhsh the 
names of employers whom it finds to be following or refusing to follow 
such recommendations, . . . 

In St. 1912, c. 706, § 6, the Commission was required to 
publish the names of such employers. This provision was 
changed in the following year, by St. 1913, c. 673, § 2, making 
publication permissive. 

Section 11 of said chapter 151 provides as follows: — 

The commission shall from time to time determine whether employers 
in each occupation investigated are obeying its decrees, and shall publish 
in the manner provided in section four, the name of any employer whom 
it finds to be violating any such decree. 

This section was originally enacted in St. 1912, c. 706, § 14, 
and has not been changed. 

Section 4 appears to relate more specifically to the findings of 
the Commission embodied in the ''decree" therein referred to, 
while section 11 relates to subsequent findings to be made by 
the Commission from time to time. While section 4 is per- 
missive merely, section 11 is mandatory and requires the Com- 
mission to publish the names of employers who are found not 
to be obeying its decrees. 

The provisions of this chapter have been held to be con- 
stitutional, since they contain no words of compulsion either 



r 



1922.] OPINION OF ATTORNEY-GENERAL. 25 

upon employer or employee. Holcombe v. Creamer, 231 Mass. 
99. Section 11 (St. 1912, c. 706, § 14) is one of the sections 
specifically referred to in that case. It should be noted that in 
the decision it was pointed out that the word "decree" as used 
in the statute is not in its judicial sense, but as meaning recom- 
mendation. 

I understand that you have determined since the entry of 
your decree that the employers to whom you refer have not been 
complying with your decree. I advise you, therefore, that under 
G. L., c. 151, § 11, it is mandatory upon the Commission to 
publish the names of all such employers in the manner therein 
provided. 

My answer to your second question, as to whether the 
members of the Commission are liable to any action for damages 
for publishing the names of such employers, provided the 
publication is made in good faith, is that they are not liable. 

G. L., c. 151, § 13, provides as follows: — 

No member of the commission and no newspaper publisher, proprietor, 
editor, or employee thereof, shall be Uable to an action for damages for 
publishing the name of any employer as pro\'ided for in this chapter, 
unless such publication contain some wilful misrepresentation. 

This section appears in similar language in St. 1912, c. 706, 
§ 16. 

In Holcombe v. Creamer, 231 Mass. 99, 111, the court says 
with reference to said section 16 as follows: — 

It is not necessary to consider the scope and vahdity of section 15 of 
St. 1912, chapter 706, which purports to compel newspapers to pubUsh 
notices and findings of the Commission at its regular rates for space, and 
of section 16, which purports to exonerate the Commission and publishers 
and proprietors of newspapers from habiUty for damages for such pub- 
lication, except for wilful misrepresentation. Those sections are not in- 
volved on this record, and are left entirely open for future consideration. 
Even if they should be found to transcend in any respect the power of 
the Legislature under the Constitution, they are quite separable from the 
rest of the act. It cannot be thought that the rest of the statute would 
not have been enacted without them, and therefore the constitutionality 
of the sections here assailed would not be affected. 

While the court has thus reserved the question of the con- 
stitutionality of that section for future consideration, I can 
find no constitutional right or privilege of an employer which is 
violated thereby. There is no interference with any of the 



26 



MLXIMOI WAGE COIVBIISSIOX. 



[Jan. 



natural and inalienable rights discussed in the opinion in Hol- 
combe r. Creamer, nor is there any interference with any vested 
right of such employer, Wilson c. Head, 184 Mass. 515, 518 

Even if G. L., c. 151, § 13, were unconstitutional for any 
reason, it would nevertheless be the duty of the Commission, 
under section 11, which has received the sanction of the court in 
Holcombe o. Creamer, to publish the names of employers found 
to be violating its decree. Such publication in performance of 
the duty imposed upon them is a privileged communication, 
which, if made in good faith without malice and with reasonable 
cause to believe the statements contained therein to be true, 
cannot be the basis for any liability for libel. Rowland v. Flood, 
160 Mass. 509; Smith c. Higgins, 16 Gray, 251. 



Very truly yours. 



J. WESTON ALLEN, 

Attorne I) -General. 



1922.] 



CHANGE IN COST OF LIVING. 



27 



Appendix No. 3. 



ESTIMATE OF CHANGE IN THE COST OF LIVING BUDGET 
FOR THE WORKING GIRL SINCE THE VARIOUS DE- 
CREES WERE ENTERED. 



Approximatb Per Cent of Change prom Spkcifibd 
Dates to January, 1922. 



Food .... 
Clothing . 
Rent, fuel and light . 
Sundries . 
Total (weighted) * 



50 
106 



83 



27 



-14 
—5 
28 
19 



—27 
-34 
11 
1 



—14 
-30 



—2 



71 



24 



12 



—7 



—16 



—12 



» Based on figures from the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. 

* The total change is obtained by weighting the four items quoted according to their relative 
importance in the working girl's budget, estimated as follows: food, 4H; rent, 2; clothing, 1^; 
sundries, 15^. In connection with these estimates it should be noted that in the case of food and 
rent the actual increase for the individual will frequently be above the amounts quoted, for these 
figures represent family budgets. Advances in these items reach the self-dependent working girl 
in the form of increasing rates for her lodgings, and higher prices in the dining rooms and delicates- 
sen shops upon which she depends. 



Minimum cost of living budgets adopted by — 
o. Brush Board, January, 1914; Candy Board, June, 1914; Laundry Board, February, 1915. 
6. Women's Clothing Board, April, 1916. 

c. Men's Clothing and Raincoat Board, June, 1917. 

d. Men's Furnishing Board, July, 1917; Muslin Underwear Board, January, 1918. 

c. Retail Millinery Board, April, 1918; Office and Other Building Cleaners Board, May, 1918. 
/. Wholesale Millinery Board, October, 1918. 

0. Canning and Preserving Board, June, 1919; Candy Board (second), June, 1919. 

h. Corset Board, November, 1919; Knit Goods Board, November, 1919; Men's Clothing and 
Raincoat Board (reconvened), November, 1919; Women's Clothing Board (reconvened), 
March, 1920. 

1. Papei Box Board, April, 1920. 

J. Office and Other Building Cleaners Board (reconvened), December, 1920. 
k. Minor Lines of Confectionery and Food Preparations Board, Apiil, 1921. 



MEsDimi WAGE CO^DIISSIOX. 



[Jan. 



i I 





OC CM ' 

«• 


•(zz 

-I36T 'J^l°TM •panaAuooau 


•> * 

COMiOO© Ot»OiO 
•C CC CM •>»■ CM -^r CO CO CM 


•(r<:-ir-6I 'Jajntiv) 

(paaaAUOoa^ p-i«og q«njg 






OOOOOtO 1 o o>o 


(OKI 

•anuds) px90Q xog jadsj 


OiOO 1 0>0 U3000« 

O CM 50 ts^ e*io«o-*c* 


"(0261 'J^i^AV 'panaAuooaa) 


o«e«eooo ooor^oo 

O CO 


(6161 'ir^A) 


o»<50x;co ooooo 
iCeMMSt^eo— CM ■«< CM CO 

00 eo 


(6161 IF J) P-reog ^38joo 


QOWOOiO t»«SOts.00 


(6161 *8tnjds) piw>a XpuBQ 


ceM»ct^co« «'^pocoe>i 


(6161 *8tnjds) 


c 1-; o ir; oooo«o 

OCMCOeMCO-^ CM •«»• CC CO CM 


(8161 

preoQ Xi3tnj|Tj( ai«saioq^i^ 


C O O '»< O CO OOOUSOIO 
co«aooe«s— «'*e>»eoc» 


•(8161 

*2nudg) pjvog .sjatreao 
aaipimg jaqjQ pa« «>gjO 


Or^WCO'^-H " CM CM CM CO 


(8X61 *2nuds) 




(8161 'JdiniM) 

pjBog jBajttjapu;^ "TI^K 


©0U5000 O 


■(ZI6T '.lacauing) 

pjBOQ sSmifsrcunj s^nap^ 


C>COOOO U5«0 lOO 

St-eooe-j-H ^0^0*10 


i f mi 'SnudS) P-reog 
^Booui^ puB aonj^oio B.nap^ 


•ocseo^e*'^ ^ CM c-j "O CM 


•(9I6t 'anudf,') 

pjBog auiq^ojQ B,naraoA\ 


fs« <^ C4 ^ 


(5161 P-*w>a ^JpnnBq 


CM to to O CI ^4 CM CM 
4* 


•(tI6I 'Jaraomg) 

pjBOg ,8ja3|«J^ XpuBQ 


•00i00>0-^ — "OO 


•(f.161 'XjronBf ) pjBog qsiug 


"5-*'0000 «or* 
c^tor^c-- 




Board and lodging . 

Clothing . 

Laundry . 

Car fares . 

Doctor and dentist . 

Church 

Newspapers and mag- 
azines 
Vac^ition 
Recreation 
Savings* 
Incidentals 



1922.] 


$13 75 




$13 97 




$14 40 


o 


e 

lA 
CO 


1 1 1 


s 

to 


1 1 1 1 


$15 25 


oo 

1 """^ 1 


$15 30 


(M lO lO 


$13 00 




$12 50 


1 « CM 1 


$11 00 


o ifs 
1 "^"^ 1 


$12 50 


us 


$11 54 


oo 


$11 64 


III 


$9 65 


«30 


$10 45 


U5 

1 1 1 


$10 00 


1 1 t 1 


$8 98 


1 1 1 1 


$8 77 


1 1 1 1 


to 
oo 


lilt 


$8 71 


n dues .' 

ement '. 
ciations . 




Organizatio: 
Insurance . 
Self-improv 
Benefit asso 


cS 

43 

o 

H 



COST OF LIVING. 



29 



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w CM O) 
bfl 2 

.s - a 



03 - a5 e« a5 S 00 

O 13 Oh ^ ■§ 

!U 3 ^ C3 

O ^ H £ gg 1 



MINBIUM WAGE COMMISSION. [Jan. 



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H 

PL, 

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1922.] 



MINIMUM WAGE DECREES. 



31 



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32 



MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION. 



[Jan. 



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1922.1 



MINIMUM WAGE DECREES. 



33 



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MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION. 



[Jan. 1922. 



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73 



J3 J3 



t DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES. 



ADMINISTRATION OFFICES. 

Rooms 469-473, State House, Boston. 
«' Includes offices of commissioners and directors of divisions. 

The office of the Director of Standards is Room 194, State House. 

BRANCH OFFICES. 

Division of Industrial Safety. 

Fall River, Globe Building. North Adams, New Kimbell Building 

Lawrence, Bay State Building. Springfield, Myrick Building. 

Worcester, Slater Building. 

PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT OFFICES. 

Boston, 25 Pearl Street. 
Mercantile Branch, 25 Tremont Street. 
kVorcester, 4S Green Street. Springfield, 55 Water Street. 



tKfjc (CommontoeaiiT^t iWastsacfjusclti; 
Department of Laboji and Industries 



REPORT 

OF THE 

DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE 



REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 



Year ending November 30, 1922 



I 



i)t Commonttiealtt) of M^i6atifnittt6 
! Department of Labor and Industries ; 

REPORT 



DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE 



REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 



Year ending November 30, 1922 




Publication of this Document 
approved by the 
Commission on Administration and Finance 



STATE L'BRflRy OF MflMIJSFT^S 
SEP 28 1923 

STATE HOUSE, BOSTON 



OFFICIALS 

OF THE 

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES. 



Commissioner. Assistant Commissioner. 

LEROY SWEETSER. ETHEL M. JOHNSON. 

Associate Commissioners. 

(Constituting the Division of Minimum Wage and the 
Board of Conciliation and Arbitration.) 

EDWARD FISHER. 
SAMUEL ROSS. 
HERBERT P. WASGATT. 



3 



;EPORT OF THE MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION. 



Edward Fisher, Chairman, Herbert P. Wasgatt, Samuel Ross. 
Ethel M. Johnson, Acting Director. 



To the CoMmissioner of Labor and Industries. 

The Minimum Wage Commission transmits herewith, the report of its activities 
during the fiscal year ending November 30th, 1922. 

Summary of Work for 1922. 

Minimum wage work during the year is represented by the reconvening of wage 
boards for the purpose of re\dsing existing rates, and by inspection to determine 
compUance wdth wage decrees. 

The difficulty in enforcing the minimum wage law in its present form has been 
emphasized by the inspection under the decrees entered this year. The issue was 
presented to the Legislature through recommendation of the Department of Labor 
and Industries for mandator}^ power of enforcement. The question was referred 
by the General Court to a Recess Commission on UnemplojTnent and Minimum 
Wage charged with investigating the operation of the minimum wage law, its effect 
on industry and on employees, and whether the present law should be repealed, 
made mandatory or otherwise amended. Pending the report of this Commission, 
the Department has refrained from making further recommendations on the 
subject. 

An outline of the activities conducted during the year with detailed account of 
the more important fines of work follows. 

Outline of Activities. 

The work of the Commission is represented by investigating wages of women 
employees, estabfisfiing wage boards, conducting pubfic hearings on the deter- 
minations of these boards, entering minimum wage decrees, inspecting to determine 
compfiance with the decrees, and pubfishing the report of the findings. 

Publications. — The foUowing pubfications have been issued : — 

1 Report on the Minimum Wage Commission for the year ending November 30, 1921. 
Statement and Decrees of the determinations entered during the year by six wage 
boards. 

Wage Boards. — During the year the following wage boards have been in 
session: — 

Men's Furnishings Wage Board (reconvened in 1920; in session 1920-1922; work com- 
pleted during the present year.) 
Retail Store Wage Board (reconvened in 1921; work completed during the present 
I year.) 

, Brush Wage Board (reconvened and work completed during the present year.) 
Brush Wage Board (new) (established during present year; in session.) 
Laundry Wage Board (reconvened and work completed during the present year.) 
Muslin Underwear Wage Board (reconvened in 1921; work completed during the 
present year.) 

Women's Clothing Wage Board (reconvened in 1921; work completed during the 
present year.) 

Men's Clothing and Raincoat Wage Board (reconvened in 1921; work completed 

during the present year.) 
Paper Box Wage Board (3rd) (established in 1921; work completed during the present 

year.) 



4 



MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION. 



[Jan. 



The determinations of the Men's Clothing and Raincoat wage board and of the 
reconvened Brush Board were not accepted by the Commission. A third board 
was formed for the brush occupation. This board is in session at the close of the 
period covered by this report. , ^ . • ^. . -i u j 

Hearings — Public hearings on the determmations of the wage boards have 
been held, as provided by law, as follows: for the laundry, retail store, brush, 
paper box' men's clothing and raincoat, men's furnishmgs, muslm underwear, and 
women's clothing occupations. ^ ^ .^ . . n - 

Decrees entered. — Decrees have been entered by the Commission fixmg mmimum 
rates of wages for women and girls in the following occupations: — 

Paper box estabhshments. 
Women's clothing establishments. 
Muslin underwear factories. 
Retail stores. 
Laundries. 

Men's furnishings factories. 

Inspections. — Inspections to determine compliance with the Commission's 
recommendations have been made under the decrees listed below. They include 
the six entered in 1922, and six of those entered in previous years. 



Candy 
Corset 
Knit Goods 
Laundry 

Men's Furnishings 
Minor Confectionery 



Occupations Covered. 

Muslin Underwear 
Office and Other Building Cleaners 
Paper Box 
Retail Stores 
Wholesale Millinery 
Women's Clothing 



Enforcement of Decrees. — Compliance with the decrees has been secured in the 
candy, knit goods and wholesale millinery occupations. The inspections under the 
decrees for the laundry, men's furnishings, muslin underwear, paper box, retail 
store and women's clothing occupations are not completed. A number of cases are 
pending under these decrees. 

Investigations. — The only wage investigation during the year is an inquiry made 
on complaint regarding conditions in embroidery establishments. In view of the 
small number of women involved, and the general level of the wages, it did not 
seem to the Commission advisable to establish a separate wage board for this 
occupation. 

Result of Wage Board Work. 

Nine wage boards have been in session during the year, including those for 
men's furnishings and retail stores which were sitting the previous year. In addition 
to these two, wage boards have been convened for the brush, women's clothing, 
men's clothing and raincoat, paper box, muslin underwear and laundry occupa- 
tions. An account of the work of the individual boards follows. 



Men's Furnishings Wage Board. 

The men's furnishings wage board was in session from April 14, 1920, to December 
15, 1921. A majority report was submitted, together with two minority reports, 
one signed by the representatives of the employers, the other by a representative 
of the employees. After reviewing the report, which provided a minimum of 
$13.75 for experienced workers and special rates ranging from $8.00 to $12.00 for 
learners and apprentices according to age and experience, the Commission provi- 
sionally approved the determinations of the board. After a public hearing held on 
March 18, 1922, at which four employers and one employee appeared in opposition 
to the board's determinations, the Commission approved finally the determinations 

o!)^ fP^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^ effective June 1, 1922, to supersede the decree entered October 
20, 1917. 



1923.] 



WAGE BOARD WORK. 



5 



Retail Store Wage Board. 

The retail store wage board was reconvened and began its work the previous 
year. The board held eight meetings, and on February 6, 1922, submitted a report 
signed by nine of the fifteen members, including all of the representatives of the 
public, five of the representatives of the employers, and one of the representatives 
of the employees. The Commission provisionally approved these determinations, 
which pro\'ided a minimum of $14.00 for experienced employees and special rates of 
$10.00 and $12.00 for learners and apprentices. 

At a pubUc hearing held on April 7, 1922, one representative of employers 
appeared in opposition to the board's report. The Commission after considering 
the matter thereafter approved finally the determinations of the board, and entered 
a decree effective June 1, 1922, to supersede the determinations entered September 
15, 1915. 

Brush Wage Boards. 

The Brush wage board was one of the five boards reconvened by the Commission 
to revise existing rates. Its sessions started on December 13, 1921. After six 
meetings, the board, on January 31, 1922, submitted a report signed by twelve 
of the fifteen members of the board, including three representatives of the pubhc, 
five representatives of the employers, and four representatives of . the employees. 
The determinations of the board provided a minimum of $14.40 for experienced 
employees for a week of forty-eight hours; for learners and apprentices not less 
than $9.60 a week during the first six months, and not less than $12.00 during the 
next six months. A pubUc hearing was held on March 18, 1922. The Commission 
after reviewing the report referred it back to the board. 

At a meeting held May 23, 1922, the board voted to return its original findings 
to the Commission. This report was disapproved by the Commission. It was 
later voted to estabhsh a new board for the occupation. This board held its first 
meeting on November 14, 1922, and is still in session. 

Women's Clothing Wage Board. 

The women's clothing wage board was reconvened to revise the rates fixed by the 
decree entered May 6, 1920. This is the third time the wage board for this occu- 
pation has been in session. The board held eight meetings, and on February 3, 
1922, submitted a unanimous report of its findings. The determinations provided 
a minimum of $14.00 for experienced employees, and $9.00 and $11.00 for learners 
and apprentices. After provisionally approving this report and holding a pubUc 
hearing thereon at which no one appeared in opposition, the Commission approved 
finally the determinations of the board, and entered a decree effective May 15, 1922. 

Men's Clothing and Raincoat Wage Board. 

The wage board for the men's clothing and raincoat occupation was reconvened 
and held its first meeting on December 29, 1921. As in the case of the women's 
clothing wage board, this represents the second time the board for this occupation 
has been reconvened. After seven meetings, the board, on February 9, 1922, 
submitted a report signed by fourteen of the fifteen members. A public hearing was 
held on March 11, 1922. The Commission did not approve the determinations but 
referred the report back to the board. At a meeting of the board held on May 19, 
1922, it was voted to return the original determinations to the Commission. The 
report was then disapproved by the Commission. 

Paper Box Wage Board. 

Acting upon petition from employers in the paper box industry for revision of 
the existing minimum rates, the Commission formed a new wage board for this 
occupation. The board met on February 1, 1922, and after six meetings, on March 
13, 1922, submitted to the Commission a unanimous report of its findings. The 



6 



MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION. [Jan. 



determinations as submitted provided for a minimum rate of $13.50 a week for 
experienced employees, and special rates of $8.50, $10.00 and $12.00 a week for 
learners and apprentices according to age and experience. The term of experience 
was advanced from nine months to one year and a minimum age of eighteen years 
was established for an employee of ordinary ability. After reviewing this report, 
the Commission provisionally approved the determinations of the board. At a 
pubhc hearing held on April 27, 1922, four employers appeared in opposition to the 
findings. The Commission thereafter finally approved the determinations of the 
board and entered a decree effective May 15, 1922, to supersede that entered May 
26, 1920. 

Muslin Underwear Wage Board. 

The wage board for the muslin underwear occupation was reconvened to revise 
the minimum rates fixed by the decree entered July 1, 1918. The board held its 
first meeting on February 17, 1922, and, after five meetings, on March 17, 1922, 
submitted to the Commission a practically unanimous report of its findings. The 
determinations contained in the report provided a minimum of $13.75 a week for 
experienced employees and special rates ranging from $7.50 to $12.00 a week 
according to age and experience. After provisionally approving these determina- 
tions, the Commission held a pubHc hearing on April 7, 1922, at which five employers 
appeared in opposition to the determinations of the board. After reviewing the 
matter, the Commission finally approved the determinations of the board, with the 
exception of the provisions for two wage classes to which objection had been made. 
The decree was entered to take effect June 1, 1922, superseding the one entered 
July 1, 1918. 

Laundry Wage Board. 

The Commission reconvened the wage board established for laundry workers to 
revise the minimum rates for the occupation fixed by the decree entered July 1, 
1915. The board began its meetings on March 22, 1922, and after four meetings 
submitted to the Commission on April 20, 1922, a report of its determinations. 
This report was signed by eight of the thirteen members of the board, including 
the chairman, all of the representatives of the employees, and one of the repre- 
sentatives of the employers. The board recommended that the minimum for 
experienced employees should be not less than $13.50 a week. It was felt by the 
board that the term of experience, one year, required under the former decree was 
too long, and that five months was adequate for a woman of ordinary ability to gain 
experience in the occupation. Accordingly this was.fixed as the term for the learning 
period. A graded scale of increases was recommended for learners and apprentices. 
After provisionally approving the report of the board, the Commission held a public 
hearing on May 19, 1922, at which three employers appeared in opposition to the 
determinations. The Commission, after considering the matter, thereafter finally 
approved certain of the determinations of the board, and ordered that a decree be 
entered effective July 1, 1922, providing for a minimum of $13.50 for experienced 
employees, and special rates of $11.00 and $12.50 for learners and apprentices. 
This decree supersedes the one entered July 1, 1915. 



Enforcement of Wage Decrees. 

Inspections have been made this year under twelve decrees. Six of these inspec- 
tions have been completed, the remainder are still in process. 

A summary of the inspection work for the year, showing the adjustments made 
and the cases outstanding under the several decrees, is given in the table which 
follows. 

In connection with the large number of cases outstanding at the close of the year 
as sho\\n m this summary, it should be noted that the greater part come under 
decrees where the inspection has not been completed. Through the usual routine 
of remspections, correspondence and conference, many of these will doubtless be 



1923.] 



ENFORCEMENT OF WAGE DECREES. 



7 





42,316 
2,422 
1,743 
36.641 
5,675 
1,210 
980 
27 
40 
11 
45 
71 
10 
26 

4,465* 
373 


•s9J<x>g 


20,546 
1,333 
911 
16,836 
3,710 
673 
628 

2 
2 

27 
5 

9 

3,0373 
236 






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Disposition of Cases. 


Number of records secured 

Number of firms visited 

Number with full compliance .... 
Number of cases of compliance .... 
Number of cases of non-compliance 

Earning minimum at reinspection 2 . 
Covered by piece-rate ruling .... 
Special license ■ 

Left 

Pending 

Cases 



8 



MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION. 



iJan. 



Appropriation. 

The appropriation authorized for 1922 was 119,250. Of this amount, S17,791.51 
has been expended, leaving a balance of $1,458.49 unexpended. The estimate for 
1923 is S18,750. This is intended to provide for compensation and expenses for 
eight wage boards, and for the travel and other expenses included in the inspection 
program. Detailed analysis of the expenditures from the appropriation for 1922, 
and of the estimates for 1923, is given in the financial statement which follows: — 



Financial Statement. 





1922 

Appropria- 
tions. 


Expendi- 
tures. 


Unexpended 
Balance. 


1923 

Estimated 

Ex- 
penditures. 


Division of Minimum Wage: — 


812,000 00 
3,500 00 


$11,171 35 
3,081 43 


$828 65 
418 57 


$12,000 00 
3,500 00 




$15,500 00 


$14,252 78 


$1,247 22 


$15,500 00 


Wage Boards: 
Personal Services and expenses .... 


3,750 00 


3,538 73 


211 27 


3,250 00 


Grand Total 


$19,250 00 


$17,791 51 


$1,458 49 


$18,750 00 



1923.] 



MEMBERSHIP OF WAGE BOARDS. 



9 



APPENDICES. 



Appendix No . 1 . 



MEMBERSHIP OF WAGE BOARDS IN SESSION IN 1922. 

The Commission takes this opportunity to acknowledge the generous assistance 
of the men and women who have freely given their time to public service on wage 
boards, and to whose efforts is due the success of wage board work. 

Following is a list of members of the wage boards that were in session during 
the year: — 

Brush Wage Board (Reconvened). 
Representing the Public. 

Richard S. McCabe, Esquire, Chairman. 
Mary P. Follett. 
Herbert Crowley. 



Representing the Employers. 

Joseph Adams. 
Frederick C. Ely. 
Abraham Furst. 
Fred M. Sawin. 
E. E. Smith. 
Christian F. W. Ramus. 



Representing the Employees. 

Anne Cronan. 
Lena C. Granger. 
Austin P. Kaveny. 
Julia S. O'Connor. 
Ruth B. Smith. 
Katherine J. Sullivan. 



Brush Wage Board (Second; in Session). 
Representing the Public. 
James M. Matthews, Chairman. 



Representing the Employers. 

Pierrie A. Cleaves. 
Frederick C. Ely. 
hristian F. W. Ramus. 



Representing the Employees. 

Anne Cronan. 
Ruth B. Smith. 
Thomas J. Washer. 



Laundry Wage Board (Recon"V'ened). 
Representing the Public. 
Hon. Edward L. Logan, Chairman. 



Representing the Employers. 

^Villiam P. Creamer. 
\rthur T. Downer. 

ohn N. Kelley. 

. Louis Taj'Ior, Jr. 
Duane White. 
»Valt€r M. WhitehUl. 



Representing the Employees. 

George McPhee. 
Mary Moran (Mrs.). 
Mary Murray (Mrs.). 
Michael J. O'Leary. 
Bessie Tilley (Mrs.). 
Daniel Wilson. 



10 



MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION. 



Men's Clothing and Raincoat Wage Board (Second; Reconvened). 
Representing the Public. 

Charles C. Ramsay, Chairman. 
Maurice B. Hexter. 
Frances Van Baalen. 



Representing the Employers. 

Benjamin Asher. 
Thomas J. Cooney. 
Mark E. Gallagher. 
Charles B. Salyer. 
John J. Sullivan. 
William J. Underwood. 



Representing the Employees. 

Nathan Biller. 
Jack Blume. 
Sarah F. Landsberg. 
Leon Lebovitz. 
Fred Monosson. 
Maxwell J. Pearl. 



Men's Furnishings Wage Board (Reconvened). 
Representing the Public. 

Lawrence G. Brooks, Esquire, Chairman. 
B. Preston Clark. 
Alice H. Grady. 



Representing the Employers. 

Moses Brody. 
Herbert G. Evans. 
Andrew G. Hildreth. 
Phineas A. Hodgdon. 
Robert Pritchard. 
Frank J. Whitney. 
Alfred M. Ziegler. 



Representing the Employees. 

Margaret C. Hartnett. 

Clara Luftman. 

Anna Stearns Ober (Mrs.). 

Ida Plotkin. 

Nettie Simons. 

Christine Tucker. 

Anna Weinstock. 



Paper Box Wage Board (Second). 
Representing the Public. 

Nathan Heard, Esquire, Chairman. 
Leonora Little (Mrs.). 
Arthur M. Beale, Esquire. 



Representing the Employers. 

Joseph R. Barkan. 
Harold A. Dailey. 
John A. Garvey. 
Andrew W. Holland. 
Everett A. Warren. 
Edmund Wentworth. 



Representing the Employees. 

Lottie C. Baldwin. 
Alice Bolger (Mrs.). 
Emma L. Cook (Mrs.). 
Sophia Curtis (Mrs.). 
Mary Galvin. 
Edith Thomas. 



Muslin Underwear Wage Board (Reconvened). 

Representing the Public. 

Charles E. Persons, Chairman. 
Cornelia J. Cannon (Mrs.). 
Nathaniel W. Gifford. 



Representing the Employers. 
Saul Andrews. 
Amelia Klein (Mrs.). 
Assad Mudarri. 
Sidney N. Morse. 
F. A. Preston. 
William 0. Simmons. 



Representing the Employees. 

Elizabeth Bouzane. 
Dorothy Chernoff. 
Agnes Gear (Mrs.). 
Margaret L. Green (Mrs.). 
Kathryn J. Punch. 
Sarah G. Sokol (Mrs.). 



1923.] 



MEMBERSHIP OF WAGE BOARDS. 



Retail Store Wage Board (Reconvened). 

Representing the Public. 

Professor Carroll W. Doten, Chairman. 

Bertha M. Wood. 

Dr. William N. Tenney. 



Representing the Employers. 

Edward A. Bardol. 
Barry Chabby. 
^^alter A. Hawkins. 
George B. Johnson. 
A.bbott B. Rice. 
Felix Vorenberg, 



Representing the Employees. 

Grace M. Brown (Mrs.). 
Margaret Fitzgerald. 
Angela Maguire (Mrs.). 
Nicholas J. Nally. 
Julia S, O'Connor. 
Joseph O'Keefe. 



Women's Clothing Wage Board (Second; Reconvened), 
Representing the Public. 

George E. MacUwain, Chairman. 
Esther M. Andrews (Mrs.). 
Harold B. Hay den. 



Representing the Employers. 

[loy L. Bosworth. 
I!atherine M. Clancy (Mrs.). 
Herman Feffer. 
Earris Gordon. 
M. Paul Gordon. 
Vlax Lewis. 



Representing the Employees. 

Emma Cashner. 

Rose D. Emerson (Mrs.). 

Tillie Glaser. 

Annie Thomas Goldberg (Mrs.). 
Daniel Goldman. 
William H. Haskins. 



12 



MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION. 



[Jan. 



Appendix No . 2 . 



COST OF LIVING BUDGET AND DECREE FOR BRUSH INDUSTRY. 

Cost of Living Budget adopted by Brush Wage Board, Winter 1922-23. 

Board and Lodging . . . . . . . . . . . . $8 50 

Clothing 2 00 

Laundry .............. 50 

Car fares .............. 60 

Doctor, Dentist and Oculist .......... 25 

Church 10 

Vacation .............. 40 

Recreation ............. 30 

Reserve for emergency ........... 50 

Incidentals ............. 22 

Self-improvement ............ 30 

Mutual association dues and insurance . . • . . . . . . 25 



Total $13 92 



1923.] DECREE FOR 



BRUSH INDUSTRY. 



13 



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tCfjc CommontDcaltf) of iWa-ssacljusictts /^;2 : 
Department of Labor and Industries . JH 

' REPORT 



DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE 



REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 



Year ending November 30, 1923 




OFFICIALS 

Commissioner Assistant Conmiicsioner 

E. LEROY SWTETSER ETHEL M. JOHNSON 

Associate Conmiissioners 

^Coxstitutixg the Divisiox of Minimum Wage axd the Board of 
Conciliation and Arbitration) 

EDWARD FISHER 
HERBERT P. WASGATT 
SAMUEL ROSS 



Jblicatiox of this Document approved by the Commission- on Administration and Finance 



REPORT OF THE MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION 



Edward Fisher, Chairman, Herbert P. Wasgatt, Samuel Ross. i 
Ethel M. Johnson, Acting Director. 

Summary of Work for 1923. 

The principal work conducted during the year has been the inspection to deter-' 
mine compUance with wage decrees. 

The Recess Commission on Unemployment and Minimum Wage, a part ofi| 
whose duty was to investigate the operation of the law, recommended in its report! 
to the Legislature this year that the law be given a further trial in its present' 

form. .... 1 

In connection with the Commission's efforts to secure compliance with minimum 
wage recommendations it has been necessary to publish non-comphances under five 
decrees this year. This is the second year that such action has been taken, the 
first publication of this nature appearing in 1921. 

For the first time one of the newspapers to which an advertisement of a non- 
complying firm was sent refused to pubhsh. Action was brought against the com- 
pany publishing this paper. A verdict of guilty was rendered and fine imposed. 
Appeal was taken to the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts. The issue 
involves the constitutionality of those sections of the law which compel newspapers s 
to publish at their regular rates the Commission's notices, and which purport to ' 
exonerate the Commission and pubhshers and proprietors of newspapers for liability 
for such publication. This question was not covered in the opinion of the court 
given in September, 1918 in the case Holcombe vs. Creamer. 

Outline of Activities. i 

The work of the Commission is represented by investigating wages of women ; 
employees, establishing wage boards, conducting public hearings on the determi- 
nations of these boards, entering minimum wage decrees, inspecting to determine 
compliance with the decrees, aird' publishing a report of the findings. 

Puhlications'. -^Thki p\h\iis2^^^ issued are the annual report and the state- : 
ments and' decrees. These include for the present year: — 

Report of the Mir^imum Wage Commission for the year ending November 30, , 
1922. 

Statement and Decrees of the d;Qterminations entered during the year by two 
wa,^e boards. . - . v , - 

Wage Boards. — Two wage boards have been in session during the year. These 
are: The Brush Wage Board. The Druggists' Preparations Wage Board. 

Hearings. — Public hearings on the determinations of the wage boards have 
been held as provided by law: — On January 9, 1923 — on the determinations of ' 
the Brush Wage Board. On September 25, 1923 — on the determinations of the 
Druggists' Preparations Wage Board. 

Decrees. — Decrees have been entered by the Commission fixing minimum rates 
for women and girls in the following industries: For Brush Factories, For Druggists' 
Preparations establishments. 

/7is7?ed2ons. — Inspections to determine compliance with the Commission's 
recommendations have been made under the decrees Hsted below. 

Occupations Covered. ~ Lsiundnes,^ Muslin Underwear factories,^ Paper Box 
factories,^ Retail Stores,^ Women's Clothing factories,^ Brush Factories, Candy 
factories,'^ Canning and Preserving es tablishments. Corset factories. Retail Milli- ; 

1 Inspection started in 1922. 2 inspection in process. 



1 




tablishments/ Minor Lines of Confectionery and Food Preparations estab- 
lishments. 

Enforcement of Decrees. — Compliance with the Commission's recommendations 
has been secured in all but five of the decrees under which inspection was com- 
pleted this year. There were still outstanding at the beginning of the year non- 
compliances in one office building estate which was advertised in 1921. In ac- 
cordance with the provisions of the law which requires the Commission to publish 
the names of firms that refuse to comply with its decrees, the Commission has this 
year advertised one women's clothing establishment, one muslin underwear estab- 
lishment, three paper box factories, 22 laundries, and 53 retail firms representing 
with their branches, 128 stores in 51 cities and towns throughout the State. 

Investigations. 

A study of the wages of women employed in the preparation of bread and other 
bakery products has been conducted by the Commission. A study dealing with 
the wages of women in the jewelry industry has been started. This investigation 
is still in progress at the close of the period covered by the present report. 

Result of Wage Board Work. 

The work of the two wage boards which sat during the year is summarized 
below: — 

Brush Wage Board. — The wage board for the brush occupation was formed 
November 14th, 1922. It was the third board for the occupation and the second 
established in 1922, the recommendations of the previous board having been dis- 
approved by the Commission. 

The board held five meetings and on December 20th, 1922 submitted a unanimous 
report. In its report the board estimated the minimum necessary for a woman 
employee to meet the cost of living as $13.92 a week and recommended a minimum 
rate to correspond. < 

FoUoTNdng are the determinations of the board in detail as to the minimum rate 
of wages for female employees of ordinary abiUty in the brush making occupation 
in this State: — 

1. For experienced employees, not less than $13.92 for a week of forty-eight 
hours. 

2. For learners and apprentices as follows: — 

(a) For the first six months — not less than $9.60 for a week of forty-eight 
hours. 

(6) For the second six months — not less than $12.00 for a week of forty-eight 
hours. 

3. For all others, not less than $13.92 for a week of forty-eight hours. 

4. An employee shall be deemed "experienced" and of ordinary ability who 
shall have served an apprenticeship of one year in the industry in accordance with 
the conditions as set forth in item 2. 

5. All rates are based on "full-time" work, by which is meant the full number 
of hours per week required by emploj^ers and permitted by the laws of the Com- 
monwealth. 

6. These recommendations shall take effect on or about March 1, 1923. 

The Commission provisionally approved these determinations and held a pubhc 
hearing thereon, January 9, 1923. The Commission, after considering the matter, 
thereafter approved finally the determinations of the board and entered a decree 
effective March 1, 1923 to supersede the determinations entered August 15, 1914. 

Druggists' Preparations Wage Board. — Following an investigation of the wages 
of women employed in the manufacture of druggists' preparations, proprietary 
medicines and chemical compounds, the Commission this year established a wage 
board for the occupation. The board held its first meeting on June 21st, 1923, and 
at its seventh meeting, July 27th, submitted a unanimous report of its determi- 
nations. These determinations were based on a minimum cost of living budget 
of $13.20, and provided a minimum rate of the same amount for experienced em- 
ployees eighteen years of age or over. 



^ Inspection in process. 



4 



FolloT\dng are the determinations of the board in detail as to the minimum 
of wages for female employees in the occupation in this State: — 

1. That the minimum rate for a female employee of ordinary ability should 
not'less than S13.20 a week . . u-v. u 

2. That an employee should be deemed of ordmary ability who has been em- 
ployed for a year in the occupation, and has reached the age of eighteen years. 

3^. That beginners, irrespective of age, should receive not less than $9.60 a week, 
and not less than S10.60 after six months' experience. 

4. That these determinations should become effective on or about January 1, 
1924. 

After provisionally appro^dng this report and holding a public hearing thereon 
at which no one appeared in opposition, the Commission approved finally the de- 
terminations of the board, and entered a decree effective January 2, 1924. 
Ekforcement of Wage Decrees. 

Inspections have been made this year under 1 1 decrees. These include the five 
decrees where the work was started in 1922; the new brush decree which went 
into effect this year; and five earlier decrees. The inspection under the candy 
occupation decree and the retail millinery decree is in process at the close of the 
period covered by this report. The inspection under the retail store decree, started 
in 1922, has been confined to cities and towns of 10,000 inhabitants and over. It 
is planned next year to conduct the work in the smaller towns. In addition to the 
inspection work, reinspection was made in firms under nine decrees where there were 
cases of non-compliance pending from the previous year. 

There were outstanding at the beginning of the present year, 4,465 cases of non- 
compliance in 373 establishments. In the reinspection made to endeavor to adjust 
these cases, 828 new cases were found in 85 of these establishments. Of the original 
4,465 cases, 1,977 were in the 114 firms which were advertised in 1921. The dis- 
position of the remaining cases is shown in Table I, following. 

Of the 828 new cases found at the time of reinspection, 624 were in 56 of the 
firms advertised. Wages were raised in 74 cases, representing 24 firms. In 34 
cases, representing three other firms, the employees were earning the minimum 
on piece rates at subsequent inspection. In 67 cases, representing 17 firms, the 
employees left. There were 10 special license cases, or cases of similar t}ipe, in 
seven firms. In the nineteen cases remaining, representing seven firms, adjust- 
ment was reported before the close of the year. 

During the regular inspection work for the year, wage records were secured for 
18,373 women and girls in 910 establishments. In 659 establishments, representing 
16,972 women employees, full compliance was found at the time of inspection. 
There are pending at the close of the year 18 cases in eight establishments. Th( 
disposition of the various cases under the different decrees is sho\^-n in the tabular 
summary of inspection for 1923, Table II follo\nng. 



5 



Total. 




eo e<i 05 »o <p tDTt<-^^ Oi cieooi-i 

t>. 00 IC 1 T-l 
CO CC »-i t-i 1-1 


d 


igc^t^weoo io-*oa> ^ (Ncooco 


Women's 
Clothing. 




CD «o 1-1 00 e>i <-H CO 1 1-1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


d 


00 00 1- 1~ N <» CO 1 O 1 1 1 1 1 1 
00 00 ^ W 1—1 


Retail 
Stores. 




ocooori' 1 05 00 o 1 t» c^eooo 1 
coeoooo-^ « « ^ 
M 1-1 « 


d 


t^i>-osiceo 1 eoloo 1 c^coo 1 

CO CO y—* CO CO 1— ' CM *0 

O o_ t>- r- Tf< 

CO CO ^ 


Paper 
Box. 




O «0 ,-1 (M 0(M 1 e<j 1 1 1 1 1 
CN (M 1— ( « 1— 1 1—1 


d 


c5 N * !S «ot^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Office 
Cleaners. 






d 


CO 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 CO 


Muslin 
Under- 
wear. 




C505^Nt~r»« OCO II 1 1 1 1 1 

es 1-1 1-1 ^ 


d 


q<^eou5»o ' ' ' 1 1 1 1 


Minor 
Confec- 
tionery. 






d 


COCOIICOl llll 1 llll 


Men's 
Furnish- 
ings. 




esie^iit^t--«5 c<iiiC4 llll 


d 


MM 1 ^ ' ' llll 


Laundry. 




~^(M««IMt»< Nil! 1 1 1 <M 1 
lO U3 Cvl CO « 


d 


oSSoo^"' O 1 1 1 1 1 1 O 1 

t~ CM CO 


Corset. 




1-1<^IIII ll-lll 1 llll 


d 


0>0>|lll lOII 1 llll 




Pending from 1922 

Adjustment 

Advertised in 1923 .... 

Left 2 

Wages raised 

Earning minimum on P. W. 

Special license, Special license type or 
similar case 

Firm moved or out of business . 

Incorrectly classified .... 

Covered by piece rate ruling 

Change of work enabling employee to 
earn minimum . . . '. 

Hours reduced to make rate comply 
with minimum .... 

Discharged 2 

Adjustment reported 3 
Pending 



^1 

at 



6 



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42 



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5 




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3C n rs ■>9< C3 — < 




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evira oo-^aoo co i ^ i i i i i ^ i 

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acacie^io coiii^ » ii || 


d 


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lis 

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coco 


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Ii Ii 1 !•= e« 1 
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s 

III 

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11a 

8T3 a 
o o 



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III 

.sis 

§6- 



Appropriation. 



he appropriation authorized for 1923 was $18,250.00. Of this sum, $12,781.98 
as been expended, leaving a balance of $5,468.02 which reverts to the State 
Treasury. 

The estimate for 1924 is $17,000.00. Detailed analysis of expenditures from the 
appropriation for 1923 and for the estimates for 1924 are given in the financial 
statement which follows : — 

Financial Statement. 

1923 1924 

Appropria- Unexpended Estimated 

tions. Expenditures. Balance. Expenditures. 



Division of Minimum 
Wage : 
Personal Services . 
Expenses 



Wage Boards: 
Personal Services and 
Expenses 

Total 



$12,000 00 
3,000 00 



$9,894 60 
2.421 571 



$2,105 40 
578 43 



$11,700 00 
3,000 00 



$15,000 00 $12,316 17 $2,683 83 $14,700 00 



3,250 00 



395 54 



2,854 46 



2,300 00 



$18,250 00 $12,711 71 $5,538 29 $17,000 00 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE. 
Annual Reports : 

First to Seventh, 1913-1919. Reprints from annual reports of the Depart- 
ment for 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923. 
Bulletins : 

Bulletins ^ on Wages of Women in Occupations Investigated : 
No. 3, Brush. 
No. 5, Laundries. 
No. 7, Effect on Brush Industry. 
No. 9, Women's Clothing. 
No. 10, Hosiery and Knit Goods. 
No. 12, Effect on Retail Stores. 
No. 13, Men's Clothing and Raincoat. 
No. 18, Supplementary Report on Cand3\ 
No. 19, Canning and Preserving. 
No. 20, MUlineiy. 
No. 21, Corset (Second report). 
No. 22, Paper Box (Second report). 

No. 23, Food Preparations and Minor Lines of Confectionery. 
Decrees : 

Statement and Decree concerning the wages of women in the seventeen occu- 
pations for which decrees have been entered : — 
Brush, candy, canning and preserving, corset, knit goods, laundry, men's 
clothing and raincoat, men's furnishings, minor lines of confectioner}^ and 
food preparations, muslin underwear, office and other building cleaners, 
paper box, retail stores, retail millinery, wholesale millinery, women's 
clothing, brush (reconvened), and Druggists' Preparations Board. 
Miscellaneous: 

Wage Boards and Their Work — A Handbook of Information for Wage 

Board Members — Revised Edition, 1920. 
Law Regarding the EstabUshment of Minimum Wages for Women and Minors 

(Labor Law BuUetm No. 1). Reprint, 1922. 
Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court Decision Upholding the Constitu- 
tionality of the Massachusetts Minimum Wage Law. 1918. 



1 Not including outstanding bills estimated at $100. 

2 Bulletins Nos. 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, are out of print. 



APPENDICES. 



Appendix No. 1. 

Brush Wage Board (Third). 

Representing the Public. 
James M. Matthews, Chairman. ^ 



Representing the Employers. 
Frederick C. Ely.^ ' 
Pierre A. Cleaves. ^ 
C. F. W. Ramus. ^ 



Representing the Employees. 
Anne Cronan. ^ 
Ruth B. Smith, i 
Thomas J. Washer. ^ 



Druggists' Preparations Board. 
Representing the Public. 
Charles Cabot, Esquire. 



Representing the Employers. 
Ira H. Fuhrmaim. 
James A. Patch. 
Russell E. Smith. 



Representing the Employees. 
H. Louise Cashen. 
Alvina E. Gay. 
Ella King. 



1 Served on second Brush Wage Board. 
* Served on first Brush Wage Board. 



9 



88 



C TO O O O M 

o 2 c c 



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2 -3 

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o-'Z 



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H 

r 

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illiiJi- 



3 3 3 

8 8 i 
^ & ^ 




10 



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T3 sJ c 



C e3 § Q.S: ©'S 



■a 

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« ® 5 o ^ • - 



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1 

14 

Appendix No. 3. 

ITEMIZED COST OF LIVING BUDGETS. 



[As adopted by Massachusetts wage boards.] 































CD 


O 






00 


Is 






OS 


a> 






OS 


OS 

-o — 












ter, 


o c 




c; a> 


hi . 

o « 




1^ 








c 






o s 


« a 








s 
a 


si 


(Wi 


re 


and 
5pri 








her 
ard 




ard (Ji 


akers' 

(S 


Board 


Clothi 




rnishir 


nderw< 


llinery 






o 

m 




>> 
i~, 






3 


t3 


is 


c3 » 




00 

2 


andy 


punt! 


bmei 


en*8 


en's 


uslin 


etail 


flice 

Cleai 

1918) 




m 


O 


>^ 












O 


Board and lodging 


$5 25 


$5 25 


$5 25 


$5 75 


$5 50 


$6 00 


$6 00 


$7 00 


$7 00 




1 44 


1 50 


1 50 


1 50 


1 90 


1 75 


1 50 


1 92 


1 75 


Laundry 


50 


45 


50 


25 


35 


30 


25 


30 


30 


Car fares 


70 


60 


60 


10 


40 


60 


60 


60 


60 


Doctor and dentist 


20 


25 


25 


25 


25 


20 


40 


20 


45 




10 


11 


11 


10 


10 


10 


10 


11 


13 


New-spapers and magazines . 


16 


11 


16 


18 


15 


15 




11 


11 




19 


20 


20 


25 


25 


35 




35 


25 


Recreation 


17 


20 


20 


25 


25 






25 


20 


Savinss" 








25 


50 


25 




25 


25 










10 


20 


50 


60 


25 


35 


Organization dues 










15 


15 


20 


















10 




10 


15 


Self-improvement 
















20 




Benefit associations 




















Total 


$8 71 


$8 6711 


$8 77 


$8 98 


$10 00 


$10 45 


$9 65 


$11 64 


$11 54 



1 The Men's Clothing and Raincoat Board (reconvened, fall of 1919) voted unanimously a minimum 
rate of -?15 to supersede the S9 rate, the new rate to become effective on February 1, 1920. 

2 The employee members of tbe board favored the following amounts for these items: doctor and den- 
tist, 45 cents; church, 20 cents; vacation, 45 cents; recreation, 45 cents; savings, 50 cents, bringing the 
total budget to Slo.73. The budget as presented above was favored by all other members. 

3 Includes "oculist." 

* Includes "self-improvement." 

5 This item was classed as "reserve for deficiency" by the Corset Wage Board. The Paper Box Wage 
Board adopted the term "contingent fund " in place of "savings." 



15 

Appendix No. 3. 

ITEMIZED COST OF LIVING BUDGETS. 



[As adopted by Massachusetts wage boards.] 



Wholesale Millinery Board 

(Fall, 1918). 


Canning and Preserving Board 
(Spring, 1919). 


Candy Board (Spring, 1919). 


Corset Board (Fall, 1919). 


Knit Goods Board 

(Fall, 1919). 


Women's Clothing Board 
(Reconvened, Winter, 1920). 


Paper Box Board (Spring, 

1920). 


Minor Confectionery Board 

(Spring, 1920). 


Brush Board (Reconvened, 

Winter, 1921-22). 


Women's Clothing Board (2d 
Reconvened, Winter, 1921- 
22). 


Muslin Underwear Board (Re- 
convened, Winter, 1921-22). 


Brush Decree (Winter, 1923). 


Druggists' Compounds and 
Proprietary Medicines (Sum- 
mer, 1923). 


$7 00 


$6 00 


$7 00 


$7 00 


$8 50 


$9 50 


$9 00 


$8 50 


$9 00 


$8 50 


$8 50 


$8 50 


$8 00 


2 00 


2 25 


2 25 


2 50 


3 25 


3 25 


3 25 


2 50 


2 50 


2 50 


2 10 


2 00 


2 00 


50 
84 


30 


50 


46 


50 


45 


60 


20 


25 


35 


30 


50 


50 


25 


76 


40 


75 


20 




40 


25 


20 


60 


60 


40 


30 


35 


30 


40 


30 


401 


50 


50 


253 


403 


503 


253 


25 » 


13 


15 


11 


15 


10 


102 


15 


15 


25 


20 


15 


10 


15 


18 


20 


18 


17 


20 


18 


25 














40 


40 


40 


45 


50 


402 


50 


20 


50 


40 


40 


40 


40 


25 


30 


30 


30 


40 


372 


50 






37 


25 


30 


55* 


30 


30 « 


30 « 


37 


20 


302 


40 


307 


507 


307 


307 


50 


50 


25 


25 


25 


38 


30 


10 


25 


25 


25 


25 


25 


22 


20 


















158 


258 


158 


258 




10 


_6 


-6 


12 


10 




10 












25 


25 


25 


15 


15 


20 




_9 


50 


5010 


25 


25 


30 










15 




















$12 50 


$11 00 


$12 50 


$13 00 


$15 30 


$15 25 


$15 50 


$13 50 


$14 40 


$13 97 


$13 75 


$13 92 


$13 20 



• The Canning and Preserving Wage Board and the Candy Wage Board included insurance in the figure 
given for sa\nngs. 

7 Called "reserve for emergencj'." 

8 Includes "insurance" 

' The Paper Box Wage Board combined self-improvement with recreation. 
•0 Includes "newspapers." 

11 .*8.75 was voted unanimously by the Candy Makers' Wage Board from the above budget as the neces- 
sary cost of living, allowing 8 cents extra for miscellaneous requirements. 



I 



...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES ; 

REPORT 

OF THE 

DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE 



REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 



Year ending November 30, 1924 




OFFICIALS 

Commissioner Assistant Commissioner 

E. Leroy Sweetser Ethel M. Johnson 

Associate Commissioners 

(Constituting the Division of Minimum Wage and the Board of 
Conciliation and Arbitration.) 

EDWARD FISHER 
HERBERT P. WASGATT 
SAMUEL ROSS 



Pl HI-lCATION Ol- THIS DOCUMENT APPROVED BY THE COMMISSION ON ADMINISTRATION AND FiNANC 

6-19-25 Order No. 2044. 



REPORT OF THE MINIMUM WAGE 
COMMISSION 

Edward Fisher, Chditnmh Herbert P. Wasgatt, Samuel Ross. 
Ethel M. Johnson, Acting Director. 
Summary of Work for 1924. 
As in the previous year, the principal work conducted has been the inspectic 
to determine compHance with wage decrees. One wage board has been in sr 
sion and one wage decree has been entered during the year. Two wage boai 
have been authorized and are in process of formation. One wage investigati( 
has been conducted. This is in addition to the completion of the study initiate 
the preceding year. 

The Commission has advertised non-compliances under two decrees: mino 
lines of confectionery and miscellaneous food preparations, and druggists* cora 
pounds and proprietary medicines. In each instance only one firm was involved 
Prosecution was instituted against a retail store that refused to permit inspec 
tion of the payroll. The court found the defendant guilty. 

The case of the Commonwealth versus the Boston Transcript, which arosii 
in 1923 and which concerned the Commission's right to compel newspapers tcl 
publish its notices at their regular rates, was decided in favor of the TranscriptJ 
The Court ruled that such publication is optional, not mandatory, on the parf^ 
of the press. In rendering this decision the Court reaffirmed its position taker 
in the case of Holcombe versus Creamer upholding the c{mstitutionality of the 
minimum wage law in its essential provisions. In this connection, the Court 
pointed out that the decision of the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia 
case does not affect the constitutionality of the Massachusetts law since this kiw 
is not mandatory. 

Outline of Activities. 
The duties of the Commission under the law comprise investigating the wages 
of women employees, establishing wage boards, holding public hearings on the* 
determinations of the boards, entering wage decrees, inspecting to determine 
compliance with the decrees, and publishing the result of its findings. A state- 
ment of the work coriducted di^jing tJie.ye^r along these lines is given in the 
sections follov^^ing. • ,- " '• \ 7 

Publications. 

The only publications ?iow issued are the annual report and the leaflets giv- 
ing the provisions of the statements and decrees entered. 

.- . . CoNFfeRENCEe AND Meetings. 

In addition to a" preliniinai-y conftrence with representatives from the can- 
ning and preserving and minor confectionery lines with regard to the forma- 
tion of a wage board, and a public hearing on the determinations of the board, 
individual conferences liave been held by the Commission and by the Assistant 
Commissioner with a number of employers regarding the adjustment of non- 
compliances. 

Meetings with proponents and opponents of minimum wage legislation were 
arranged for the benefit of members of the Ohio legislative committee on 
mmimuni wage who came to this State in November to study the operation of 
the Massachusetts minimum wage law. 

The Assistant Commissioner has addressed meetings of employees to explain 
the work of wage boards and secure nominations for the boards in process of 
lormation, and has sat with the boards in session as secretarv of the board and 
representative of the Commission. 

Investigations. 

Jewelry. 

The study of the wages of women in the jewelry industrv and related lines 
wluch was mitiated the previous year was completed in the early part of the 
present year. ^ 



I 



3 . . ^ 

'isiteoT^ 



n this study, agents of the Commission visited 48 establishments in seven 
cities and towns. Payroll records suitable for tabulation were secured for 
2,653 women in 44 firms. The period covered by the study is the three months 
from August through October, 1923. The field work was conducted during 
November and December, 1923, and the first part of January, 1924. Of the 
1,635 women employed on a time rate basis in the firms included in the investiga- 
tion, approximately one-half, (48.4 per cent), were scheduled to receive less than 
$15.00 a week; and one-fifth, (19.3 per cent), less than $13.00 a week. 
Toys, Games, Sporting Goods and Related Lines. 

An inquiry into the wages of women employed in the manufacture of toys, 
games, sporting goods, and related lines was conducted during the late summer 
and fall. Wage records were secured for 992 women and girls employed in 15 
establishments. A transcript of the payroll record was taken for each 
of these women for the three month period, April through June, 
1924. Of this number, over two-thirds, (65.9 per cent) were earning less than 
$15.00 a week; and two-fifths, (44.1 per cent) less than $13.00 a week. The 
wages for those on time rates are similar. Nearly two-thirds, (61.2 per cent), 
were scheduled to receive less than $15.00 a week; and two-fifths, (38.4 per 
cent), less than $13.00 a week. 

The tables showing the wage situation found in both investigations are on file 
in the Commission's office. 

Wage Board Work. 

One wage board has been in session this year. This is the canning and pre- 
serving and minor lines of confectionery wage board which combines the work 
of the former boards for canning and preserving establishments and for minor 
lines of confectionery and miscellaneous food preparations. The action of the 
Commission in establishing a single board for the occupation was taken after 
a conference with representatives of the various branches included. 

The purpose of the combination was to avoid the overlapping which now 
exists in the case of the present decrees and to simplify administrative pro- 
cedure. The convening of a wage board also gave an opportunity for a re- 
vision of the existing rates. 

This board was made up of fifteen members; six representing the canning 
and preserving branch ; and six representing the minor lines of confectionery 
and food preparations branch, and three representing the public. The chair- 
man of the former wage board for minor lines of confectionery served as chair- 
man of the new board. The board held five meetings and on October 1st, 1924, 
submitted a unanimous report to the Commission. The board adopted a cost of 
living budget of $13.50 a week for a self-supporting woman in the occupation. 
Owing to the financial condition of the industry, however, recommendation was 
made for a minimum rate of $13.00 a week. Special rates ranging from $8.00 
to $12.00 a week were recommended for learners and minors according to age 
and length of experience. 

Recommendations of Canning, Preserving and Minor Lines of Confectionery 

Board. 

Following are the recommendations of the board as to the minimum rate of 
wages for females of ordinary ability in the occupation : — 

(1) For *experienced employees 18 and over, $13.00 per week. 

(2) For inexperienced employees 18 and over, $12.00 per week. 

(3) For experienced employees between 16 and 18 years, $11.00 per week. 

(4) For inexperienced employees between 16 and 18 years, $10,00 per week. 

(5) For experienced employees under 16 years of age, $9.00 per week. 

(6) For inexperienced employees under 16 years of age, $8.00 per week. 
The Commission provisionally approved these determinations and held a 

public hearing thereon October 28th, 1924. Thereafter the Commission ap- 
proved finally the determinations of the board and entered a decree effective 



* The Board recommended that the experience be six months in the particular factory where 
the employees are employed. 



4 

April 1st, 1925. This decree will supersede the determinations entered July 
21st, 1919, and October 4th, 1921, respectively. 

Wage Boards for Bread and Bakery Products and for Millinery Trades. 

Two wage boards are in the process of formation at the close of the present 
year. These are the board for bread and other bakery products and the board 
for the millinery industry. The millinery wage board will combine the work 
of the former boards for wholesale and retail millinery and will also cover 
establishments manufacturing flowers and feathers. 

Enforcement of Wage Decrees. 

Inspections have been made during the year under eleven decrees. These 
cover the following occupations: — brush factories, candy factories, establish- 
ments manufacturing druggists' preparations and proprietary medicines, knit 
goods factories, laundries, men's furnishings establishments, muslin underwear 
factories, paper box factories, retail and wholesale millinery establishments and 
retail stores. The work under the decree for druggists' preparations and pro- 
prietary medicines, which went into effect this year, represents the initial inspec- 
tion; that under the wholesale and retail millinery decree is a completion of the 
inspection instituted the previous year. There was no regular inspection made 
under the minor lines of confectionery decree, as a new wage board was being 
formed for that occupation. The inspection, therefore, was confined to action 
on complaint. 

Inspection under the retail store decree was conducted this year in towns of 
less than 10,000 inhabitants, representing the first check-up in the smaller towns 
since the present decree was entered. In the larger towns where inspection 
had been made in 1922 and 1923, the work was confined to firms having non- 
compliances at the previous inspection. Inspections under the paper box and 
muslin underwear decrees are in progress at the close of the period covered by 
this report. 

In addition to the regular inspection visits a number of re-inspections have 
been made under the retail store, laundry, paper box, men's furnishings, and 
muslin underwear decrees in an effort to adjust non-compliances. 

At the beginning of the year there were pending frorh the previous year 
eighteen cases in eight firms. In eight of these wages were raised; four came 
under the special license classification; three employees left, and three were dis- 
charged. 

In the firms advertised for non-compliance the previous year, adjustments 
were made or promised at the time of inspection during the present year by 
nine retail stores and three laundries, representing 495, and 38 women re- 
spectively. 

In the inspection work for the year wage records were secured for 27,313 
women and girls in 1,254 establishments. In 23,380 cases representing 837 
establishments, full compliance was found at the time of inspection. In 473 
cases in 178 firms, adjustment was made by raising wages, reducing hours, or 
by putting the employee in question on a piece rate or commission basis. In 
109 cases, representing 60 firms, the employees left or were discharged. Of 
the remainder, 19 cases in eight firms were covered by the ruling of the Com- 
mission relative to piece rates; and 15 cases in 9 firms did not come under the 
decrees. There were 70 cases in 35 firms of special license or similar type. 
Adjustment has been reported in 70 cases representing 10 firms. There were 
pending at the close of the period covered by this report, 3,138 cases in 212 
firms The majority of these are in the retail stores, laundries, and paper box 
establishments advertised the previous year. 

_ In addition to these there were at the latest inspection under the office build- 
ing decree, 113 cases in the firm advertised in 1921. 

Appropriation. 

7 J7? fPP^^P^^^tio^ authorized for 1924 was $16,300. Of this amount $12,- 
State TreLury"" ^""P^""^^"^' ^^^^"^^ $3,560.23 which reverts to the 



r 

H Appropriation. 

^ Detailed analysis of expenditures from the appropriation for 1924 is given in 
the financial statement which follows. 

Financial Statement. 
For the Year Ending November 30, 1921. 

Unexpended 

Account. Appropriation Expenditures Balance 

Personal Services . . $11,000 00 $ 9,295 06 $1,704 94 

Expenses .... 3,000 00 2,870 77 129 23 

Wage Boards 
Personal Services and 
Expenses .... 2,300 00 599 12 1,700 88 



Total .... $16,300 00 $12,764 95 $3,535 05 



Disposition of Cases of Non-Compliance Pending from 1923 Under 
Massachusetts Minimum Wage Decrees. 
(From Reinspection Records for 1924) 

Candy. Corset. Minor Con- Total. 

fectionery. 

Disposition 
Pending from 1923, 
Adjustment, 
Wages Raised, 
Special license type. 
Left* 

Discharged* 



*c. 


*F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


C. 


F. 


15 


6 


1 


1 


2 


1 


18 


8 


15 


6 


1 


1 


2 


1 


18 


8 


6 


4 






2 


1 


8 


5 


3 


2 


1 


1 






4 


3 


3 


2 










3 


2 


3 


1 










3 


1 



• See note regarding this on following page. 



I 



Total 


1 ^ 


lO CO •— 1 M LO ' ' CO Ln i-H 


1 . 


COOCOLOCC CM C0005 O 00 OJ 00 

1-H00C005O Lrt i-Ht^i-H o»-to coco 

00 CO 

t^COOO CO 


Wholesale 
Mil- 
linery" 




tn i-H T}- CO 1 III CO 1 1 1 1 1 
mm 


U 


O 0^ 1 III lO I 1 t 1 1 
CMCV] 


Retail 
Store » 




?OOit~-CJC0 O t> 'sD 1 CO'^Ol'— 1 1 

incocsif-i •-• 


U 


incvaooooco o '-''-^ i "^OQ-^ 1 Q 

CO LO 00 CO CO »^ LO LO LO 
C^aCM05^^J Ln 

cviascsi N 


Retail 
Mil- 
linery 8 


b 


COjHNCO^ 1 III 1 1 ^ 1 1 1 


cJ 


WOOWC<1>-H 1 III 1 1 .-H 1 1 1 

in in 


Paper 

Boxo 




00 CO in tn i i »— • c^ i i i i i co 

OinCM --H 


U 


o cr^ "-^ o 1 1 CM 1 1 1 1 1 

CM'-i 


Muslin 
Under- 
wear !) 

_ _ _ . 




OIVOCOCM 1 1 III CM 1 1 1 1 CM 


u 


ggSincM 1 1 I 1 1 CM 1 1 1 1 00 
CO CM 


Minor 
Confec- 
tionery 8 


tC 


CM '— 1 CM CM >— < 1 III 1 1— 1 1 1 t-H 1 


o 


00 t— 4 f— 4 1 III 1 1—* 1 1 O 1 
■^i-HOOCO CM 


Men's 
Furnish- 
ings 




C^^CON^ ' O-^OO 1 1 CO 


(J 


C^OIOOCJ^irS CM 1 TtCM O^CM 1 1 05 

inCO^-HOiCM rH,-l 00 .-1 r-C 

00 CO 


Laundry 




in 00 CM ' ^ ' 

00 CM 


u 


coSSSro '^c^ 1 c- 1 oocM 1 in 

ggiCj^OiOO ^ M CO 


Knit 
Goods 




OitNCMCMCO CO 1 1 r-< in 1 CO 1 1 1 

OOCMi-lrH 


u 


^ 1 1 CM 1 00 1 1 1 


Druggists' 
Compounds 




rjH^fXO^in CM -H 1 CM ,H 1 CO 1 ^ 1 


u 


COt>'vD«5>-H rH rtICO '-IIOJIOI 
1-^ ^ ^ _J 


o 

>< 

Q 
Z 
< 

U 




COO'^'^CO 1 1 1—1 1 CM 1 1 1— 1 1 1 




Brush 




CO T-( r-t ,-t 1 ,11 I 

CMCM ' ' ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 


u 


COCM^r-l^ 1 III 1 1 1 1 1 1 
COCO ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Disposition 

OF 

Casks 


Wage records secured 

Cases compliance . 

Cases non-compliance 

Adjustment 1 

Wages raised 

Earning minimum on 
piece work bonus or 
commission 

Hours reduced to make 
rate comply 
Adjustment reported 2 . 
Covered by P. R. R.3 . 
S.L., S.L Type or sim- 
ilar case 4 . 
Not under decree 5 
Lefts 

Discharged 6 
Advertised 
Pending? 



it 

= >• 

OS 
CO re 



■a 



is 

"5 S 2i 
o 4jC/3 



? a" S 3 u 

" b C u ..J 

tj a*^ yiB av 

<U ^ 4^ W, « 

u o > CO r <+i 
<u O w >,0 *J " 

s y ^ « 
u £ & «i 2 



8> 



0) cn 
O 3 

c o 



1^ 

CP 



.ti.S2 2-55 
CO > C C 

•r 5j <i> o 

«* u o 

o ° £i 



o c g - 

2. 1- <u o 

il-i 

o s 

w.^ o j«: 1- 
o-a Si re 9, 



1^ 



22 



8| 



reJ= 



V 5 



>> (0 



re u^' 
re-o > 



APPENDIX NO. 1. 
MEMBERSHIP OF WAGE BOARD IN SESSION IN 1924. 
Canning and Preserving and Minor Confectionery Wage Board. 

1924. 

Representing the Public: 
♦Joseph D. Taylor, Esquire, Chairman, 
6 Beacon Street, 
Boston, Mass. 

*Mr. N. W. Gifford, Vice President, 
Boston Consolidated Gas Company, 
38 Central Square, 
East Boston. 

Mrs. Walter Hosley, 
46 Waban Avenue, 
Waban, Mass. 



Representing the Employers'. 

Mr. Fred Bennett, Manager, 
Stickney & Poor Co., 
50 Cambridge Street, 
Charlestown, Mass. 
Mr. Chaney N. Hall, 

Gorton-Pew Fisheries Co., Ltd. 
Gloucester, Mass. 
Mr. H. R. Horton, Manager, 
United Candy Conpany, 
321 North Street, 
Boston, Mass. 
Mr. Frank L. Miller, 
The Three ^Millers Company, 
54 Chardon Street, 
Boston, Mass. 
^Ir. L. H. LaRue, Auditor, 
Jos. Middleby, Jr., Inc., 
327 Summer Street, 
Boston, Mass. 
*Mr. L. E. Whipple, 
The Whipple Company, 
Natick, Mass. 



Representing the Employees: 

Mrs. Delia Dillon, 

539 Massachusetts Avenue 
Boston, Mass. 

*Mrs. Susan G. Haley, 
65 St. Andrew Road, 
East Boston, Mass. 
*Mrs. Isabelle G. McNulty, 
60 Bow Street, 
Somerville, Mass. 

Mrs. Catherine Rogers, 
69 Jaques Street, 
Somerville, Mass. 

Mrs. Mary B. Silva, 
6 Harrison Avenue, 
Gloucester, Mass. 

Miss Anita L. Webb, 

130 W. Brookline Street, 
Boston, ]\Iass. 



Member of former wage board. 



APPENDIX NO. 2. 
Minimum Wage Decree Entered During the Year. 
Canning and Preserving and Minor Confectionery Decree 

April 1, 1925.— Effective. 



Canning and preserving and 
minor lines of confectionery 
occupation. ^ 



Class 

* Experienced females 
ordinary ability. 
Inexperienced females. 
Experienced females. 
Inexperienced females. 
Experienced females. 
Inexperienced females. 



of 



Age 
18 and over. 



16-18 years. 
Under 16. 



Rate 
$13 weekly. 

$12 weekly. 
$11 weekly. 
$10 weekly. 
$9 weekly. 
$8 we ekly. 



' The rate recommended by the Canning and Preserving and Minor Confectionery Wage Board 
will supersede the $11.00 and $12.00 rates for the Canning and Preserving Occupation and the 
Minor Lines of Confectionery and Food Preparations Occupation entered July 21, 1919, and Oc- 
tober 4, 1921, respectively. 

* To be deemed "experienced" after six months in the particular factory. 



8 

APPENDIX NO. 3. 
Cost of Living Budget Adopted by Canning and Preserving and Minor Con- 
fectionery Wage Board. 
Items. Amount. 

Board and lodging $8.50 

Clothing 2.50 

Laundry 2U 

Carfares 40 

Doctor, dentist and oculist 50 

Church J5 

Self -improvement; recreation and community interests 50 

Vacation 20 

Reserve for emergency 30 

Incidentals 25 

Total $13.50 

APPENDIX NO. 4. 
Opinion of Supreme Judicial Court Regarding the Authority of the 
Minimum Wage Commission to Compel Newspapers to 
Publish its Findings. 
Commonwealth v. Boston Transcript Company, 249 Mass. 477, 486. 
Suffolk. January 18, 1924 June 12, 1924. 



RUGG, C. J. The defendant is charged with having refused to publish at 
its regular rates a finding by the Minimum Wage Commission. It is provided 
by G. L. c. 151, s. 12: "Any newspaper refusing or neglecting to publish the 
findings, decrees or notices of the commission at its regular rates for the space 
taken shall be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars." Sup- 
plementary to this is s. 13 of the same chapter: "No member of the commis- 
sion, and no newspaper publisher, proprietor, editor or employee thereof, shall 
be liable to an action for damages for publishing the name of any employer as 
provided for in this chapter, unless such publication contains some wilful mis- 
representation." 

The particular charge in the case at bar is that the defendant refused to pub- 
lish a "finding" of the minimum wage board. The record shows that a letter 
was sent to the defendant with the request to "publish the accompanying ad- 
vertisement" on a specified date. The complaint shows that this "accompanying 
advertisement" was introduced by these words : "The Minimum Wage Com- 
mission hereby gives notice" that a named employer of labor was not comply- 
ing with its recommendation as to minimum wages to be paid to women in its 
service, together with a statement of those recommendations, the unanimity of 
conclusion reached by the wage board and the obligation imposed on the com- 
mission under such circumstances. No argument has been made that this was 
not in conformity to the statute. That question is not considered. It is as- 
sumed in favor of the Commonwealth. The defendant refused to comply with 
the request of the minimum wage commission for publication of the "accom- 
panying advertisement" on the ground of the questionable validity of the statute 
above quoted. 

The only point to be decided is whether the mandatory terms of the statute 
violate the rights secured to the defendant by the Constitution. The question 
expressly left open in Holcombe v. Creamer, 231 Mass. 99, 111, 112, is now pre- 
sented for decision. 

There appears to us to be nothing in the decision in Adkins v. Children's 
Hospital, 261 U. S. 525, which requires a modification of the decision or the 
reasoning in Holcombe v. Creamer, 231 Mass. 99, wherein the main features 



" of our minimum wage law were upheld. The statute under consideration in 
these two decisions differ radically in a fundamental provision. Our statute, 
now G. L. c. 151, contains no compulsion as to the payment of any rate of 
wages but leaves that subject wholly to the voluntary act of employer and em- 
ployee. It merely affords machinery for inquiry by a public board touching the 
rate of wages which women and children in a particular occupation ought to 
receive "to supply the necessary cost of living and to maintain the worker in 

' health," and for making public the results of that inquiry. It resembles in its 
constitutional features the act of Congress upheld in Pennsylvania Railroad v. 
United States Railroad Labor Board 261, U. S. 72. The' statute before .the 
court in Adkins v. Children's Hospital, 261 U. S. 525, made compulsory upon 
both employer and employee such rate of wages when so ascertained. All that 
was decided in Holcombe v. Creamer stands and must be accepted as the basis 
of the present adjudication. 

Section 12 of the statute now under consideration is not in terms permissive. 
It is penal. Its effect is to render liable to criminal prosecution with severe fine 
every publisher of a newspaper refusing to print as therein required. It im- 
poses a strong coercion. As a practical matter it cannot be resisted by a law 
abiding publisher. It is in substance a mandate from the Commonwealth. If 
valid it must be obeyed by all coming within its sweep. 

This mandate of the sovereign is that the publisher of a newspaper must print 
the "findings, decrees or notices" of the minimum wage commission. The mean- 
ing and scope of these words must be ascertained from other parts of the chap- 
ter. In s. 4 occur the words "decree of its findings" as descriptive of the de- 
cision of the commission concerning minimum wages which ought to be paid 
under the act and of its ascertainment of facts as to acceptance of its recom- 
mendations by employers and as to the names of employers following or re- 
fusing to follow such recommendation. "Decrees" is found in s. 14. In this 
context that word signifies nothing more than recommendation, suggestion, de- 
termination or finding of fact. "Findings" means ascertainment of facts, the 
reasons therefor and expressions of opinion on the subject of minimum wages 
and matters germane, ancillary and subsidiary thereto. In ss. 2, 4, and 14 is 
the word "notices," indicating notification to parties interested, either employers 
or employees, of proposed hearings or of decisions reached. 

The effect of the statute is to compel the publisher of any newspaper, selected 
by the public board established by the statute to print the matter offered by the 
board in accordance with the statute at the rate specified in the statute. The 
publisher has no option. He must print. He cannot negotiate as to the rate 
he will charge. His regular rate to the general public for space fixes the price 
to be paid to him. He can receive no more. The contract to publish at that 
price is imposed upon him as an absolute obligation by the simple request of the 
public board. He may be the only owner of a newspaper so requested. He may 
not want to print the designated matter at the rates commonly charged for space. 
It may not be for his business advantage so to print it. He may not want to 
print it at any price. His preferences, desires or financial advantage or detri- 
ment are entitled to no consideration under the statute. This class of advertis- 
ing may be peculiarly onerous. It may be especially disagreeable from a busi- 
ness standpoint. Its fair market value, regarded as space occupied, may be 
much greater than the price commonly charged for business advertisements of 
the usual character. Conditions can readily be conceived where these factors 
would exist. No one of them or others of kindred nature can be weighed under 
the terms of the statute. The proprietor of the newspaper selected by the public 
board must publish at the stated price, no matter how great may be the practical 
loss to him. 

The protection afforded to the publisher by s. 13 against liability for libelous 
publications made pursuant to the mandate of s. 12 is of uncertain nature. The 
constitutional power of the Legislature to deprive one altogether of his right 
of action against the publisher of a libel may well be open to doubt. The right 
of speedy remedy for injuries or wrongs to character is established and pre- 



10 

served on the same footing as injuries or wrongs to person and property by 
Art. XI of the Declaration of Rights. Ellis v. Brockton Publishing Co. 198 
Mass. 538, 543. Park v. Detroit Free Press, 72 Mich. 560, 564, 567. Hanson 
V. Krehbiel, 68 Kan. 670. Post Publishing Co. v. Butler, 71, C. C. A. 309, Cf. 
Allen V. Pioneer-Press Co. 40 Minn. 117. 

Without attempting to determine the meaning of s. 12 and the extent of its 
shield to a newspaper publisher printing libelous matter, it is at least plain that 
such publisher may be involved in expensive litigation which he would not in- 
vite or risk if left to his own volition. The power to impose contracts involving 
consequences of that kind cannot in any event be rested upon consideration the 
exigent nature of which is not plain. 

No discussion is required to demonstrate that s. 12 curtails in substantial par- 
ticulars the right of the publisher of the newspaper to contract about his affairs. 

"The right to acquire, possess and protect property includes the right to make 
reasonable contracts, which shall be under the protection of the law." Com- 
monwealth V. Perry, 155 Mass. 117, 121. Freedom of contract in its consti- 
tutional sense is secured by several provisions of the Constitution of this Com- 
monwealth. Declaration of Rights, Arts. 1. X. XII. The right to make con- 
tracts with respect to property upon terms mutually stipulated by the parties 
thereto is included "in the right of personal liberty and private property, — par- 
taking of the nature of each." Coppage v. Kansas, 236, U. S. 1, 14. Bogni v. 
Perotti, 224 Mass. 152, 155. Freedom of contract is not absolute. It is subject 
to reasonable legislative regulation in the interest of public health, safety and 
morals and, in a sense not resting merely on expediency, the public welfare. 
Valid statutes imposing limitations upon freedom of contract find numerous 
illustrations in our own decisions and those of the United States Supreme 
Court. Many of them are collected and reviewed in Holcombe v. Creamer, 231 
Mass. 99, 104-107. See also Opinion of Justices, 247 Mass. (Adv. Shs. 1245, 
1252, 1253.) Prudential Ins. Co., v. Cheek, 259 U. S. 530, National Union Fire 
Ins. Co. V. Wanberg, 260 U. S. 71, Radice v. New York, 265 U. S. (44 Sup. 
C'T. Rep. 325). "While there is no such thing as absolute freedom of contract 
and it is subject to a variety of restraints, they must not be arbitrary or un- 
reasonable. Freedom is the general rule and restraint the exception. The legis- 
lative authority to abridge can be justified only by exceptional circumstances." 
Wolfe Co. V. Industrial Court, 262 U. S. 522, 534. 

The case at bar falls within the general rule. It is not an exception to it. 
There is nothing about the present statute which indicates a temporary emer- 
gency. It is not limited in time but permanent in scope and operation. Cases 
like Wilson v. New, 243 U. S. 332, Block v. Hirsh, 256 U. S. 135, Marcus Brown 
Holdmg Co. Feldman, Id. 256, are inapplicable where statutes were upheld on 
the ground of stress of public need which appeared to be likely to pass. See 
Chastleton Corp. v. Sinclair, 265, U. S. (44 U. S. Sup. C't. Rep. 405). 

The statute was not enacted under the pressure of war conditions where 
perhaps some concession may be made to the necessities of government not 
likely to be recognized in times of peace. Lajoie v. Milliken, 242 Mass. 522. 

There is nothing in the record to indicate that the public board did not have 
ample opportunity to print its notice in other newspapers than that published 
by the defendant at the statutory price. It does not appear that there is a com- 
bmation of newspapers to obstruct the publicity of government activities in this 
connection, or that there is any difficultv about procuring the adequate publica- 
tion at reasonable rates. It is difficult, if not impossible in the present state of 
civihzation, to imagine the existence of such conditions. It cannot be thought 
tliat the Legislature acted on such facts. The statute cannot be supported as an 
jimendment to the charter of the defendant. It is general in terms, applying 

P Ir "'^^'^'^"^^ corporate publishers of newspapers. 

t ubiishers of newspapers are subject, of course, to reasonable legislative reg- 
norT'c f . Other citizens. Statutes in the interests of the public health, 
Tecttt fhf ^ vyelfare affecting them are on the same footing as those af- 
fecting the generality of citizens. Very likely they might in this respect be 




made the subject of legislative classification for appropriate ends. See G. L. 
c. 223, s. 45; c. 266, s. 91 : c. 221, s. 47: c. 149, s. 50; c. 136, s. 6; c. 55, ss. 32, 
33; c. 56, s. 62. They have no special immunities. They do not constitute a 
privileged class. They are entitled to invoke constitutional guaranties in com- 
mon with others. 

It cannot be said on this record that newspapers are affected with a public 
interest so as to stand on a less favorable ground with respect to legislative 
regulation like the present than the ordinary person. In some circumstances 
the publishing of newspapers may perhaps be held to fall v/ithin the third class 
of business clothed with a public interest, so as to justify some public regulation, 
described in Wolff Co. v. Industrial Court, 262 U. S. 522, 535, in these words: 
"Business which though not public at their inception may be fairly said to have 
risen to be such and have become subject in consequence to some government 
regulation. They have come to hold such a peculiar relation to the public that 
this is superimposed upon them. In the language of the cases, the owner by 
devoting his business to the public use, in effect grants the public an interest in 
that use and subjects himself to public regulation to the extent of that interest 
although the property continues to belong to its private owner and to be entitled 
to protection accordingly." We do not need to pass upon that question further 
than to say that appropriate facts are not here disclosed to render that principle 
pertinent. See Chastleton Corp. v. Sinclair, 265 U. S. (44 U. S. Sup. C't. 
Rep. 405). 

The legislative power as to price fixing and as to regulation which recently 
was discussed and upheld with reference to theatres in Opinion of Justices, 247 
Mass. (Adv. Shs. 124) clearly does not reach to the facts here disclosed. That 
opinion rested chiefly on historical grounds. 

The case at bar does not fall within the principle of lawful impressment for 
public service. There are collected in the brief of the learned counsel for the 
Commonwealth numerous colonial laws of that nature. Perhaps the last statute 
of that kind which by penalty made compulsory the service of one elected a con- 
stable in towns, was repealed by St. 1918, c. 291, s. 12, Hartlev v. Granville. 
216 Mass. 38, 40. Butler v. Perry, 240 U. S. 328. It is manifest that the 
present statute was not enacted in reliance on that principle. Its extent and 
pertinency to present conditions is open to doubt and need not be discussed. It 
does not support the present statute. 

It is fundamental that every presumption is made in favor of the validity of 
an act passed by the General Court. Perkins v. Westwood, 226 Mass. 268, 271, 
and cases there collected. But it cannot stand when violative of rights secured 
by the mandate of the people as expressed in the Constitution. Confining our- 
selves strictly to the present record, we are of the opinion that ss. 12 and 13 
of G. L. c. 151, violate rights of the defendant secured by the fundamental law 
and cannot be sustained. 

The invalidity of these sections does not affect the rest of that chapter, which 
stands as a valid exercise of legislative power. Holcombe v. Creamer, 231 
Mass. 99, 112. The defendant's motion for the direction of a verdict of not 
guilty ought to have been granted. 

Exceptions sustained. 
H. P. Fielding, Assistant District Attorney, and J. G. Palfrey, (F. S. Deland, 
Assistant District Attorney, with them,) for the Commonwealth. 
F. Rackemann, for the defendant. 



V 



Wift dLammanmtultl^ of MasBVLtlfUBfttB 

DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 



REPORT 



DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE 



REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 



Year ending November 30, 1925 




PUBUCATION OF THIS DOCUMENT APPROVED BY THE COMMISSION ON ADMINISTRATION AND FiNANCB 

800 7-'26 Order 5914 



Department of Labor and Industries 



OFFICIALS 

Commissioner Assistant Commissioner 

E. LEROY SWEETSER ETHEL M. JOHNSON 

Associate Commissioners 

(Constituting the Division of Minimum Wage and the Board of 
Conciliation and Arbitration.) 

EDWARD FISHER 
HERBERT P. WASGATT 
SAMUEL ROSS 



REPORT OF THE MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION 

Edward Fisher, Chairman, Herbert P. Wasgatt, Samuel Ross. 
Ethel M. Johnson, Acting Director. 

Summary of Work for 1925. 

Minimum Wage work during the year ending November 30, 1925, is repre- 
sented by inspection to determine compliance with the wage decrees, investi- 
gation of the wages of women in occupations where the establishment of a 
wage board might appear advisable, and the conduct of wage board work. 

Inspection has been made this year under fourteen decrees. In some 
instances this represents the .completion of work initiated the preceding year. 
In others, the work is in process at the close of the period covered by this 
report. Fear-wage board s, ha ve bee'a in session during the year. Three of 
thise- h5lVe;l?^mp?ett?d their: wotk^nd submitted reports. The fourth is still 
in session.* ' Two wage irivestlga"tions have been conducted. The field work 
for one has been completed ; that for the other is in progress. 

Wage decrees b&:s«d' on the determinations of the wage boards have been 
entered for. three. o.ccaipationS;., In one^, instance this represents a revision of 
existing rated;: itf the 'jotters i *t-he;ent?aiice of minimum rates for occupations 
nxit- previously* ccvef^d*! *•*■'•-'*'• ^ • ' 

Non-compliances have been advertised under nine decrees. In June the 
Commission published 39 retail stores* — representing with their branches 
124 establishments; 19 laundries*; and 5 paper box factories*. One firm 
under the canning and preserving and minor lines of confectionery decree was 
advertised in August. A supplementary list was published in November 
covering cases that were pending at the time of the previous publication, or 
that arose in subsequent inspections. This advertisement included five 
retail storesf; two laundriesf; two men's furnishings factoriesf; two muslin 

♦ This representa the second pubKcation in the case of 31 retail stores, 16 laundries and 3 paper box 
factories. 

• t.?'^^ representa the second publication in the case of two retail stores, two laundries, one men's fur- 
nishings establishment, one muslin underwear factory, one oflfice building estate, one women's clothing 
factory, and one druggists' preparation and proprietary medicines establishment. 



W 3 

uiiuerwear factoriesf; one office building estatetl^one women's clothing 
establishmentt ; and one firm manufacturing druggists' preparations and 
proprietary medieines.f 

The firms where publication has been necessary represent a very small 
proportion of those inspected under the decrees in question. In the case of 
retail stores, the firms advertised represent 2.9 per cent of all of the firms 
inspected employing women; in the ease of laundries, 5.3 per cent; paper box 
factories, 3.1 per cent; and in the case of the other decrees under which it has 
been necessary to publish, from .3 to 2.5 per cent. 

The advertisements this year were carried in 60 different newspapers 
throughout the State. This is the first publication of this nature since the 
decision of the Supreme Judicial Court in the case of the Commonwealth 
versus the Boston Transcript rendered in June, 1924. Under this decision, a 
paper declining to carry the Commission's notices is not liable to criminal 
prosecution. 

Outline of Functions. 
The duties of the Minimum Wage Commission under the law comprise 
investigating the wages of women employees; establishing wage boards to 
recommend minimum rates of wages; entering wage decrees based on the 
recommendations of the boards; inspecting to determine compliance with the 
decrees, and publishing the results of its findings. A statement of the work 
conducted during the year along these lines is given in the sections following. 

Publications. 

The minimum wage publications issued this year by the Commission are 
the annual report, and the leaflets giving the provisions of the statements and 
decrees. 

Conferences and Hearings. 

Public hearings have been conducted by the Commission on the determi- 
nations of the wage boards for bread and bakery products, millinery trades, 
and stationery goods and envelopes. A number of individual conferences 
have been held by the Commission and by the Assistant Commissioner with 
employers regarding the adjustment of cases of non-compliance in their 
establishments. The Assistant Commissioner has addressed the meetings 
of employees arranged to explain the work of the wage boards and secure 
nominations for the wage boards in process of formation, has interviewed the 
wage board candidates, and sat with the boards in session as secretary of the 
board and representative of the Commission. 

Investigations. 
Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findings. 

The study of the wages of women employed in the manufacture of boot and 
shoe cut stock and findings was conducted in the winter and spring. Agents 
of the Commission visited representative establishments in 18 cities and 
towns. Payroll records suitable for tabulation were secured for 1,020 women 
and girls in 54 firms. The period covered by the study is the three months 
November 1924 through January, 1925. Of the entire number of women 
included in the study, nearly three-fourths (70.8 per cent) were earning less 
than S15 a week, and one-half (51.3 per cent) were earning less than $13 a 
week. X The majority of the employees in the occupation are on a piece rate 
basis. Of the 397 women time workers, one half (49.9 per cent) had rates for 
full time employment below $15 a week, and one-fourth (25.7 per cent) had 
rates below SI 3 a week. The tables showing in detail^ the wage situation 
found in this investigation are on file in the Commission's office. 

! Electrical Machinery and Supplies. * 

An inquiry into the wages of women employed in the manufacture of 

t This represents the second publication in the case of two retail stores, two laundries, one men's fur- 
nishings establishment, one muslin underwear factory, one office building estate, one women's clothing 
factory, and one druggists' preparation and proprietary medicines establishment. 

t This does not necessarily represent full time employment. 



4 

electrical machinery and supplies was initiated in the early summer and 
carried on through the summer and fall. The period selected for this study 
was the three months March through May, 1925. Wage records suitable 
for tabulation have been secured for 2,754 women in 29 establishments. The 
field work is nearly completed. 

Wage Board Work. 
Four wage boards have been in session this year. These are the bread and 
bakery products wage board ; the millinery wage board ; the stationery goods 
and envelopes wage board; and the reconvened candy wage board. An 
account of the work of these boards is summarized below. 

Bread and Bakery Products Wage Board. 

As a result of the investigation of the wages of women employed in the 
manufacture of bread and other bakery products the Commission this year 
established a wage board for the occupation. This board was made up of 
seven members; three representing the employers in the occupation; three 
representing the women employees; and one representative of the public 
who served as chairman. The board held its first meeting on December 31, 
1924, and after four meetings on January 28, 1925, submitted a unanimous 
report to the Commission. The board adopted a cost of living budget of 
313.00 for a self-supporting woman in the occupation, and recommended a 
minimum rate to correspond. Special rates of $9 and $11 were recommended 
for beginners, according to age. 

Following are the recommendations of the board in detail as to the mini- 
mum rate of wages for female employees of ordinary ability : 

1. For experienced employees, not less than $13.00 a week. 

2. For learners and apprentices as follows : 

(a) For those sixteen years of age or over, not less than $11.00 a 
week. 

(b) For those under sixteen years of age, not less than $9.00 a week. 

3. An employee shall be deemed experienced and of ordinary ability 
after six months' employment in the occupation, irrespective of age. 

4. These rates are based on full-time work, by which is meant the full 
number of hours per week required by employers and permitted by 
the laws of the Commonwealth. 

The Commission provisionally approved these determinations and held a 
public hearing thereon February 17th, 1925. Thereafter the Commission 
approved finally the determinations of the board and entered a decree effec- 
tive May 1, 1925. 

Millihery Wage Board. 

The wage board for the millinery trades was established in the early part 
of the year. This board combined in its scope the work of the former wage 
boards for the wholesale and retail millinery trades, and in addition included 
establishments engaged in the manufacture of flowers and feathers. The 
purpose of the combination was to simplify administrative procedure by 
having a single decree for the several branches of the industry. The con- 
vening of a wage board gave opportunity also for a revision of the existing 
rates. Before taking this action the Commission invited representatives 
from the millinery trades to attend a conference to consider the proposal for 
the establishment of a single wage board for the occupation. 

The board was composed of nine members — four representatives of employ- 
ers in the occupation and four representatives of the women employees, 
with one representative of the public who served as chairman. Both em- 
ployer and employee members included representatives from the wholesale 
manufacturing trade and the retail millinery trade. The board held six 
meetings, the first on December 12, 1924, and on January 23, 1925, submitted 
to the Commission a report signed by all of the members. The board esti- 
mated the cost of living for a self-supporting woman in the occupation as 
$13.90. Owing to conditions in the retail branch of the industry in particu- 



5 



lar, the board recommended that the minimum rate be established at $13.00 
a week for the present. The board made the further suggestion that the 
rate be increased* or decreased in the future in accordance with changes in the 
cost of living. 

After reviewing the report, the Commission provisionally approved the 
determinations and held a public hearing thereon February 17, 1925. At 
this hearing, two employers appeared in opposition to the establishment of a 
single decree for the occupation. The Commission subsequently returned 
the report to the wage board for further information regarding the recom- 
mendations as to experience. 

The wage board met on March 18, 1925, and submitted the following 
revised determinations to the Commission: 

1. An employee of ordinary ability must be at least 19 years of age and 
have been employed in the industry at least four seasons of sixteen 
weeks each, and have had at least two spring and two fall seasons' 
experience ; or in the case of employees whose work is not of seasonal 
character, at least two years. 

2. The minimum wage for the employee of ordinary ability shall be not 
less than S13.00 a week. 

3. The rate for employees with less than one season's experience, irre- 
spective of age, or in the case of employees whose work is not of 
seasonal character, with less than 21 weeks' experience, shall be not 
less than $6.00 a week. 

4. With one season's experience but less than two seasons' experience, 
irrespective of age; or in case of employees whose work is not of a 
seasonal character, at least 21 weeks within a period of not less than 
26 weeks, not less than $7.50 a week. 

5. With two seasons' experience but less than three seasons' experience, 
irrespective of age, or in the case of employees whose work is not of 
seasonal character, at least 42 weeks within a period of not less than 
52 weeks, not less than $9.00 a week. 

6. With three seasons' experience but less than four seasons' experi- 
ence, irrespective of age; or in the case of employees whose work is 
not of seasonal character, at least 63 weeks within a period of less 
than 78 weeks, not less than $10.50 a week, 

7. With four or more seasons' experience, not including two spring and 
two fall seasons, irrespective of age, not less than $10.50 a week. 

8. With at least four seasons' experience, including two spring and two 
fall seasons, but under 19 years of age; or in the case of employees 
whose work is not of seasonal character, at least two years, not less 
than $12.00 a week. 

9. In computing experience, a week shall consist of not less than 40 
hours. 

The Commission therefore approved finally the determinations of the 
board and entered a decree effective July 1, 1925. 

Stationery Goods and Envelopes Wage Board. 

As a result of the investigation of the wages of women employed in the 
manufacture of stationery goods and envelopes and related lines, the Com- 
mission in the summer of 1925 established a wage board for the occupation. 
This board consisted of seven members, three representing employers in the 
occupation, three representing the women employees, and one representative 
of the public who served as chairman. The board held eight meetings, the 
first on June 8, 1925, and on September 21, 1925 submitted to the Commis- 
sion a unanimous report of its determinations. 

In considering the needs of women employed in the occupation, the board 
estimated the cost of living as $13.75 and recommended a minimum rate to 
correspond. The board also recommended special mimimum rates ranging 

* The onlv action which the Commission has authority to take in this connection is to reconvene the 
wage board or form a new board for the occupation if in its opinion such action is necessary to meet changes 
in the cost of living. 



6 

from to $12 according to age and experience. Following are the board's 
determinations for female employees of ordinary ability: 

1 For experienced employees, not less than $13.75 a week. 

2. For those under 18 years with 12 months' experience in a particular 

shop, $12.00 a week. 
3 For inexperienced employees over 16 years, $11.00 a week. 
4'. For inexperienced employees under 16 years, $9.00 a week. 
5! An employee shall be deemed experienced when 18 years of age and 

having had at least one year's experience in the particular plant of 

employment. 

The Commission provisionally approved these determinations and held 
a public hearing thereon October 27, 1925. No one appeared at the hearing 
in opposition to the determinations. Thereafter the Commission approved 
finally the determinations of the board and entered a decree effective January 
1, 1926. 

Candy Wage Board. 

The wage board for the candy occupation was reconvened by the Commis- 
sion in the summer of 1925. This action was taken to afford opportunity 
for revision of the existing rates if the board so desired. Four of the members 
of the former wage board, including the chairman and one representative 
of the public, served on the reconvened board. The board held eight meet- 
ings, the first on September 25, 1925, and on November 18, 1925, submitted 
to the Commission a report of its determinations. The Commission had not 
acted upon these determinations at the close of the period covered by this 
report. 

Enforcement of Wage Decrees. 

Inspections have been made during the year under fourteen wage decrees. 
These include the following occupations: establishments manufacturing 
bread and other bakery products, brush factories, candy factories, canning 
and preserving and minor confectionery establishments, corset factories, 
establishments manufacturing druggists' preparations, proprietary medicines 
and chemical compounds, laundries, muslin underwear and men's furnish- 
ings factories, millinery establishments, paper box factories, office and other 
building cleaning, retail stores, and women's clothing factories. 

In the case of canning and preserving and minor confectionery, miUinery, 
and bread and bakery products, the work represents the initial inspection 
under a new decree. The inspection under the millinery decree is in progress. 
In the case of retail stores, laundries and men's furnishings, the work was 
confined mainly to establishments where non-compliances were found at the 
previous inspection. In connection with the inspection work for the year, 
visits were made to 1,818 firms, and wage records secured for 20,360 women 
employed in 1,151 estabhshments. This is in addition to the large number 
of reinspection visits made under the various decrees in the attempt to adjust 
cases of non-compliance. 

There were pending at the beginning of the year from the inspection work 
of the previous year, 3,161* cases in 214t establishments. The greater 
number of these were in retail stores — including a number of chain stores — 
in laundries, and paper box factories. In addition there were a few cases in 
six men's furnishings and two muslin underwear establishments. A large 
majority of all the cases were in firms previously advertised for non-compli- 
ance with the decrees. It was possible, therefore, to adjust only a small 
proportion of these non-compliances. In 142 cases wages were raised, or the 
employees through change in hours, type of work, or method of payment, 
were enabled to earn the minimum. In six other cases, adjustment was 
promised. In 144 cases the employees had left; in one case the employee 

• There are included here 23 cases in 2 firms which were pending from 1924, but omitted from the 1924 
summary. 

t The 214 establishments listed include a number of chain stores, and represent 136 different firms. 



7 



was discharged.* There were 2,827 eases in 146t establishments advertised 
during the year. The disposition of the remaining cases is shown in Table I, 
following. 

In connection with the reinspection made in the attempt to adjust the 
cases outstanding at the beginning of the year, 126 new cases of non-com- 
pliance were found in 18 firms. Of this number, 48 were in 10 firms adver- 
tised in 1925. In 20 cases in seven firms, wages were raised; in two cases 
hours were reduced so that the amount paid represented compliance. Three 
cases did not come under the decree, and in 20 cases the employees left. 
There are 33 cases in two firms pending adjustment at the close of the year. 
The disposition of the various cases is shown in Table II. 

During the regular inspection work for the year, wage records were secured 
for 20,360 women and girls in 1,151 establishments. In 1,007 of these estab- 
lishments, representing 13,777 women employees, full compliance was found 
at the time of the inspection visit. There were 824 cases of non-compliance 
in 129 establishments, 460 cases being in 15 establishments which were 
advertised. Adjustment by raising wages, shortening hours, transferring 
employees from time to piece rate work, or to another type of work for which 
they were better suited, was made in the case of 207 employees in 78 estab- 
lishments. There are pending at the close of the year 52 cases^ in 16 estab- 
lishments. The disposition of the various cases under the different decrees 
is shown in the tabular summary of the inspections for 1925, Table III, 
following. 

* In only one case is there definite record of discharge. It is possible, however, that some of the cases 
reported as left represent dismissal. 

t These 146 establishments represented 61 firms, and include 122 retail stores, 20 laundries, and 4 paper 
box factories. Of this number, 102 stores, 17 laundries, and 3 of the paper box factories have been pre- 
viously advertised. 

t These are in addition to the 33 cases referred to above, and the 6 cases reported as adjusted. 

TABLE I 



Disposition of Cases of Non-Coinpliance Pendhig from 192/^. 

(C — Cases; E — Establishments) 









Men's 


Muslin 


Paper 

Rn-r 












Laundry 


Furnish- 


Under- 


Retail Store 


Total 








ings 


wear 
















C. 


E. 

1 


C. 


E. 


C. 


E. 


c. 


E. 


C. 


E. 


C. 


E. 


Pending from 1924 


485 


29 


19 


6 


3 


2 


81 


18 


2,573* 


159* 


3,161* 


214* 


Adjustment** 


























Wages Raised 


18 


8 


2 


2 






12 


6 


89 


19 


121 


35 


Earning Minimum 


























on P. W. 














9 


5 






9 


5 


Hours Reduced 


























to Make Rate 


























Comply with 


























Minimum 


















6 


3 


6 


3 


Adjustment Re- 


























ported ** 


















6 


2 


6 


2 


Covered by 


























P. R. R.*» 






1 


1 






1 


1 






2 


2 


S. L., S. L. T. or 


























Similar Case** 


8 


3 


1 




1 


1 


2 


2 


1 


1 


13 


8 


Change of Work 


























Enabling Em- 


























ployee to Earn 
Minimum 


























2 


1 










2 


2 


2 


1 


6 


4 


Not under De- 


























cree** 






5 












5 


3 


10 


4 


Firm Moved or 


























Out of Busi- 


























ness 


14 


2 














1 


1 


15 


3 


Left** 


23 


6 


10 


4 


2 


2 


11 


7 


98 


24 


144 


43 


Discharged . 














1 


1 






1 


1 


Advertised in 1925 


420 


20 










43 


4 


2,364 


122 


2,827 


146 


Pending 


















1 


1 




1 



This includes 23 cases in 2 firms pending from 1924, but not in 1924 summary. 
See notes on Table 3 following. 



8 

TABLE II 



Disposition of New Cases of Non-Compliance in Firms Where There Were 
Cases Pending from 1924. 

(C — Cases; E — Establishments) 





Latjndbt 


Men's 
Furnish- 
ings 


Paper 
Box 


Retail 
Store 


Total 


C. 


E. 


C. 


E. 


C. 


E. 


C. 


E. 


C. 


E. 


No. Cases of Non-compli- 






















ance .... 


35 


6 


8 


1 


12 


3 


71 


8 


126 


18 


Adjustment*' 






















Wages Raised 


7 


1 






2 


1 


11 


5 


20 


7 


Hours Reduced 














2 


1 


2 




Not under Decree". 










1 


1 


2 


1 


3 


2 


Leff 










6 


2 


14 


3 


20 


5 


Advertised in 1925 . 


23 


5 


8 


1 


3 


1 


14 


3 


48 


10 


Pending 


5 


1 










28 


1 


33 


2 



'• See notes on Table 3 following. 



9 



go £t- 
B K 2 




CO CO C4 (-H l-H 1 1 1 1 l-H 1— 1 1 1 ^ 1 1 




t^-HCO<©«D 1 1 1 1 lOO 1 1 M 1 CO 1 
CO00^iO»O Tj< 
CO 


Pi 
Q 

I 

< 




COCOCO 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


6 


OOO 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 t 1 


Druggists' 
Compounds 






d 


x> o <r> 05 CO 1 1 --I 1 1 1 <-< 1 o 1 


SET 




00 00 Tf< CO CN 1 1 1 1 1 '-t 1 1 1 1 


as 



O 


d 


cs N t>. Tf< CO 1 1 1 1 1 ^ 1 1 1 1 CO 
Ooo;oc^ csi 

C5X->D 


Canning 

AND 

Preserv- 
ing 




CM Q CO O IC -"J* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

o ^ o 


d 


-H»^MOCCC0 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 C0-»}< 

1^ •<»< cq CO N c< 

;o<£io 


!h 
O 
2 
■< 






d 


Cv)tN.^l.-Tt*i£)| IMIOOl 100 1 l-H 

CO « o ro 

lO iC !N 


X 

OQ 

o 

K 

pq 




COCOM-H-Hrt 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

(N (N 




©00t}<«^.-h| I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Bread 

AND 

Bakery 




r^t^iNioicin 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

N N 




OOOOOXOOX 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

oooo-o 
ocoo 


Disposition of Cases 


Wage records for tabulation 

Cases compliance ....... 

Establishments with full compliance and cases 

Adjustment^ ....... 

Wages raised ....... 

Earning Minimum on piece work 

Hours reduced ...... 

Adjustment reported 2 ..... 

Covered by P. R. R.a 

S. L., S. L. T. or similar case-* .... 

Change of work 

Not under decree 5 ...... 

Ivefte 

Discharged ....... 

Advertised in 1925 

Pending ........ 



i I 



w 3 



eS v CO 

«2 g 

u . O 

0) U o 

o .t^ oj 

S o 

. n « 

it 2 

O g 08 



r 00 



■tS CD 



— o 3 

> 

oo Q< OS 



n 00 

^.2 



0.£ TS 



||«i.££.| ^ 
si-si § 2I 



00^ V O 



.0 « . 



00 3 O) 
573 <^ 



a> o G H 



« le « 



10 



Total 






d 


005CO 


Women's 
Clothing 




CO ooc^i — < — 1 

(N (N i>> 


d 


CTrPOOO: TfC^l |-<}<|(NI IMIMiO 

CO CO O 
(M •-I 


t « 




COOOO'— 'O 1 1 ■— 1 CO 1 1 1 1 I— 1 1 t«. »-f 

CO « O 'I 


d 


OOfNXOiOl l»-HCOI 1 1 I'-ilO—i 

OlOO-K-i-^ -H 

OiCCO— 1^ -H 


Paper 
Box 




eocococool 1 1 ilo-h^i 


d 


aO®CO(N(N-*l 1 1 It^l 105-<-H| 
005 •<*' 


Office 
Clean- 
ers 




C005'^0500O|iNI 1 1 1 1 1 
C5 X X 
(N iM 


d 


C0i0<N00«O 1 ^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 rfO 
Ot|-tDCM(N IN 


d « ^ 

g s « 




OOOOfNOJiC^i-il |>C»-i.-.®|iN| 


d 


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Disposition of Cases 


Wage records for taVjulation 

Cases compliance ....... 

Establishments with full compliance and cases 
Cases of non-compliance ..... 

Adjustment^ ....... 

Wages raised ....... 

Earning minimum on piece work 

Hours reduced ...... 

Adjustment reported 2 

Covered by P. R. R. 3 

S. L., S. L. T. or similar cases'* 

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Appropriation. 

The appropriation authorized for 1925 was S16,500. Of this amount, 
$14,193.61 has been expended, leaving a balance of S2,306.39 which reverts 
to the State Treasury. Analysis of the expenditures from the appropriation 
is given in the financial statement which follows. 

Financial Statement. 
For the Year Ending November 30, 1925. 

Unexpended 

Account Appropriation Expenditures Balance 

Personal Services . . $10,500 $9,275 93 $1,224 07 

Traveling and Other Expenses 3,400 3,286 85 113 15 

Wage Board Salaries and Ex- 
penses .... 2,600 1,630 83 969 17 



Total .... $16,500 $14,193 61 $2,306 39 



APPENDICES 

• 1925 

Appendix No. 1 

MEMBERSHIP OF WAGE BOARDS IN SESSION DURING 1925 

Bread and Bakery Products 
Wage Board 
Representing the Public 
Dr. William M. Tenney, Chairman, Boston. 



Representing the Employers. 

J. H. Drake, 

Roxbury, 
Joseph J. Smith, 

Boston. 
W. Jerome Gilbert, 

Somerville. 



Representing the Employees. 

E. M. Clough, 

Cambridge. 
Gertrude Lindstrom, 

Cambridge. 
Nellie O'Brien, 

Boston. 



Millinery Wage Board, (revised). 
Representing the Public. 
Leland Powers, Esquire, Chairman, Boston 



Representing the Employers. 

Albert A. Allendorff,i 

Boston. 
Louis Abrahams, 

Boston. 
Sadie J. Preston, ^ 

Somerville. 
Charles H. Whittier, 

Boston. 



Representing the Employees. 

Margaret F. Crimmings, 

Med way. 
Arline Hartford, 

Cambridge. 
Kathryn Manning,^ 

Mansfield. 
Bessie T. Moran, 

Boston. 



1 Member of former Retail Millinery Wage Board. 

2 Vice Mr. William Henchey, rcsiened. 

3 Vice Mrs. Cordana Hodgea, resigned. 



12 

Membership of Wage Boards in Session During 1925 — Concluded 



Stationery Goods and Envelopes 
Wage Board. 
Representing the Public. 
Cornelius Parker, Esquire, Chairman, Boston. 



Representing the Employers. 

J. A. Garvey, 
Framingham, 

Waldo H. Rice, 

Boston. 
Henry J. Toepfert, 

Holyoke. 



Representing the Employees. 

Mary G. Burke, 

Worcester. 
Ellen F. Daley, 

Cambridge. 
William R. French, 

Quincy. 



Candy Wage Board (reconvened). 
Representing the Public. 
Chester T. Porter, Chairman,^ 

Worcester. 
Arthur H. Brooks, Esquire, 

Cambridge. 
Professor Sara H. Stites,^ 
Boston. 



Representing the Employers. 

H. R. Horton, 

Boston. 
William Macnaughton, 

Brookline. 
George C. Miller, 

Boston. 
Emlyn V. Mitchell, 

Cambridge. 
Walter H. Neaves, 

Boston. 
Charles D. Rice,^ 

Cambridge. 



* Members of former Candy Wage Board. 

* Vice Miss Mary Good, resigned. 

* Vice Miss Anna Slavin, resigned. 



Representing the Employees. 

Agnes Abbott,^ 

East Boston. 
Rose Baron, 2 

East Boston. 
Alice E. Flinkfelt, 

Beachmont. 
Florence Forbes, 

Dorchester. 
Margaret Harrington, 

South Boston. 
Agnes Shalen,^ 

Dorchester. 



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JILi^t CommontDealt!) of MsL^i^atf^n^tM 



DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 



-i.^ -to: - • ' - yiti-v.i^ -A-y^^^' 



REPORT 



DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE 



REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 



Year Ending November 30, 1926 




Publication of this document Approved by the Commission on Administration and Finance 
800. 4-'27. Order 8740. ^ 



Site Commontaiealtti of 0laMat^uittti 
Department of Labor and Industries 



v -j -u : iv,', . 

. OFFICIALS 

Commissioner Assistant Commissioner 

E. LEROY SWEETSER ETHEL M. JOHNSON 

Associate Commissioners 

(Constituting the Division of Minimum Wage and the Board of 
Conciliation and Arbitration) 

EDWARD FISHER 
HERBERT P. WASGATT 
SAMUEL ROSS 



REPORT OF THE MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION 

Edward Fisher, Chairman, Herbert P. Wasgatt, Samuel Ross. 
Ethel M. Johnson, Acting Director. 

Summary of Work for 1926 

The prmcipal minimum wage work conducted during the year ending 
November 30, 1926, is represented by inspection to determine compliance 
with the existing wage decrees, and the establishment of wage boards to 
recommend minimum rates of wages for women and girls in specified 
occupations. " 

Inspection has been' iviad€f this :y§a'i' TJnder thirteen decrees. In one in- 
stance this represents the completion of work initiated the preceding 
year. The inspection undev two other decrees which were started in the 
fall is in progress at the close of the period covered by this report. In 
addition inspection on complaint was mads in the case of several estab- 
lishments under twp other deer eesi. 

Two wage boards have been established during the present year. One 
of these has completed its work and submitted a report of its determina- 
tions. The other board is still in session. The wage study that was 
nearing completion at the close of the previous year has been finished. 

Decrees establishing minimum rates of w^ages based on the determina- 
tions of the wage boards have been entered for two occupations. In one 
case this represents revision of an existing rate ; in the other, the entrance 
of a minimum rate for an occupation not previously covered. 

On January 1, 1927, there will be in effect wage decrees for eighteen 
different occupations. In all, thirty-three decrees have been entered 
since the Minimum Wage Commission began its work in 1913.* A num- 
ber of these, however, represent the second or third decree for the same 
occupation. In some instances the revision of rates was accompanied by 
the establishment of a single board for branches formerly represented 
by two boards. An outline showing the various wage decrees entered, 
and the ones now in effect is given in the section following. 

Only one firm has been published for non-compliance this year. This is 
an establishment under the stationery goods and envelopes decree. Pub- 
lication will probably be necessary in the case of several firms under 
other decrees during the ensuing year. Follow-up work preliminary to 
advertisement was not completed in time to permit action during the 
present year. In the majority of instances, the cases of non-compliance 



• The law was passed in 1912, effective July, 1913. 



3 -p 

are in firms previously advertised. This sHould be kept in mind in con- 
nection with the summary of inspection work given in Table II, following. 

Outline of Functions 

The duties of the Minimum Wage Commission under the law comprise 
the following : investigating the wages of women employees in occupations 
where there is reason to believe the wages of a number are below the re- 
quirements of healthful living; establishing wage boards to recommend 
minimum rates of wages for women and minors; entering wage decrees 
based on the recommendations of the boards; inspecting to determine 
compliance with the decrees; and publishing the results of its findings. 
An account of the work conducted during the year along these lines is 
given in the statement following. 

Publications 

Minimum wage publications issued are the annual report and the leaf- 
lets giving the provisions of the statements and decrees. This includes 
for the present year the reprint from the section of the annual report of 
the Department dealing with minimum wage matters, and the statement 
and decree for candy, revised, and for stationery goods and envelopes. 

Conferences and Hearings 

Public hearings have been held by the Commission on the determina- 
tions of the reconvened candy board and the wage board for jewelry and 
related lines. As is the case each year, a number of individual confer- 
ences have been held by the Commission and by the Assistant Commis- 
sioner with the employers regarding the adjustment of cases of non-com- 
pliance in their establishments. 

The Assistant Commissioner has addressed the meetings of employees 
arranged to explain the work of the wage boards and secure nominations 
for the wage boards in process of formation, has interviewed the wage 
board candidates, and sat with the boards in session as secretary of the 
board and representative of the Commission. 

Assistance has been given a number of individuals and public and pri- 
vate agencies that have been making studies of minimum wage work in 
Massachusetts. The most extensive of these investigations are those 
being conducted by the United States Women's Bureau, the United States 
Children's Bureau, and the National Industrial Conference Board. 

Investigations 
Electrical Machinery and Supplies 

The study of the wages of women employed in the manufacture of elec- 
trical machinery and supplies was made in 1925. The field work was 
nearly completed at the beginning of the present year. The period cov- 
ered by the inquiry is the three months March through May, 1925. In 
connection with this work agents of the Commission visited representa- 
tive establishments in 16 cities and towns. Payroll records available for 
tabulation were secured for 2,443 women in 34 firms. Of this number, 
nearly one-half (47.1) were earning under $15 a week; and nearly one- 
third (31.8) under $13 a week. Of the 761 women paid on a time basis, 
two- thirds (65.2) had rates for full time employment below $15 a week, 
and more than one-third (36.8) had rates below $13 a week. The tables 
showing in detail the wage situation found in the investigation are on 
file in the Commission's office. 

Wage Board Work 
Two wage boards have been in session this year. These are the boards 
for jewelry and related lines, and for toys, games and sporting goods. 
The last mentioned board is still in session. In addition, the reconvened 
candy wage board which reported in 1925 was called into conference by 



4 I 

the Commission and submitted a revised report during the present year. 
An account of the work of these boards is given below. 

Candy Wage Board, Reconvened 

As the determinations of the candy wage board had not been acted 
upon at the close of the preceding year, the work of this board, although 
belonging mainly to the previous year, is recorded here. As explained in 
the previous report, the candy wage board was reconvened to give oppor- 
tunity for revision of the existing rates if the board so desired. On No- 
vember 18, 1925, the board submitted to the Commission a report of its 
determinations. 

The Commission called the board into conference on December 16, 
1925, following which the board submitted an amended report signed by 
all of the members. In connection with their recommendations, the board 
estimated the cost of living as $13 and recommended a minimum rate to 
correspond, also a special minimum rate of $9 for beginners. 

As explanation of their recommendation for an increase over the former 
rates although the index numbers on the general cost of living varied but 
slightly from those of the previous date, the board called attention to the 
fact that the marked increase in prices during the time the previous board 
was in session made it possible that the budget then adopted was not fully 
responsive to rapidly changing conditions. 

Following are the board's determinations as to the minimum rate for 
women and girls employed in the occupation in the state : 

1. For employees of ordinary ability, not less than $13 a week. 

2. For beginners not less than $9 a week. 

3. An employee shall be considered of ordinary ability after employ- 
ment in a candy factory at least one year. 

The Commission provisionally approved these determinations and 
held a public hearing thereon January 6, 1926. No one appeared in oppo- 
sition to the determinations. The Commission thereafter approved 
finally the determinations of the board and entered a decree effective 
March 1, 1926, to supersede the one entered July 19, 1919. 

Jewelry and Related Lines Wage Board 

As a result of the investigation of the wages of women employed in the 
manufacture of jewelry and related lines conducted in 1924, the Com- 
mission in the summer of 1926 established a wage board for the occupa- 
tion. The scope of the industry considered includes the manufacture of 
jewelry, jewelry findings, optical goods, watches and clocks. 

A board of fifteen members was formed consisting of six representa- 
tives of employers in the occupation, six representatives of the women 
employees, and three representatives of the public, one of whom served 
as chairman. The board held eight meetings, the first on June 3, 1926, 
and on August 11 of that year submitted to the Commission a report of 
its determinations signed by all of the members. 

In considering the needs of self-supporting women in the occupation, 
the board adopted a cost of living budget of $14.95. Owing to the finan- 
cial condition of the industry as indicated by the number of recent liquida- 
tions, they recommended a minimum rate of $14.40 a week with a special 
mmimum rate for beginners of $12 a week. Following are the determina- 
tions of the board in detail as to the minimum rate of wages for women 
and girls of ordinary ability employed in the jewelry and related lines 
occupation : 

1. That the minimum rate for a female employee of ordinary ability 
should be $14.40 a week. ' 

2. That an employee should be deemed of ordinary ability who has 
been employed for six months in the occupation and has reached the age 
of twenty years. 

<Pio aa'^^^* beginners, irrespective of age, should receive not less than 
$12.00 a week. 



5 

The Commission provisionally approved the determinations of the board 
and held a public hearing thereon, September 9, 1926. At this hearing 
no one appeared in opposition. The Commission thereafter approved 
finally the determinations of the board and ordered that a decree based 
thereon should be entered, effective January 1, 1927. 

Toys, Games and Sporting Goods Wage Board 

The Commission in 1924 made an investigation of the wages of women 
employed in the manufacture of toys, games and sporting goods. As a 
result of this inquiry, a wage board was established for the occupation 
in the fall of 1926. The occupation considered includes the manufacture 
of toys, games, kindergarten supplies, and sporting goods. A board of 
seven members was formed, consisting of three representatives of em- 
ployers in the occupation, three representatives of the women employees, 
and one representative of the public who served as chairman. The board 
has held five meetings, and is still in session at the close of the period cov- 
ered by this report. 

Enforcement of Wage Decrees 

Inspection has been made during the year under thirteen decrees. 
These represent the following occupations: bread and bakery products, 
candy, canning and preserving and minor lines of confectionery, corset, 
druggists' preparations, proprietary medicines and chemical compounds, 
knit goods, laundries, millinery, office building cleaners, paper box, sta- 
tionery goods and envelopes, women's clothing, and retail stores. In ad- 
dition inspection has been made on complaint in the case of firms under 
the men's furnishings and muslin underwear decrees. 

In connection with this work 2,267* visits were made. Wage records 
were secured for 36,983** women in 1,361 establishments. In addition 
to this a large number of reinspection visits were made to establishments 
under the various decrees in an effort to adjust cases of non-compliance. 

In the case of the millinery occupation the inspection was initiated the 
preceding year and carried over into the present year. The inspection 
under the women's clothing and retail store decrees was started in the 
fall of the present year and is still in progress. This represents the sec- 
ond inspection of retail stores since the present decree became effective 
June 1, 1922. 

In the case of the laundry decree this is the second general inspection 
made since that decree became operative July 1, 1922. In the case of the 
revised candy decree and stationery goods and envelopes occupation de- 
cree, the inspection this year represents the initial work under a new 
decree. 

There were pending at the beginning of the year 86t cases of non-com- 
pliance in 19 establishments. These were under the following decrees: 
candy, canning and preserving and minor lines of confectionery, corset, 
laundry, millinery, office cleaners, retail stores and women's clothing. In 
26 of these cases adjustment was made by raising wages or the employee 
in question was earning the minimum at the reinspection. In 56 cases 
the employees left. There were 3 cases in firms that went out of business 
during the year. One case is still pending. 

In the course of the regular inspection work for the year, wage records 
were secured for 36,454tt women in 1,361 establishments under 15 de- 
crees. Of this number, 34,479 or 94.6 per cent, represented full compli- 
ance. There were 1,030 establishments with 22,753 employees showing 
full compliance at the time of the first inspection. There were 1,968 cases 

* Includes revisits made where records were not available at first inspection. 
** 36,454 records available for tabulation were secured. 

t These include the cases listed as pending in tables 1, 2 and 3 of the report of the Division 
of Minimum Wage for the year ending November 30, 1925. 

tt This represents the records secured for tabulation in the regular inspection work. It does 
not include the records secured in connection with the adjustment of cases pending at the be- 
ginning of the year, or in the cases not covered by decrees. 



I 



6 

of non-compliance found in 328 establishments. The majority of these 
were in firms that had previously been advertised. Most of the remain- 
ing cases have been adjusted. 

In the case of 596 of these non-compliances, representing 213 estab- 
lishments, adjustment was made by raising wages, shortening hours, 
transferring employees from time to piece work, or to another kind of 
work where they were able to earn the minimum. In 74 cases in 15 
establishments adjustment was reported or promised before the end of 
the period covered by this report. There were 75 cases recorded as 
special license or special license type, or covered by the piece rate ruling.^ 
In 141 cases, representing 60 establishments, the employees left.^t In 
addition there were 6 reported as discharged. The disposition of the 
remaining cases is shown in Table II, following. 

There are pending at the close of the year, 1,049 cases in 85 establish- 
ments. Some of these will doubtlessly be adjusted. A large part, how- 
ever, are in firms previously advertised under the laundry, paper box, 
and retail store decrees.* 

As the inspection under the stationery goods and envelopes decree and 
the revised decree for the candy occupation, represent the initial examina- 
tion, the extent of compliance is of interest. Wage records were secured 
for 4,542 women in 115 candy factories, and for 4,450 women in 80 
establishments manufacturing stationery goods and envelopes. In the 
case of 4,452 candy workers, and 4,229 employees in stationery goods 
establishments, all necessary adjustments had been made prior to the 
inspection. There were 90 cases in 29 candy factories and 221 cases in 39 
stationery goods establishments requiring adjustment. The majority 
of these were settled before the close of the year. There are at the pres- 
ent time 10 cases in 2 candy factories pending and 18 cases in 1 stationery 
goods and envelopes establishment advertised for non-compliance. 

Non-compliances outstanding under the candy decree represent .2 
percent of the employees for whom records were secured, and 1.7 in the 
case of the establishments. In the case of the stationery goods and en- 
velopes decree, the non-compliances in the firm advertised represents .4 
percent with respect to the employees, and 1.3 percent with respect to 
establishments. 



t See note on Table II, following. 

it See note on this subject on Table II, following. 

• Of the cases pending at the close of the year the following are in firms previously adver- 
tised : laundry, 397 cases in 20 establishments ; retail stores, 321 cases in 16 establishments rep- 
resenting 9 firms ; paper box, 79 cases in 6 establishments ; druggists' preparations, 14 cases in 
2 establishments; women's clothing, 8 cases in one establishment. 

TABLE I 

Disposition of Cases of Non-Compliance Pending from 1925 

(C — Cases; E — Establishments) 



Candy . . . . 
Canning and Preserving 
Corset . . . . 
Laundry . . . i 
Milliner}' . . . ! 
Office Cleaners 
Retail Store 
Women's Clothing 



Total 



Pending 
from 
1925* 



86' 



E. 



19" 



Adjustment** 



Wages 
Raised 



25 



Earning 

Mini- 
mum on 
Piece 
Work 



C. 



E. 



Firm out 
of busi- 
ness 



Left** 



56 



E. 



10 



Pending 



7 



Men's 
Fur- 
nish- 
ings' 




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a 


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6 


5,098 
4,605 
2,784 
593 
148 
106 

4 
19 
18 

••445 


Knit Goods 


» 


00 00 »-< 1-1 OS »H 1 1 C4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


d 


ocD^corcoOi— (| |i^i 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Drug- 
gists' 
Prepara- 
tions 




m^oo5t»iO 1 1-1 Ti 1 I-* 1 1 1 1 CO 




1 1-4 1 M 1 (N 1 1 1 1 iC 
50CCC^C0i— <^ i-H 

o 


Corset 




« O O CO 1 1 »-4CC 1 CM 1 1 1 1 




^^ijih-t*C0»O 1 1 1-4® 1 P» 1 1 1 1 

cooooeocc N 

00 1-1 


Canning 

AND 

Pre- 
serving 




OOOONNX I 1 i-ti-t 1 1 « 1 1-1 1 »H 


d 


P5 o CO •4i« 00 US 1 1 1-41-* 1 1 00 1 eo 1 « 

iCOQ-^Mi-i 1-4 


o 

1' 

Q 

6 




IC «e « 05 O "5 -4 1-4 1 1 1 «© 1 1 IN 
1-4 1-1 00 N N CVJ 


d 


MN^OO"5i-4i-4 1 1 ^ 1 CSI 1 1 IO 

S^*0 1-4 1-4 1-4 


Bread 

AND 

Bakery 




ec e<5 00 >o kC>o i i i i I I i i I I I 


d 


IC N «0 CC CO CO 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Disposition of Cases 


Records for tabulation and estab. represented 

Compliance at inspection 

Establishments with full compliance and cases 
Cases of non-compliance 

Wages raised 

Earning minimum on piece work 

Covered by piece rate ruling » 

Special license, special license type or similar case" . 

Not under decree ^ 

Left" 

Firm bankrupt or out of business 



.Sc 

£§ 
* V 

sg 

2-S 
a s 



5 c 



>^ 2 >>* * 
c c " c t-Z^Ci 



■52 e2 I 



II 
g-s 

>>>> 

oca 
Is 

,ii 
=!! 

£ o o 
« >>>> 

" o o 



8 



Total 




r-i-HOOOa-.-^—OOi-tCuCCOOfNlNi-iO 
cCiCCOMu'ol'-^ CI cC 00 

CO CO c 


d 


36,454 
34,479 
22,753 
1,908 
901 
545 
43 
8 
74 
31 
44 

141 
6 
4 
18 
1,049 


"z ?- 

S 9 Z 




00 00 CO fO (N r-* 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 "-1 


d 


C-JO-^iM-tCCI 1 1 1 1 I"-!! 1 100 
o fO 


Station- 
ery CJOODS 10 


K 


ooocr. cocotJ" i—* icc io^-i l"-! 1 


d 


OCTO—irO'-"* |(M ICO 100 1 

>-':mio<noco— in --I 


r« 




O5*DO'*<!>00 lOJ'Tl |t-h iOt-i^ |(N 


d 


I>iCLO(NCn-<J<l(NI>l'-i|Ot'-^ CO 

00 CO CO CO CO 11^ 

0_CO_CD_CO^ Tf< 


Paper Box 




O>0t-(t}<C0IN "-H 


d 


■>5'(Nco.-i'^ici(N|co(Ncoc;i 1 ir- 
oo—iTj'r-xo « 00 
00 t-.co__»-« 

cocceo * 


Office 
Clean- 
ers 2 


K 


CO iC CO CO i-i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 N 




'TOO^CO'*-*! 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 l(N 


J a K 






d 


00 CO 1 lO O r-1 1 1 1 1 1 \ I 1 1 1 
(N(N 


Millin- 
ery' 




t>t^coi-i^ 




--lOlOOiMOCllr-iliCI luOl 1 IC^ 
COCNOCOCO" 

o CO CO 



TO a 



O 71 c3 Q 



o o 

& ^ 

- ^ -e ajt- 
" 2 o " i 

OJ .g CJ 

- ^ c ^ < 



CO 
05 



.2 £ H a 



p 
ft 

C V 

§ 4) ^ 



12 o 
^ 5^ 
S| 

Si's. 

J. 

« 5 
o 2 

gl 

> V 

c 2 
o c 

"S ft r- 



> 33 C3 
O 



a; J> 
fttf ^ 



1H 



IN 



•>S-S .2 

w o 
ft 

1 



w I oT o o ft 
a.S „ « < 

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' CJ r — fl 

ftc o §• 



9 

Minimum Wage Decrees Established in Massachusetts Since Enactment of the 
Minimum Wage Law {Effective July 1, 1913) to January 1, 1927 



Occupations 



Minimum 
Rate 



Date 
Entered 



Date 
Effective 



8. 



10. 

11. 
12. 
I) 13. 
I) 14. 

J) 15. 
16. 
17. 
I) 18. 
19. 
t5) 20. 

(6) 21. 

(7) 22. 

(8) 23. 

(9) 24. 

(10) 25. 

(11) 26. 

(12) 27. 

(13) 28. 



(14) 29. 

^ (15) 30. 

(16) 31. 

(17) 32. 

(18) 33. 



•Brush 

*Laundrv 

♦Retail Stores ... 

♦Women's Clothing 

♦Men's Clothing and Raincoats 

♦Men's Furnishings 

♦Mushn Underwear 

♦Retail Millinery 

♦Wholesale Millinery 

♦Office Cleaners 



♦Canning and Preserving 

♦Candy 

♦♦Corset 

♦Men'.s Clothing and Raincoats i (re 
vised) 

♦•Knit Goods 

♦♦Women's Clothing (revised) 

♦♦Paper Box 

Office Cleaners (revised) 

♦♦Minor Confectionery . 

Paper Box (revised) 

Women's Clothing (2d revised) . 

Muslin Underwear (revised) . 

♦♦Men's Furnishings (re\'i3ed) 

Retail Stores (revised) . 

Laundry (revised) .... 

Brush, 2 (revised) .... 

Druggists' Preparations and Proprie- 
tary Medicines .... 

Canning and Preserving, Minor Con 
fectionery and Food Preparations 3 
(combined and revised) 

Bread and Bakery Products 

Millinery* (combined and revised) 

Stationery Goods and Envelopes 

Candy 

Jewelry and Related Lines (revised) 



$0,155 hr. 

8.00 

8.50 

8.75 

9.00 

9.00 

9.00 
10.00 
11.00 
.30 A.M. 
.26 P.M. 
11.00 
12.50 
13.00 



15.00 
13.75 
15.25 
15.50 
15.40 
12.00 
13.50 
14.00 
13.75 
13.75 
14.00 
13.50 
13.92 

13.20 



13.00 
13.00 
13.00 
13.75 
13.00 
14.40 



June 29, 
July 1, 
Sept. 15, 
Sept. 28, 
Aug. 31, 
Oct. 26, 
July 1, 
July 1, 
Nov. 30, 

Jan. 27, 

July 21, 
July 19, 
Dec. 27, 

Dec. 27, 
Mar. 13, 
May 6, 
Mav 26, 
Dec. 30, 
Oct. 4, 
April 27, 
April 27, 
April 27, 
April 27. 
April 27, 
May 19, 
Jan. 25, 



1914 
1915 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1917 
1918 
1918 
1918 

1919 

1919 
1919 
1919 

1919 
1920 
1920 
1920 
1920 
1921 
1922 
1922 
1922 
1922 
1922 
1922 
1923 



Sept. 27, 1923 



Nov. 3,1924 
Feb. 17,1925 
Mar. 24, 1925 
Oct. 27,1925 
Jan. 26,1926 
Sept. 9, 1926 



Aug. 15, 1914 
Sept. 1,1915 



Jan. 
Feb. 
Jan. 
Feb. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Jan. 

April 

Sept. 

Jan. 

Mar. 



1, 1916 



1917 
1918 
1913 
1918 



1, 1913 
1, 1919 

1, 1919 

1, 1919 
1, 1920 
1, 1920 



Feb. 1, 

Julv 1, 

July 1, 

July 1, 

Feb. 1, 

Nov. 1, 

May 15, 

May 15, 

June 1, 

June 1, 

June 1, 

Julv 1, 

Mar. 1, 



1920 
1920 
1920 
1920 
1921 
1921 
1922 
1922 
1922 
1922 
1922 
1922 
1923 



Jan. 2, 1924 



April 1 ,1925 



May 
July 
Jan. 
Mar. 
Jan. 



1, 1925 
1, 1925 
1, 1926 
1, 1926 
1, 1927 



Obsolete 



In effect 



Obsolete 

In effect 
Obsolete 
In effect 



♦ Decree entered prior to consolidation of State Departments, December, 1919. 

♦♦ Wage boards established or authorized, or arrangements for reconvening made prior to consolidation 
of Departments, December, 1919. 

1 The Men's Clothing and Raincoat Wage Board was reconvened in 1921 to revise the existing rates. 
The board recommended a minimum rate of S14.75. This was not approved by the Comm.ission. 

2 The Brush Wage Board was reconvened in 1921. This board recommended a minimum rate of 
$14.40. This was not approved by the Commission. Another board was formed in 1922, which recom- 
mended a minimum rate of $13.92. The present decree is based on this recommpndation. 

3 This board combines the work of the former Canning and Preserving Board and the Minor Confec- 
tionery and Food Preparations Wage Board. 

■* This board combines the work of the former Retail Millinery Occupation Board and the Wholesale 
Millinery Occupation Board. Figures in ( ) refer to decrees now in effect. 



Financial Statement 
For the Year Ending November 30, 1926, for the Division of 
Minimum Wage. 



Account 
Personal Services 
Traveling and Other Expenses 
Wage Board Salaries and Expenses 



Appro- 
priation 
$11,000.00 
3,400.00 
3,000.00 



Expendi- 
tures 

$10,092.46 
2,292.03 
1,382.90 



Un- 
expended 
Balance 
$907.54 
1,107.97 
1.617.10 



$17,400.00 $13,767.39 $3,632.61 



10 



APPENDICES 



1926 
Appendix No. 1 

MEMBERSHIP* OF WAGE BOARDS IN SESSION DURING 1926. 

Jewelry and Related Lines Wage Board. 
Representing the Public. 
Charles R. Cabot, Esquire, Chairman, 19 Congress St., Boston. 
Miss Annette Crocker, Box 603, Brookline 
Mr. Henry Stuart, Boston Provident Association, 
41 Hawkins Street, Boston. 



Representing Employers. 

Mr. W. H. Blake, 

James E. Blake Company, 

Attleboro. 
Mr. Harvey E. Clap, 

Harvey E. Clap Company, 

Attleboro. 
Mr. Samuel Holman, Jr., 

J. M. Fisher Company, 

Attleboro. 
Mr. Charles W. Potter, 

515-539 South Street, 

Waltham. 
Mr. George E. Nerney, 

Bay State Optical Company, 

Attleboro. 
Mr. Donald LeStage, 

0. M. Draper Corporation, 

North Attleboro. 



Representing Employees. 

Mrs. Sarah E. Blake, 

13 Richards Avenue, 

North Attleboro. 
Miss Eva Daigle, 

652 Main Street, 

Southbridge. 
Miss Vida Fisher, 

23 Pine Street, 

Attleboro. 
Miss B. Pauline Martel, 

43 Central Street, 

Southbridge. 
Mr. John J. McKenna, 

54 Bedford Street, 

Waltham. 
Mr. Henry J. Moynihan, 

88 Selden Street, 

Dorchester. 



Toys, Games and Sporting Goods Wage Board 
Representing the Public. 
Mrs. Helen A. Baldwin, Chairman, 52 Oakland St., Medford, Mass. 

Representing the Employees. 

Miss Ella Gebo, 
64 Bliss St., 
Springfield, Mass. 
Miss Amelia Modena, 
51 Montgomery St., 
Westfield, Mass. 
Miss Chipley A. Novisky, 
58 Pine St., 
Athol, Massachusetts. 



Representing the Employers. 
Mr. W. E. Faulkner, 
Wright and Ditson Victor Co., 
Springfield, Massachusetts. 
Mr. Howard C. Turner, 
Parker Brothers, 
Salem, Massachusetts. 
Mr. H. H. Young, Treasurer, 
J. L. Hammett Co., 
Kendall Square, 
Cambridge , Massachusetts. 

for J'ggs'"^"^^^^^^^^ Candy Wage Board was printed in the report; 



11 



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« c 




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il 



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12 



Appendix No. 3. 

COST OF LIVING BUDGETS ADOPTED BY WAGE BOARDS 
DURING THE YEAR 



ITEMb 


Candy 
Board 
Recon- 
vened 

( November, 
1925) 


Jewelry 
and Re- 
lated 
Lines 
Board 
(June, 
1926) 


Toys, 

Games and 
Sporting 
Goods 
Board 
( November, 
1926) 


Board and lodging 


$8.00 


$8.00 


$8.00 


Clothing 


2.00 


2.65 


3.00 


Laundry 


.25 


.25 


.35 


Doctor, dentist and occulist 


.50 


.40 


.40 


Carfares 


.80 


.35 


.35 


Church 


.15 


.35 


.15 


Self -improvement 


.15 


.35 


.20 


Vacation 


.25 


.50 


.25 


Recreation 


.25 


.50 


.25 


Reserve for emergency 


.25 


.75 


.20* 


Mutual association dues 


.15 


.10 


.10 


Insurance 




.25 




Incidentals 


.25 


.50 


.25 


TOTAL PER WEEK 


$13.00** 


$14.95 


$13.50 



*To include insurance where desired. 

**The Candy Budget was adopted in 1925, but included here as revised report of board wt 
submitted in 1926. 



Sfie CotnmontDealtt) of fAasaat^vatM 



t,: DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 

^ REPORT 



DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE 



REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 



FOR THE 



Year ending November 30, 1927 



OFFICIALS 

Commissioner Assistant Commissioner 

E. LEROY SWEETSER ETHEL M. JOHNSON 

Associate Commissioners 

(Constituting the Division of Minimum Wage and the Board of 
Conciliation and Arbitration) 

EDWARD FISHER HERBERT P. WASGATT 

SAMUEL ROSS 




Publication op this Document approved by the Commission on Administratiov anp Finance 
800. 7- '28. Order 2394 ^ 



2 



REPORT OF THE MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION 

Edward Fisher, Chairman, Herbert P, Wasgatt, Samuel Ross. 
Ethel M. Johnso'n^ Aeimg» Director. 

Outline of Functions. 

The duties of the Minimum Wage Commission under the law com- 
prise the following functions: investigating the wages of women em- 
ployees in occupations when there is reason to believe that the wages of 
a substantial number are below the requirements of healthful living; 
establishing wage boards to recommend minimum rates of wages for 
women and minors ; entering wage decrees based on the recommendations 
of the boards; inspecting to determine compliance with the decrees; and 
publishing the results of its findings. 

An account of the work conducted during the year along these lines is 
given in the summary following. 

Summary of Work in 1927 

Inspections 

Minimum Wage work during 1927 has been confined mainly to inspec- 
tion to determine compliance with the wage decrees. This requires the 
major part of the time of the minimum wage staff as there are now de- 
crees in effect in nineteen different occupations throughout the state. 

Initial inspections were made under the two decrees that went into 
operation this year — the decree for jewelry, optical goods and related lines 
and that for toys, games and sporting goods and related lines. In addi- 
tion partial inspections were made under the women's clothing, retail 
store, and office and other building cleaners decrees. The work under 
the last mentioned decrees is in progress at the close of the period cov- 
ered by this report. Inspection on complaint was also made in several 
instances under other decrees. 

In view of the requirements of the inspection work, no new wage 
studies were undertaken this year as a basis for future wage boards. In- 
vestigation as the result of complaints was made in the case of individual 
establishments engaged in the manufacture of rag rugs and curtains. 

Wage Boards 

Wage boards were authorized for two occupations where investigations 
had been made in previous years. These were for the electrical equip- 
ment and supplies anrl the boot and shoe cut stock and findings indus- 
tries. The membership of these boards has not been completed. No 
boards have been in session during the year. 

Publications ■ 

Minimum wage publications issued are the annual report and the leaf- 
lets giving the provisions of the statements and decrees. These include 
for the present year the reprint from the section of the annual report of 
the department dealing with minimum wage matters, and the statement 
and. decree for the toys, games and sporting goods occupation. 

Ophferences and Hearings 
* A puDlic hearing was held by the Commission on the determinations 
ot the wage hoard for the toys, games and sporting goods occupation, 
December "30, 1926. Following this a decree for the occupation was en- 
tered efTectwe March 1, 1927. 

A number of individual conferences were held by the Commission and 
by the Aiisistant Commissioner with employers regarding the adjustment 
of cases of non-compliance in their establishments. The Assistant Com- 



missioner has interviewed tke candidates for the wage boards which are 
being organized and addressed a number of meetings to explain the mini- 
mum wage law and the work of the wage boards. 

Inspection Work 

Inspections have been initiated or completed during the year under five 
wage decrees. These cover the following occupations: jewelry and re- 
lated lines; toys, games and sporting goods; office cleaners; retail stores 
and women's clothing. With the exception of jewelry and toys and games, 
where complete initial inspections were made, the work represents a par- 
tial inspection only — completing or continuing inspections initiated the 
preceding year, or starting inspections that will be continued the follow- 
ing year. In addition to this work, inspection was made on complaint 
or in connection with other inspection work, in the case of one or more 
firms under the bread and bakery, brush, candy, corset, laundry, muslin 
underwear and paper box decrees. 

In connection with this work 5258 establishment visits were made by 
the Commission's investigators. Wage records were secured for 22,217 
women and girls in 2232 establishments. This is in addition to a large 
number of reinspection visits to establishments under the various de- 
crees in the effort to adjust cases of non-compliance. 

Womer\!s Clothing and Office Building Cleaners 

The inspection under the women's clothing decree was initiated the 
previous year. The work in both years represents a partial inspection 
confined mainly to the metropolitan district. That under the office and 
other building cleaners decree was started in the latter part of the pres- 
ent year and is still in progress. It is the third general inspection under 
the present decree. 

Retail Stores 

A complete inspection under the retail store decree, the second since 
the present decree became effective, was initiated in the latter part of 
the preceding year, and carried on during the present year. This work 
will be completed in 1928. The present inspection is more comprehensive 
than the preceding one which was confined to places of over 5,000 inhabi- 
tants. The major part of the field work for the year has been confined 
to this inspection. The work has been completed in metropolitan Boston 
and the eastern part of the state. 

In Boston alone, wage records suitable for the tabulation of weekly 
rates were secured for 11,488 women and girls. • The- rates of these em- 
ployees by occupations are given in Table 1. This presents the wage 
situation at the time of the inspection and does not show the adjustments 
following. The rates included are those for all women and girls regard- 
less of age or experience. It should be noted that the minimum rates un- 
der the retail store decree vary according to the age and experience of 
the employee. These rates are $10, $12, and $14 a week. In this con- 
nection the rates in effect are of interest. Less than two percent of the 
employees had rates below $10 a week. Only one-tenth had rates below 
$12 a week, and approximately one-fifth had rates below $14 a week. 
Nearly two-thirds had rates of $15 a week and over. 



4 



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1 

W Jewelry and Related Lines 

The decree for the jewelry occupation went into effect January 1, 1927. 
This provides a minimum rate of $14.40 a week for experienced women 
over twenty years of age and $12 a week for all others. The inspection 
was conducted during February and March. Wage records for tabulation 
were secured for 4307 women and girls in 131 establishments, more than 
one-third of whom were piece rate workers. Of the 2410 women on 
weekly rates, 23.5 percent at the time of inspection were scheduled to re- 
ceive below $14 a week. At the preliminary investigation 34.4 percent 
of the time rate workers in all the establishments included had rates be- 
low $14 a week. A comparison of the rates of women in the same 35 
establishments included in the investigation and the subsequent inspec- 
tion shows at the investigation seven percent with rates below $12 and 
34 percent with rates below $14; while at the inspection only 1.4 percent 
had rates below $12 a week and 17.4 percent below $14 a week. (Table 2) 
There was compliance at the time of inspection in 4042 cases. In 102 
establishments, representing 1534 employees, all necessary adjustments 
had been made prior to the inspection so that these establishments showed 
full compliance. There were found 265 cases of non-compliance in 28 
establishments. The majority of these have been adjusted. There are 
pending at the close of the year, 125 cases in six establishments. These 
non-compliances are mainly in the optical goods branch and in the firms 
manufacturing the cheaper grades of jewelry, 

TABLE II 

Comparison of Weekly Rates of Women Employed in the Same 35 Estab- 
lishments Included in the Preliminary Investigation and in the 
^Subsequent Inspection Engaged in the Manufacture of 
Jewelry and Related Lines in Massachusetts. (Cumulative) 

(August 1923 through October, 1923 and February 1927 through March, 

1927) 



Number and Per Cent of Women with Rates 



Year 


Un- 
der 
$9 


Un- 
der 
$10 


Un- 
der 
$11 


Un- 
der 
$12 


Un- 
der 
$13 


Un- 
der 
$14 


Un- 
der 
$15 


Un- 
der 
$16 


Un- 
der 
$17 


Un- 
der 
$18 


Un- 
der 
$19 


Un- 
der 
$20 


$20 

and 
Over 


Total 


1923 






























Number . 


14 


57 


98 


106 


287 


524 


735 


898 


1,104 


1.185 


1,264 


] .362 


162 


1,524 


Per cent . 


.9 


3.7 


6.4 


6.9 


18. 8^34. 4 


48.2 


58.9 


72.4 


77.8 


82.9 


89.4 


10.6 


100. 


1927 

Number . 
Per cent . 




5 
.4 


15 
1.3 


17 
1.4 


168 
14.1 


207 
17.4 


486 
40.8 


573 
48.2 


783 
58.0 


830 
65.8 


907 
76.2 


1.015 

85.3 


175 
14.7 


1.190 
100 



* Decree effective January 1, 1927. 



Toys, Games and Sporting Goods 

The toys, games and sporting goods occupation decree went into effect 
March 1, 1927. It provides a minimum rate of $13.50 a week for women 
18 years of age and over with one year's experience in the occupation 
and special rates of $10.50 and $12 for inexperienced workers according 
to age. Inspection under this decree was started in March and completed 
in May. Wage records were secured for 1156 women and girls in 37 es- 
tablishments. The majority of these women were piece workers, less 
than one-third being on time rates. 

Of those for whom time rates were available, only 3.3 percent at the 
time of the inspection had rates below $12 a week. There were 40.8 per- 
cent, however, with rates below $14 a week indicating that a considerable 
number were receiving close to the minimum rate ($13.50). ^ # 

Comparison of the wage situation in the same firms at the preliminary 



6 

investigation prior to the establishment of a wage board with that found 
at the initial inspection after the entrance of the decree is given in Table 
3. At the investigation, 20.5 percent of the women in all the establish- 
ments included had rates below $12.00 a week and 50 percent below $14 
a week. The subsequent inspection showed only 3.3 percent of the women 
in all the establishments included with rates below $12 a week; and 41 
percent with rates below $14 a week. The corresponding figures for the 
same ten firms included in th© investigation and the inspection are as 
follows: At the investigation, 16.5 percent of the women had rates below 
$12 a week; and 49.4 percent had rates below $14 a week. At the in- 
spection only 2.6 percent had rates below $12 a week and 22.4 percent, 
below $14 a week. 

TABLE III. 

Compariso7i of Weekly Rates of Women Employed in the Same 10 Estab- 
lishments Included in the Preliminary Investigation and in the 
^Subsequent Inspection Engaged in the Manufacture of 
Toys, Games and Sporting Goods. (Cumulative) 

(May through July, 1924 and March through May, 1927) 



Number and Per Cent of Women with Rates 



Year 


Un- 
der 
f9 


Un- 
der 
$10 


Un- 
der 
$11 


Un- 
der 
$12 


Un- 
der 
$13 


Un- 
der 
$14 


Un 
der 
$15 


Un- 
der 
$16 


Un- 
der 
$17 


Un- 
der 
$18 


Un- 
der 
$19 


Un- 
der 
$20 


$20 

and 
Over 


Total 


1924 






























Number . 




7 


15 


27 


58 


81 


96 


126 


140 


143 


152 


156 


8 


164 


Per cent . 


.6 


4.3 


9.1 


16.5 


35.4 


49.4 


58.5 


76.3 


85.4 


87.2 


92.7 


95.1 


4.9 


100. 


1927 

Number . 
Per cent . 








5 

2.6 


28 
14.6 


43 
22.4 


82 
42.7 


94 

49.0 


128 
66.7 


135 
70.3 


153 

79.7 


164 
85.4 


28 
14.6 


192 
100. 



♦ Decree effective March 1, 1927. 



Adjustments of non-compliances under the decrees are shown in Table 
5 following the section on Enforcement. In 28 establishments, repre- 
senting 804 cases, all necessary adjustments had been made prior to the 
inspection visit so that there was at that time full compliance. There 
were in all 1117 cases showing compliance at the time of inspection. 
There were 38 cases of non-compliance in nine establishments. Most of 
these have been adjusted so that there are only two cases outstanding in 
one establishment at the close of the year. These will probably be ad- 
justed. 

Enforcement of Wage Decrees 
Disposition of Non-compliances, Pending from Previous Year 

At the beginning of the fiscal year there were pending from the pre- 
ceding year 1050 cases of non-compliances in 86 firms. The greater part 
of these were in 32 retail stores, in 30 laundries, and in 11 paper box 
factories. There were in addition a few cases in one or two firms under 
each of the following decrees : candy, canning and preserving, druggists' 
compounds, men's furnishings, millinery, office cleaners and women's 
clothing. 

Nearly all of the cases were in firms previously advertised for non- 
compliance with the wage decrees. It was, therefore, possible to secure 
adjustment in only a small proportion of these. In 79 cases wages were 
raised or the employees, through change of work or method of payment, 
were able to earn the minimum. In 20 additional cases adjustment was 
reported. Three cases were recorded as special license type. There were 
488 cases in 37 firms advertised during the year. The majority of these 
Were in 25 laundries 17 of which had previously been advertised for non- 
compliance. The remaining cases covered by advertisement were in five 



r 



7 

paper box factories, representing republication in each instance save one; 
in two candy factories, two druggists' compounds establishments; and 
one establishment under each of the following decrees: canning and pre- 
serving, men's furnishings and women's clothing. There are still pend- 
ing 366 cases in 26 establishments, nearly all in retail stores where the 
second inspection since the entrance of the present decree, is in progress. 
An outline showing in detail the disposition of the cases left from 1926 
under the new decree is given in Table 4. 

Disposition of New Cases of No7i-compliance 

In connection with the reinspection made in attempting to adjust the 
cases of non-compliance pending from the preceding year, there were 
found 34 new cases of non-compliance in seven of the firms. Adjustment 
has been secured in ten of these cases, leaving at the end of the present 
year 24 cases in four firms. These are in addition to the 366 cases listed 
in Table 4 as pending from 1926. 



I 



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r 

Summary of Adjitstments in Inspections for 1927 

In the regular inspection work for the year, wage records were secured 
for 22,217 women and girls in 2232 establishments under 12 decrees. In 
18,579 of these cases there was compliance with the decrees at the time 
of inspection. There were 1796 establishments, representing 9948 cases 
with full compliance at the first inspection visit. In 455 establishments, 
however, there were 3294 cases of non-compliance. The majority of these 
cases came in firms under the retail store decree where the inspection 
initiated in the fall of 1926 is still in progress. 

Of the non-compliances, 905 in 284 establishments were disposed of 
before the close of the year. In 525 cases adjustment was made by rais- 
ing wages, reducing hours, changing employees from time to piece work 
or transferring them to another kind of work where they could earn the 
minimum. In 97 additional cases in 35 establishments adjustment was 
reported or promised by the end of the fiscal year. There were 15 cases 
recorded as special license type or covered by the piece rate ruling. In 
223 cases representing 68 establishments, the employees left. There were 
only two reported as discharged in one establishm.ent. In five cases, 
representing four establishments, the firms w^ent out of business during 
the year. There were 14 cases in a firm advertised in 1927. 

There are pending at the close of the year 2389 cases in 202 establish- 
ments. The majority of these are in 186 retail stores, many of which 
have previously been advertised. Part of the remaining cases will prob- 
ably be adjusted during the following year through the reinspections 
after the regular inspection has been completed. In connection with these 
cases under the retail store decree, it should be noted that the inspection 
has not been completed; also that the work this year represents the ini- 
tial inspection in the case of establishments in the smaller towns. 

A summary of the adjustments made during the year under the various 
decrees is given in Table 5 following. 



10 



►J K « 
m Q < 




(NM'-i'-'-i'^ 1 1 1 1 1-1 1 1 1 1 1 ^ 




t^cr^t^;Di« 1 1 1 1 <-< 1 1 1 1 1 -H 


Laundry ' 




M^^OT^'^tl^^ i i i i i i i i i 


O 


OOOlOCiiCl 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 \ •^■^ 
•— 1 


>< 

U 


K 


1-1 i-H (N 00 OC rO 1 1 rHiCMGO 1 »-i 1 « 
CC C IN IN >-i 




I^iNTjiiOOXCr-l IMt>lNO|(NI>C 
a^CCO-^^^ iO IN 


OQ 

O 
O 




1 ^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 




1 fC 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M 


Candy 1 




TfTfCC^^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 « 1 1 1 




cci^«coe-) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (N 1 1 1 ^ 

O0> 0(N (N 00 










C<JC^1 1 _rt,-H 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Bread and 
Other Bak- 
ery Prod- 

tJCTS 




(NMIN 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


d 


NININ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



^ o 

g ^ 
t u 

5 c Q C C 0} 

_3 c V a r: 

■■iH S -g c E >- c jj a^ c (N 

oj S-S o s J.S u rt g 2 => E 2 



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ID .2 

o ^ 

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s 

1 i 

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^ ^ C 

o « O 

« 2 00 



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S o <u-^ <a ai u 

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« oJ^ oa § a, § o 



2 



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it <c 

.S 

S « 

^ I 

M O 

« >> 

I 1 

I I 

a 



Total 




11 


d 


M.'O C<1_C2 M CO 


Women's 
Clothing' 




00 « C*5 (N 1 1 1 1 1 IN^ 1 1 1 1 

»o »o 


d 


COOOSOOCJ 1 1 1 1 1 •N O 1 1 1 1 
t>. ;C 1— 1 »-i 

(N(N<N 


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S K Q 
<! P O 

OA o 
§ c 




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CCCOtN 


d 


CO 00 O 00 ?5 1 1 I 1 1 lO 1 1 1 M 


P 




MO»0(N0SCC It*^ lrt?5i-'5»-iC0 |CO 
-HNCOC. Mrf T-itO 'itO 00 

t^tOfO«M.-H ^ 


d 


13.815 
10,711 
6,144 
2,767 
637 
385 

19 

85 

3 
20 
120 
2 
3 

2,130 


Paper 




Tt PO <-H -H 1 1 1 1 -1 1 1 -( 1 1 1 1 


d 


et^coMM 1 i 1 1 iH 1 1 ^ 1 1 1 1 

O C 00 


Office 
Cleaners 3 




TjfiCt^Tj-oeoiM-*! 1 1 1 1 1 l"5 
t^cccOi-H 


d 


CM Tfi O 00 (N 1 cO!N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 CO 
^ CO O CC »^ f— t ^ 



5 

c « 



« So"-- * 
03 



2 

3 O 



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c o » oj C 



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5 «i« S" -5 e S 5 



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J a; 5 S.' 3 ** 

ST.- o i i " 5 



12 



Status of Minimum Wage Decrees 



Minimum Wage Decrees Established in Massachusetts Since Enactmeni 
of the Minimum Wage Law (Effective July 1, 1913) to Januxiry 1, 1928 



Occupations Covered 


Minimum 


Date 


Date 




Rate 


Entered 


Effective 


Status 


1. 


•Brush 


$0,155 hr. 


June 29, 1914 


Aug. 


15, 1914 


Obsolete 


2. 


•Laundry 


S.OO 


July 1, 1915 


Sept. 


1, 1915 




3. 


•Retail Stores 


8.50 


Sept. 15, 1915 


Jan. 


1, 1916 




4. 


•Women's Clothing .... 


8.75 


Sept. 28, 1916 


Feb. 


1, 1917 




5. 


•Men's Clothing and Raincoats . 


9.00 


Aug. 31, 1917 


Jan. 


1, 1918 




6. 


•Men's Furnishings .... 


9.00 


Oct. 26, 1917 


Feb. 


1, 1918 




7. 


•Muslin Underwear .... 


9.00 


July 1, 1918 


Aug. 


1, 1918 




8. 


♦Retail Millinery 


10.00 


July 1, 1918 


Aug. 


1.1918 




9. 


•Wholesale Millinery .... 


11.00 


Nov. 30, 1918 


Jan. 


1. 1919 


" 


10. 


•Office Cleaners 


.30 A M. 
.26 P.M. 


Jan. 27 1919 


April 


1, 1919 




11. 


•Canning and Preserving 

•Candy 


11.00 


July 21,1919 


Sept. 


1, 1919 


" 


12. 


12..50 


July 19, 1919 


Jan. 


1, 1920 




(1) 13. 


••Corset 


18,00 


Dec. 27,1919 


Mar. 


1, 1920 


In effect 


(2) 14. 


•Men's Clothing and Raincoats i (re- 
















Dec. 27,1919 


Feb. 


1, 1920 




(3) 15. 


♦•Knit Goods 


13.75 


Mar. 13, 1920 


July 


1, 1920 




16. 


••Women's Clothing (revised) 


15.25 


May 6, 1920 


July 


1, 1920 


Obsolete 


17. 


••Paper Box 


15.50 


May 26, 1920 


July 


1, 1920 


(4) 18. 


Office Cleaners (revised) 


15.40 


Dec. 30, 1920 


Feb. 


1. 1921 


In effect 


19. 


••Minor Confectionery .... 


12.00 


Oct. 4, 1921 


Nov. 


1.1921 


Obsolete 


(5) 20. 


Paper Box (revised) .... 


13.50 


April 27, 1922 


May 15, 1922 


In effect 


(6) 21. 


Women's Clothing (2d revised) . 


14.00 


April 27, 1922 


May 


15, 1922 


" 


(7) 22. 


Mushn Underwear (revised) 


13.75 


April 27, 1922 


June 


1, 1922 




(8) 23. 


••Men's Furnishings (revised) 


13.75 


April 27, 1922 


June 


1, 1922 




(9) 24. 


Retail Stores (revised) .... 


14.00 


April 27, 1922 


June 


1, 1922 




(10) 25. 


Laundry (revised) 


13.50 


May 19, 1922 


July 


1, 1922 




(11) 26. 


Brush, 2 (revised) 

Druggists' Preparations and Proprie- 


13.92 


Jan. ZD, ly^d 


Mar. 


1, 1923 




(12) 27. 










tary Medicines 


13.20 


Sept. 27, 1923 


Jan. 


2, 1924 




(13) 28. 


Canning and Preserving, Minor Con- 
fectionery and Food Preparations 3 








(14) 29. 


(combined and revised) 


13.00 


Nov. 3,1924 


April 


1, 1925 




Bread and Bakery Products . 


13.00 


Feb. 17,1925 


May 


1, 1925 




(15) 30. 


Millinery* (combined and revised) 


13.00 


Mar. 24, 1925 


July 


1, 1925 




(16) 31. 


Stationery Goods and Envelopes 


13.75 


Oct. 27,1925 


Jan. 


1, 1926 




(17) 32. 


Candy (revised) 


13.00 


Jan. 26,1926 


Mar. 


1, 1926 




(18) 33. 


Jewelry and Related Lines . 


14.40 


Sept. 9, 1926 


Jan. 


1, 1927 




(19) 34. 


Toys, Games and Sporting Goods 


13.50 


Jan. 1, 1927 


Mar. 


1, 1927 





• Decree entered prior to consolidation of State Departments, December, 1919. 

•• Wage boards established or authorized, or arrangements for reconvening made prior to consolidation 
of Departments, December, 1919. 

1 The Men's Clothing and Raincoat Wage Board was reconvened in 1921 to revise the existing rates. 
The board recommended a minimum rate of $14.75. This was not approved by the Commission. 

2 The Brush Wage Board was reconvened in 1921. This board recommended a minimum rate of 
$14.40. This was not approved by the Commission. Another board was formed in 1922, which recom- 
mended a minimum rate of .$13.92. The present decree is based on this recommendation. 

3 This board combines the work of the former Canning and Preserving Board and the Minor Confec- 
tionery and Food Preparations Wage Board. 

, ^,This board combines the work of the former Retail Millinery Occupation Board and the Wholesale 
Milhnery Occupation Board. 

5 Figures in parentheses ( ) refer to decrees now in effect. 



13 



QIC 



«5 



9 OS 



o c 
c r » o. 

u o o 

« Co 



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£ >>.2 

Ha 



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u 

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S) 4) 



H 



14 

Financial Statement 

For the Year Ending November 30, 1927, for the Division of Minimum 

Wage. Un- 

Appro- Expendi- expendei 
Account priation tures Balance 

Personal Services . - • $11,560.00 $10,552.74 $1,007.26 

Contingent and Traveling Expenses 3,300.00 2,542.07* 757.93 

Wage Boards, Salaries and Expenses 2,500.00 182.32 2,317.6& 

Total $17,360.00 $13,277.13 $4,082,871 



♦Not including outstanding bill estimated at $50. 



®t>e Commontoealtl) of fHaggacfjus^etttf "IB 



DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 

REPORT 

OF THE 

DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE 



REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 



Year ending November 30, 1928 



OFFICIALS 

Commissioner Assistant Commissioner 

E. LEROY SW'EETSER ETHEL M. JOHNSON 

Associate Commissioners 

(Constituting the Division of Minimum Wage and the Board of 
Conciliation and Arbitration) 

EDWARD FISHER HERBERT P. WASGATT 

SAMUEL ROSS 




PUBUCATION OF THIS DOCUMENT APPROVED BY THE COMMISSION ON ADMINISTRATION AND FINANCE 

SOC— 5-'29. Order 57c8. ^ 



JAN ivm 

REPORT OF THE MI^^l^N^^^GE COMMISSION 

Edward Fisher, Chairman, Herbert P. Wasgatt, Samuel Ross, 
Ethel M. Johnson, Acting Director. 

Outline of Functions 

The duties of the minimum wage commission under the law comprise 
the following functions: Investigating the wages of women employees in 
occupations when there is reason to believe that the wages of a substan- 
tial number are below the requirements of healthful living; establishing 
wage boards to recommend minimum rates of wages for women and 
minors; entering wage decrees based on the recommendations of the 
boards; inspecting to determine compliance with the decrees; and pub- 
lishing the results of their findings. 

An account of the work conducted during the year along these lines is 
given in the summary following. 

Summary of Work in 1928 

Inspections 

As in the preceding year, the major part of the minimum wage work 
conducted during 1928 has been devoted to inspection to determine com- 
pliance with the wage decrees. Practically all of the field work now car- 
ried on is confined to inspections, as there are wage decrees in effect in 
twenty different occupations. 

Inspection has been carried on during the year under twelve decrees. 
In the case of eight decrees the inspection was initiated and completed, 
before the close of the fiscal year. In the case of the other decrees, the 
work represents continuing work started in 1926 or 1927 or work that was 
initiated during the present year and is still in progress at the close of 
the year. Inspection on complaint or in connection with other work was 
made in the case of one or more establishments under seven other decrees. 

With the program of inspection work it has not been possible to under- 
take any new wage studies during the year as the basis for establishing 
further wage boards. Investigation on complaint has been made in the 
case of individual establishments engaged in the manufacture of artificial 
flowers and wreaths and in mail advertising service. 

Wage Boards 

The two wage boards authorized in 1927 have been established. These 
are the boards for the electrical equipment and supplies and the boot and 
shoe cut stock and findings occupations. The board for electrical equip- 
ment and supplies completed its work and submitted a report of its de- 
terminations in the spring. The other board was started in the late fall. 
It is still in session at the close of the present year. 

Publicatio7is 

The minimum wage publications issued are the reprints from the an- 
nual report for the department summarizing the w^ork of the division of 
minimum wage for the year and the leaflets outlining the provisions of 
the decrees entered. These include for 1928, thf* veprint from the annual 
report and the statement and decree for the electrical equipment and sup- 
plies occupation. 

The commission has discontinued the publication of the bulletins giving 
the results of the wage investigations and inspections. This material is 
available in mimeographed form for consultation in the division office. 

Wage Decrees 

A decree establishing a minimum rate of wages for women and girls 
employed m establishments manufacturing electrical equipment and sup- 



plies was entered by the commission on April 5, 1928, effective June 1st 
of that year. This action was taken following a public hearing, March 
27, 1928, on the determinations of the wage board formed for the occu- 
pation. 

Advertisement of Non-Compliance 

During the year the commission advertised one firm under the candy 
decree and six firms under the jewelry and related lines occupation decree. 
The inspection work was not completed under the other decrees in time 
to permit publication, in the cases where such action appeared necessary, 
before the close of the year. 

Conferences 

As in previous years, a number of conferences have been held by the 
commission and by the assistant commissioner with the employers re- 
garding the adjustment of cases of non-compliance in their establish- 
ments. Opportunity for such conferences is offered in every instance be- 
fore publication. The assistant commissioner has interviewed the can- 
didates for the wage boards established during the year and has addressed 
a number of meetings to explain the minimum wage law and the work of 
the wage boards. 

Wage Board Work 
Electrical Equipment and Supplies Board 

A wage board of fifteen members was established by the commission 
to recommend a minimum rate of wages for women and girls employed 
in the manufacture of electrical equipment and supplies. The board held 
eight meetings, the first on January 13, 1928, the last on March 5th, when 
a report signed by fourteen of the members was submitted. The board 
estimated the cost of living for a self-supporting woman in the occupation 
as $14 a week. They recommended that $14 be established as the mini- 
mum rate for a woman of ordinary ability and that a special rate of 
$12.00 be fixed for those with less than six months' experience. The com- 
mission after provisionally approving this report and holding a public 
hearing as provided by law, entered a decree based on the determinations 
of the board effective June 1, 1928. 

Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findings Board 

As a result of the investigation of the wages of women employed in the 
boot and shoe cut stock and findings occupation made in 1924, a wage 
board was established for the occupation. This board is composed of fif- 
teen members, six representatives of employers in the occupation, six rep- 
resentatives of the women employees and three representatives of the 
public, one of whom was designated chairman. The board has held 5 
meetings, the first on October 22, 1928, and is still in session at the close 
of the period covered by this report. 

Inspection Work 

The inspections conducted during the year come under the following 
decrees: — bread and bakery, candy, canning and preserving, corset, elec- 
trical equipment and supplies, laundry, men's furnishings, millinery, mus- 
Hh underwear, office cleaners, retail stores and women's clothing. In the 
case of the electrical equipment and supplies occupation decree, which be- 
came effective during the year, a complete initial inspection was made. 
The inspections under the retail stores and office building cleaners decrees 
represented completion of work begun in a previous year. The work un- 
der the candy and laundry decrees is still in progress. In the case of the 
other decrees mentioned the work was started and completed during the 
year. This is aside from the reinspections preliminary to the publication 



4 

of non-compliances, the major part of which is carried over to the fol- 

^^rTaddltion to the regular inspection work, inspection on complaint or 
in connection with other work was made in the case of one or more estab- 
lishments under each of the following decrees: — paper box, stationery 
goods and envelopes, knit goods, men's clothing and raincoats, brush, 
druggists' preparations and toys and games. 

In the course of the year, wage records for 31,641 women and girls 
were secured from 1,363 establishments. This is exclusive of the rein- 
spection visits made in the effort to adjust the cases of non-compliance 
investigated at the beginning of the year or those discovered in connec- 
tion with the regular inspection work. 

Electrical Equipment and Supplies Decree 

The decree for the electrical equipment and supplies occupation, pro- 
viding a minimum rate of $14 a week for women of ordinary ability and 
$12 for beginners, became effective June 1, 1928. Inspection to determine 
compliance was started that month and completed in the following No- 
vember. Wage records were secured for 5,434 women and girls in 74 
establishments. More than one-half of these women were employed on a 
piece work basis. 

Of the 2,099 women on time rates, 13.6 per cent had scheduled rates 
below $12 a week as compared with 22.7 per cent at the time of the pre- 
liminary investigation; 41.3 per cent had rates below $14 a week as com- 
pared with 59 per cent at the previous investigation. (Table I) 

TABLE I. 

Weekly Rates of Women Employed in the Electrical Equipment and Sup- 
plies Occupation in Massachusetts. Comparative Table (Cumulative) 



Investigation of 25 establishments — March through May, 1925 









Number and 


Per 


Cent 


OF Workers with Rates 








Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


$20 






der 


der 


der 


der 


der 


der 


der 


der 


der 


der 


der 


der 


and 


Total 




$9 


sio 


$11 


$12 


$13 


$14 


$15 


$16 


$17 


$18 


$19 


$20 


Over 




Number 


41 


74 


92 


149 


277 


387 


475 


547 


577 


602 


621 


632 


24 


656 


Per cent 


6.3 


11.3 


14.0 


22.7 


42.2 


59.0 


72.4 


83.3 


88.0 


91.8 


94.7 


96.3 


3.7 


100. 



Inspection of 70 Establishments — June through November, 1928 



Number and Per Cent of Workers With Rates 





Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


Un- 


$20 






der 


der 


der 


der 


der 


der 


der 


der 


der 


der 


der 


der 


and 


Total 




$9 


$10 


$11 


$12 


$13 


$14 


$15 


$16 


$17 


$18 


$19 


$20 


Over 




Number 


160 


202 


233 


286 


726 


867 


1.196 


1,382 


1,583 


1,661 


1,755 


1,905 


194 


2,099 


Per cent 


7.6 


9.6 


11.1 


13.6 


34.6 


41.3 


57.0 


65.8 


75.4 


79.1 


83.6 


90.8 


9.2 


100. 



5 



TABLE II. 

Comparison of Weekly Rates of Women Employed in the Manufacture of 
Electrical Equipment and Supplies in Massachusetts in 16 of the 
Same Establishments Included in the Preliminary Imestigation 
and in the Subsequent Inspection. (Cumulative) 

(March through May, 1925 and June through November, 1928.) 



Year 


Number and Per Cent of Women with Rates 


Un- 
der 
$9 


Un- 
der 
$10 


Un- 
der 
$11 


Un- 
der 
$12 


Un- 
der 
$13 


Un- 
der 
$14 


Un- 
der 
$15 


Un- 
der 
$16 


Un- 
der 
$17 


Un- 
der 
$18 


Un- 
der 
$19 


Un- 
der 
$20 


$20 
and 
Over 


Total 


1925 
Investigation 
Prior to decree 

Number 

Per cent 




8 

2.0 


15 
3.8 


62 
15.8 


142 
36.2 


211 
53.8 


257 
65.6 


297 
75.8 


322 
82.1 


341 
87.0 


358 
91.3 


368 
93.9 


24 
6.1 


392 
100. 


1928 
Inspection, 
First after de- 
cree 
Number 
Per cent 




.2 


4 
.7 


11 
1.9 


188 
32.7 


210 
36.5 


341 
59.3 


395 
68.7 


425 
73.9 


430 
74.8 


437 
76.0 


524 
91.1 


51 
8.9 


575 
100. 



Decree effective June 1, 1928. 

Provides minimum rate of $14 for women with 6 months' experience. 3 months in a given factory; $12 
for all others. 

The initial inspection is intended to help in securing adjustment of non-compUances. It shows the wage 
situation at the time of inspection, and before all the adjustments possible have been made. 



Comparison of weekly rates of women in the same 16 firms included 
in both the preliminary investigation and the subsequent inspection 
(Table II) shows that at the time of the investigation 15.8 per cent of 
I the women had rates below $12 a week, and 53.8 per cent had rates below 
$14 a week ; while at the inspection immediately following the date the 
decree became effective, 1.9 per cent had rates below $12 and 36.5 per 
cent had rates below $14 a week. 

It should be remembered that the initial inspection shows the wage 
situation directly after a decree has gone into operation, and that some 
of the wage adjustments are made as a result of the inspection although 
the major part are made on or before the date the decree goes into effect. 

There was compliance at the time of inspection in 4,958 cases. In 49 
establishments, representing 1,914 women employees, all necessary ad- 
justments had been made prior to the inspection so that these establish- 
ments showed full compliance at the time of the inspection. There were 
found 476 cases of non-compliance in 25 establishments. Full adjust- 
ment was made in 16 of these establishments. There are pending at the 
close of the year 351 cases in nine establishments. (Table VII) 

Women's Clothing and Office Building Cleaners Decrees 

As comparatively few establishments were inspected under the women's 
clothing decree in 1926 — seven, it seemed advisable to make a complete 
inspection in 1928. The work was initiated in December, 1927, and com- 
pleted in October 1928, the inspection being confined mainly to the busy 
seasons in the industry. 

The work under the office and other building cleaners decree was initi- 
ated in the winter and completed during the spring of the present year. 

Retail Store Decree 

The second inspection under the present decree for the retail store oc- 
cupation, which was started in the fall of 1926 and continued during 1927, 



6 

was completed in the latter part of 1928. This is exclusive of the re- 
inspections necessary in connection with the adjustment of non-compli- 
ances. The work during the present year has been confined mainly to 
inspection in the western part of the state and reinspection in the metro- 
politan district and the eastern section of Massachusetts. There are a 
number of non-compliances outstanding which will doubtless require pub- 
lication in 1929. 

In the inspection work for the entire state, wage records for tabula- 
tion of earnings were secured for 29,295 women and girls in 2,392 firms. 
Weekly rates were available for 23,855 employees in 2,182 firms. These 
rates are shown by occupations in Table III and by size of cities and 
towns for chain and other stores separately in Table IV. 

In considering these figures it should be remembered that they repre- 
sent rates for full-time employment for all regardless of age or length of 
experience. The rates under the retail store decree, however, vary ac- 
cording to age and experience from $10 and $12 to $14 a week. 

From the inspection returns for the state, it appeared that less than 
per cent of all the women and girls had rates below $10 a week; and that 
less than one-third (30.3 per cent) had rates below $14 a week. That is^ 
more than two-thirds of all the women employed had scheduled rates of 
$14 or over a week. More than one-fourth had rates of $18 and over. 
(Table III). 

The occupational group with the highest rates is made up of the altera- 
tion workers, more than one third of whom (35.5 per cent) had rates of 
$20 a week and over. The messengers, bundle girls, stock girls, cashiei 
and examiners, have the lowest rates. These occupations include many oi 
the younger and inexperienced workers who come under the special 
$10 and $12 minimum rates. Of the saleswomen, more than two-thirds 
(69.6 per cent) had rates of $14 or over, and one-sixth (15.8 per cent) 
had rates of $20 and over. (Table III.) 

The classification indicates less variation by size of cities and towns 
than that by type of establishment. The proportion of women with rates 
below $10, $12 and $14 a week in various localities is as follows: — For 
places of less than 20,000 inhabitants, 3.2 per cent, 19.2 per cent, and 
42.4 per cent respectively; for places of 20,000 to 100,000 inhabitants, 1.6 
per cent, 15.3 per cent and 37.8 per cent respectively; and for places oi 
100,000 and over, 1.8 per cent, 10.3 per cent, and 27.3 per cent respec^ 
tively. The corresponding rates for chain and other stores irrespective 
of locality are: 1.7 per cent, 7.2 per cent, and 19.5 per cent for retail 
stores other than chain stores; and 2.5 per cent, 32 per cent, and 76.1 pei 
cent for chain stores. C Table IV.) 



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Enforcement of Wage Decrees 
Disposition of Non-Compliances Pending from the Previous Year 

There were pending from the previous year at the beginning of the 
present fiscal year, December, 1927, 2,779 cases of non-compliance in 232 
firms. The majority of these were under the retail store decree and in- 
cluded a number pending from 1926 when the inspection under this de- 
cree, completed in the fall of the present year, was started. 

Of the entire number of cases outstanding, 2,498 were in 212 retail 
stores; 125 in six jewelry and optical goods factories; 47 in six office 
buildings; and 81 in one candy factory. In addition to these there were 
a few cases in one or two firms under each of the following decrees: — 
corset, laundry, millinery, muslin underwear and toys and games. A 
number of the retail store cases were in firms previously advertised for 
non-compliance. The greater part of these cases are still pending. 
Nearly all of the cases under the other decrees were settled before the 
close of the year. 

In 134 cases wages were raised or through change of work or method 
of payment, or reduction of hours, the employees were enabled to earn 
the minimum. In seven additional cases, adjustment was promised. Two 
firms involving 14 cases went out of business during the year. In 295 
cases the employees had left prior to the reinspection. There were 81 
cases (10 in one candy factory and 71 in four jewelry and optical goods 
factories) in firms advertised during the year. 

There are pending at the close of the year 2,248 cases in 196 firms, all — 
with the exception of one laundry case and 24 cases in three office build- 
ings — under the retail store decree. An outline showing the disposition 
of the various cases is given in Table V. 

At the inspections made in the effort to secure adjustment of the cases 
pending from the previous year, there were found 101 new cases in 17 
firms. With the exception of 52 cases in ten retail stores and 22 cases in 
two jewelry firms advertised in 1928, adjustments were made or promised 
in all of the cases before the close of the year. 

The situation with respect to the adjustments made is shown in Table VI. 



11 



TABLE VI. 



Disposition of New Cases of Non-compliance in Firms Where Cases Were 

Pending in 1927 

(C — Cases; E — Establishments) 



SlTTTATION AND DISPOSITION OF CaSES 



Number of cases of non-compliance 
ADJUSTMENT* 

Wages raised .... 

Earning minimum on piece work 

Change of work 

Adjustment promised 

Left 

ADVERTISED IX 1928 . 
PENDING** 



Corset 



j 

j Jewelry 


Retail 

! Stores 


Total 


C. 


E. 




E. 


C. 


E. 


!^ 


3 


60 


13 


101 


17 


1 4 


1 


4 


3 


1 
2 

' 12 
4 
22 
52 


4 


I 10 
1 22 


\ 


2 
2 

i ^2 


2 
1 

10 


2 
2 
2 
2 
10 



• See notes on Table V. 

These cases are in addition to those listed as pending in Tables V and VII. 

Summary of Adjustments of Inspection for 1928. 

In the course of the inspection work for 1928, wage records were se- 
cured for 31,641 women in 1,363 firms under 19* decrees. In 29,198 of 
these cases in 1,341 firms, there was compliance with the decrees at the 
time the inspection was made. There were 1,058 establishments, repre- 
senting 15,753 cases, which showed 100 per cent compliance at the time 
of the first inspection visit. In 305 establishments there were 2,443 cases 
of non-compliance. These came largely under the electrical equipment 
and supplies decree, where the initial inspection was made this year; and 
under the laundry, men's furnishings, muslin underwear, retail store and 
women's clothing decrees, where a number of the firms had previously 
been advertised for non-compliance. 

Of these non-compliances, 995 cases in 302 establishments were settled 
before the close of the year. In 440 cases adjustment was effected by 
wage increases or other arrangement as change of work or basis of pay- 
ment, or reduction of hours that enabled the employees to earn the mini- 
mum. In 244 additional cases in 67 establishments adjustment was prom- 
ised. There were 29 cases covered by the piece rate ruling, and 22, re- 
corded as special license type. In 61 establishments, 218 employees left. 
There were 21 cases where the employees were discharged or laid off. 
Three firms, involving 17 cases, went out of business during the year. 

There are pending at the close of the year** 1,448 cases in 98 firms. 
These are distributed under 14 decrees, but come principally under the 
following decrees: — electrical equipment and supplies, knit goods, laun- 
dries, men's furnishings, muslin underwear, paper box, women's clothing 
and retail stores. The cases outstanding represent approximately 4V2 
per cent of all the cases for which records were secured. Some of these 
cases will doubtless be adjusted through the reinspections and conferences 
preliminary to publication in 1929. 

A summary of the situation found at inspection and of the adjustments 
made during the year under the various decrees is given in full in Table 
VII. 



* These include inspections in one or more establishments under each of several decrees 
either on complaint or in connection with other work, in addition to the regular inspections. 

** It should be noted that these cases are in addition to those listed as pending from 1927 and 
j found in the reinspections of these cases, as shown in Tables V and VI. The entire number o» 
cases pending at the close of the year is 3,748. 



12 



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52— °S22S'^"'^o t^iN-^-^Moo 1 

C? CO O CO cc 


d 


^ Cj ^ C- ^ " CO ^ < 1—4 ^ 


Women's 
Clothing 




IN M ^ 




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Toys, 
Games 






6 


l>t^ l> 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Station- 
ery 
Goods 

AND 

Envel- 
opes ! 




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d 


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WIN 


Retail 
Stores* 




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Situation and Disposition or Cases 


Records for tabulation and establish- 
ments represented .... 
Compliance at inspection 
Establishments with full compliance and 

Cases non-compliance .... 
ADJUSTMENTS 

Wages raised c 

Earning minimum on piece work 

Hours reduced or change of work 

Adjustment promised^ . . 

Covered by piece rate ruling « . 

Special Hcense. special Ucense type, or 
similar case 

Incorrectly recorded by inspector 

I-eft" ...... 

Discharged or laid ofT . 

Firm out of business .... 
PENDING 



6^ 

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14 



Minimum' Wage Decree' Made Effective the Year 1928. 



Kind of Work 
Covered 


Workers Affected 


1 




Date 


Class 


Age 


Qualifications 


Decree 
Entered 


Decree 
Effective 


Electrical Equip- 
ment and sup- 
plies 


Experienced femoles 
of ordinary ability 


Any 


S14.00 
; weekly 


To be deemed "experi- 
enced" after six 
montns in the industry, 
three months of which 
was in a particular 
factory; provided that 
an employee who has 
not been employed in 
the industry eight 
months or more and 
who returns to work 
in a factory where she 
has been pre\'iously 
employed maj- be rated 
as a beginner for not 
more than one month. 


April 5, 
1928 


June 1, 
1928 




Learners and Ap- 
prentices 


Any 


j S12.00 
weekly 

j 







1 An outline giving the pro\nsions of the various decrees is printed as a separate sheet and is avail-i 
able on request to the commission's oflBce. 

2 A Ust of all of the decrees established since the enactment of the minimum wage law with their 
present status is printed in the Annual Report for 1927, page 12. 



15 



Membership of Wage Boards in Session During 1928 



I ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES WAGE BOARD 

Representing the Public 

Cornelius Parker, Esquire, Chairman, 14 Beacon St., Boston 
Mrs. William T. Healey, 282 Newbury St., Boston 
Mr. Roy M. Cushman, 282 Porter St., Melrose 



Representing the Employers 

Mr. W. H. Banks, Superintendent, 
Macallen Co., South Boston. 

Mr. Charles W. Dodson,* Treasurer, 
Sootless Spark Appliance Co., 
Boston. 

Mr. J. E. Doyle. Supervisor, 
General Electric Co., West Lynn. 

Mr. A. B. Reynders, W^orks Mgr. 
Westinghouse Electric and Mfg. 
Co., Springfield. 

Mrs. Ruth H. Smith, 
Hotel Perry, Amherst. 

Mr. Emory E. Wallace, 
John I. Paulding Co., New Bedford 



Representing the Employees 
Miss E. Lillian Madden, 
18 Prentice St., Waltham. 

Mrs. Mae Mann, 

123 Blossom St., Lowell. 

Miss Beulah Marion, 

116 Chestnut St., Jamaica Plain, 

Mrs. Jennie Meenev, 
23 Parson St., Peabody. 

Miss Catherine McGinley, 
25 Jenkins St., South Boston. 

Miss Isabell Herman, 

18 Dexnell St., Jamaica Plain. 



BOOT AND SHOE CUT STOCK AND FINDINGS WAGE BOARD 

Representing the Public 

Lothrop Withington, Esquire, Chairman, 73 Tremont St., Boston 
Miss Margaret V. V. Buffum, Y. W. C. A., Lowell 
Mr. Stockton Raymond, 41 Hawkins St., Boston 



Representing the Employers 

Mr. Frank Bump, Secretary, 
Brockton Shoe Manufacturers' 
Association, Brockton. 

Mr. Alexander Elbling, 
Reliable Shoe Trimming Co., Lynn. 

Mr. George H. Littlefield, President, 
United Stay Co., Cambridge. 

Mr. Henry G. Scammon, Manager, 
Three Line Counter Co., Inc., 
Newbury port. 

Mr. Simon Servitnick, 
S. Servitnick & Co., Inc., Haverhill 

Mr. Charles T. Venini, 
330 Broad St., Lynn. 



Representing the Employees 

Mr. Einar Carlson, 

29 Denton St., Brockton. 

Miss Frances Cook, 

163 Jefferson Ave., Everett. 

Miss Marv Galimski, 
19 Alfred St., Everett. 

Mr. John W. Long, 
28 Main St., Brockton. 

Mr. Patrick J. McCarthy, 
323/^ Nichols St., Haverhill. 

Miss Doris Morse, 
36 Mill St., Haverhill. 



16 



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17 

Chronology of Minimum Wage Legislation and Court 
Decisions in Massachusetts 

'May 11, 1911.— Resolution providing for the appointment of a commis- 
sion to mvestigate the wages of women and minors, and to report on the 
advisability of establishing minimum wage boards. (Acts and Resolves of 
1911, chapter 71.) 

January 10, 1912. — Report of commission on minimum wage boards to 
legislature recommending establishment of permanent commission CHoiisft 
Bm No. 1697 of 1912.) vnouse 

June 4, 1912.— Enactment of measure establishing minimum wage com- 
mission and providing for the determinations of minimum wages for women 
and minors. (General Laws, chapter 151.) 

March 21, 1913. — Amendment to facilitate the gathering of information 
relative to the wages of women and minors. (General Laws, chapter 151, 
section 8.) 

May 19, 1913.— Amendment to increase the powers and further define 
the duties of the minimum wage commission. (General Laws, chapter 151, 
sections 3, 4 and 10.) 

April 17, 1914. — Amendment relative to the determination of minimum 
wages for women and minors. (General Laws, chapter 151, sections 2, 4 
8 and 10.) 

June 2, 1916. — Amendment to establish certain qualifications for members 
of the minimum wage commission. (General Acts of 1916, chapter 303.) 

December 12, 1917. — Argument of test case involving constitutionality 
of minimum wage law. (Holcombe v. Creamer, 231 Mass. 99.) 

September 24, 1918.— Decision of Supreme Judicial Court of Massachu- 
setts upholding constitutionalitv of minimum wage law. (Holcombe v 
Creamer, 231 Mass. 99.) 

April 3, 1919. — Amendment to provide for filling vacancies on wage 
boards. In effect July 2, 1919. (General Laws, chapter 151, sections 1 
and 2.) 

April 4, 1919. — Amendments to require employers to keep records of the 
working hours of women and minors in certain cases, and to provide for the 
posting of notices of hearings, nominations for wage boards, and of decrees 
of the minimum wage commission. In effect July 3, 1919. (General Laws, 
chapter 151, sections 8 and 14.) 

July 23, 1919. — Act to organize in departments the executive and admin- 
istrative functions of the commonwealth. By this act the minimum wage 
commission was abolished and its functions transferred to the three asso- 
ciate commissioners of the department of labor and industries who are 
designated the minimum wage commissioners when dealing with minimum 
wage matters, and the board of conciliation and arbitration when dealing 
with conciliation matters. (General Laws, chapter 23.) 

December 1, 1919. — Consolidation act in effect. 

February 20, 1920. — Amendment to allow the commission more freedom 
in the choice of wage board members. In effect May 21, 1920. (General 
Laws, chapter 151, section 2.) 

April 30, 1920. — Amendment to allow commission, upon petition of either 
employers or employees, or if in its opinion such action is necessary, to re- 
convene the wage board or establish a new wage board. In effect July 29, 
1920. (General Laws, chapter 151, section 5.) 

June 2, 1922. — Appointment of a legislative commission on unemploy- 
ment, unemployment compensation and the minimum wage to study mini- 
mum wage law, its effect, and whether the law should be amended, made 
mandatory or repealed. (Chapter 43, Resolves of 1922.) 

February 9, 1923. — Report of commission on unemployment, iineinploy- 
ment compensation and the minimum wage recommending in majority re- 
port that law be continued in its present form until such time has elapsed 
as will demonstrate whether or not the legislation has justified its mission. 



18 . 

February 9 1923. — Minoritv report recommending that the law be made 
mandatory. '(House 1325 of 1923 ) • , , ^ , 

June 7, 1923. — Test case brought agamst the Boston Transcript to deter- 
mine constitutionality of sections twelve and thirteen of chapter 151 of the 
General Laws requiring newspapers to publish the commission's notices and 
purporting to exempt the commission and newspapers from action for dam- 
ages for publications. (Commonwealth vs. Boston Transcript Company, 

249 Mass. 477.) . . , ^ . 

June 12, 1924. — Decision of Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts 
declaring sections twelve and thirteen of chapter 151 of the General Laws 
unconstitutional, reaffirming constitutionality of the law in its essential 
provisions as in decision in 1918, and stating that opinion of the United 
States Supreme Court of the District of Columbia declaring minimum wage 
law unconstitutional does not apply to Massachusetts law since that law 
is recommendatory. (Commonwealth vs. Boston Transcript Company, 249 
Mass. 477.) 



Wi)t Commonttiealti) of MniSat^Mtttsi 



; DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 

REPORT 

OF THE 

DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE 



REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 



FOR THE 



Year ending November 30, 1929 



OFFICIALS 



Commissioner 

leroy sweetser 



Assistant Commissioner 

ETHEL M. JOHNSON 



Associate Commissioners 

(CONSTITXrriNG THE DIVISION OF MINIMUM WaGE AND THE BOAHD OF 

Conciliation and Arbitration) 

DWARD FISHER HERBERT P. WASGATC 

SAMUEL ROSS 




Publication of this Document approved by the Commission on Administration and Finance 
800. 6-'80. Order 9202. 



mTELlBRART0FJ*ASSftCBUSETT8 



REPORT OF THE MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION 

Edward Fisher, Chairman, H^jrbert P. Wasgatt, Samuel Ross, 

Outline of Functions - 

The duties of the minimum wage commission under the law comprise 
the following functions: investigating the wages of women employees in 
occupations where there is reason to believe that the wages of a substantial 
number are below the requirements of healthful living; establishing wage 
boards to recommend minimum rates of wages for women and minors; 
entering wage decrees based on the recommendations of the boards ; inspect- 
ing to determine compliance with the decrees; and publishing the results 
of the findings. 

An account of the work conducted during the year along these lines is 
given in the sections following. 

Work in 1929 

For several years the field work conducted in connection with the mini- 
mum wage law has been confined mainly to inspection to determine com- 
pliance with the wage decrees. There are now twenty-one decrees in effect 
covering as many different occupations. In addition to inspections, rein- 
spections are required in all cases where non-compliances are found at the 
time of the original inspection. Then there are complaints regarding non- 
compliance which should be investigated promptly. 

During the year, authorization was given for an additional investigator, 
bringing the number to four. 

Publications 

The publications issued during the year are the statement and decree 
for the boot and shoe cut stock and findings occupation and the reprint from 
the annual report of the department giving the outline of the work of the 
minimum wage commission. 

Wage Boards 

The boot and shoe cut stock and findings wage board, which was organ- 
ized in 1928, completed its work in the early part of 1929. Ten meetings 
were held in all, five of these coming in the present year. On January 9, 
1929, the board submitted a unanimous report of its determinations to the 
minimum wage commission. 

The board estimated the. cosf. -of living for -aelf -supporting woman in 
the occupation as $14»66 ?i week; ' It reoomif<end^u that this be established 
as the m inim um rate for a woman seventeen years of age or over with three 
months' experience in the occupation; and that special rates of $10 and $12 
be fixed for experienced employees und^r seventeen years, and for learners 
and apprentices. 

In submitting its report, tlie -wiag^e board "presented > he claim of some of 
the employer members tHat certain of- the lines covered, as pasted inner- 
soles, would not be able to pay a minimum rate based on the cost of living 
budget adopted by the board. 

Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findings Decree 

After approving provisionally the report of the wage board for the boot 
and shoe cut stock and findings occupation, the commission held a public 
heanng on the question, February 7, 1929. Five employers appeared in 
opposition to the determinations. 

^u^}^^ considering the matter, the commission entered a decree based on 
the determination of the wage board effective June 1, 1929. 



3 

Inspection Work 

^ Inspections were conducted during the year under twenty de^^^^^ that 
IS, under aU of the decrees now in effect with the exception of that for the 
milhnery occupation. In the case of eight decrees-those for canning 
Slit™^' and minor hues of confectionery, electrical equipment and sup! 
phes, mens clothmg, men's furnishings, muslin underwear, women's cloth- 
mg office cleaning, and retail stores-only partial inspections were made. 

Imtial mspection was started under the boot and shoe cut stock and find- 
mgs occupation decree which became effective June 1, 1929. Although this 
was a dull season m the industry, visits were made foUowing that date in 
order to see that the provisions of the decree were understood and that the 
notice of the decree was posted. It was necessary to continue the inspection 
in the latter part of the year. That work is in progress at the close of the 
fewe^l^'^dlc^^^ "^"^^ ^'''^^ inspection under the 

Complete inspections were made under the foUowing decrees— bread 
and bakery products, brush, corset, druggists' preparations, knit goods 
paper box, sUtionery goods and envelopes, and toys and games The 
mspection under the candy and laundry decrees was initiated the previous 
year and completed during the present year. 

In connection with the inspection work, wage records for tabulation were 
secured for 25 590 women and girls in 922 establishments. Reinspection 
visits were made m a number of instances to help in the adjustment of cases 
ot non-eomphance. These visits are in addition to the reinspections made 
m tne d05 tens with cases outstanding from previous years 

The inspection tables include only a part of the establishment visits made 
by the commission s agents during the year. It is sometimes necessary to 
make several remspections in a single establishment to effect an adjustment 
in many instances a second visit is required before inspection can be made! 
1 He omcial m charge of the payroU may be away at the time of the first 
visit, or some of the information essential to determine compliance may be 
lackmg. In addition there are the various cases where the firms listed from 
a previous mspection or investigation had moved, gone out of business or 
changed the nature of the work so they no longer come under the decree. 

In all, 2,308 establishment visits were made by the commission's agents 
durmg 1929. A large part of this work represents reinspections to assist in 
securmg comphance with the decrees. 

Laundry Decree 

The present decree for laundries— the second entered for the occupation- 
became effective July 1st, 1922. The fourth inspection under this decree 
was started m April, 1928, and completed in April of the present year In 
connection with this inspection, wage records for the tabulation of earnings 
were secured for 5,482 women and girls in 313 laundries. 

These rates are shown by occupations in Table I and by type of laundry in 
lable 11. Comparison of the rates paid with those paid at previous inspec- 
tions, mcluding the inspection preceding the entrance of the present decree. 
IS given in Table III. 

Each inspection shows a steady improvement in the wage situation. 
Laundry wages have advanced markedly since 1919, the time of the inspec- 
tion prior to the entrance of the present decree. At that time only 14 per 
cent of the women working in laundries were paid as much as $14 a week. 
An 1929, 70 per cent (69.8) had rates of $14 a week and over. 

Although the most striking contrast is that in the wage rates before and 
directly after the decree went into effect, the progress shown at the subse- 
quent inspections is of interest. The proportion of women with rat^s under 
♦13 a week at each of the five inspections noted is as follows: In 1919, there 
were 68.2 per cent of the women with rates below $13; in 1923, 33.4 per 
cent; in 1924, 21.2 per cent; in 1926, 18.7 per cent; and in 1929, 14.6 per 
cent. For those with rates under $11 a week — the lowest special rate under 



4 

the present decree — there has been a decrease from 30.7 per cent with rates 
below this amount in 1919, to 2.3 per cent in 1929. 

As 1919 was in general a period of high wages, and as 1923 followed a 
serious business depression with wage reductions, it seems fair to attribute 
part at least of the marked advance in the wages of women laundry workers 
during this period to the effect of the decree. The steady advance in wage 
levels since the decree became effective, and the increasing proportion of 
women receiving more than the minimum rate, disprove the theory which 
is sometimes advanced that the minimum tends to become the maximum. 

In considering the inspection figures, it should be kept in mind that they 
represent rates for all women employed in laundries without regard to length 
of experience. The rates under the decree, however, range from $11 for 
beginners and $12.50 for those with three months' experience, to the mini- 
mum rate of $13.50 for a woman who has been employed five months in a 
laundry. 

The tables do not show compliance or non-compliance with the decree, 
but indicate the wage level for a given period. Moreover, they give the 
situation at the time of the inspection and not after all of the possible adjust- 
ments have been made. As $11 is the lowest special rate, aU of the rates 
under this amount represent non-compliances. It will be noted that the 
proportion of non-compliances at this lowest level has been reduced from 
year to year. 

The classification by occupations. Table I, shows the flat work ironers 
with the largest number and proportion in the lower wage group. More 
than two-thirds of these women (67.9 per cent) have rates below $15 a week; 
and one-fourth (24.9 per cent) have rates below $13 a week. Hand washers 
come next with one-half (50.0 per cent) with rates below $15 a week. On 
the other side, from three-fourths to two-thirds of the hand ironers, collar 
ironers, starchers and menders have rates of $15 a week and over. 

Even more striking is the contrast in wages in different types of laundries 
as shown in Table II. Hand and wet wash laundries have the highest rates. 
More than one-fifth (21.8 per cent) of the women employed in hand laundries 
had rates of $20 a week and over; while one-sixth (16.1 per cent) in the wet 
wash establishments came in the same classification. Nearly three-fourths 
of the women (70.7 per cent) in the case of hand laundries, and (74.1 per cent) 
in the case of wet wash laundries — had rates of $15 a week and over. 

At the other end of the scale are the wholesale laundries and coat and 
apron supply houses. Wholesale laundries include those catering to hotel 
and steamship trade, hospitals, and other institutions. Coat and apron^ 
supply houses supply barbers, butchers, bakers, hotel and restaurant 
employees. 

Nine-tenths (91.4 per cent) of the women working in the wholesale laun- 
dries, and eight- tenths (79.6 per cent) in the coat and apron supply estab- 
lishments were paid at rates below $15 a week. Nearly two-thirds (61.5 per 
cent) of the women in the wholesale laundries, and more than one-tMrd 
(35.3 per cent) of those in the coat and apron supply houses had rates for 
full-time emplojnnent below $13 a week. 

Between these two classes of laundries — the hand and wet wash on on© 
side and the wholesale and coat and apron supply houses on the other — 
comes the general laundry which handles much of the family washing. 
More than one-half (57.2 per cent) of the women in these laundries have 
rates of $15 a week and over, and less than one-tenth (9.0 per cent) have 
rates below $13 a week. 

Non-comphances under the laundry decree have been published three 
times. In each instance the firms advertised represented approximately 
eight per cent of the establishments inspected. In 1923 the commission 
pubUshed twenty-two firms; in 1925, twenty-one firms; and in 1927. 
twenty-six firms. It should be noted that the inspection for 1927 included 
nineteen more laundries than that for 1923 ; also that a much larger numbei 
of wage records were secured in 1927 than either in 1923 or 1925. 

Of the twenty-two firms published in 1923, eleven were published in 192£ 



5 

and again in 1927. Three have gone out of business. Three complied with 
the decree after the first publication; two after the second; and three after 
the third. The twenty-one laundries published in 1925 included eighteen 
of those published in 1923, and three new establishments. Four of the 
laundries are now complying with the decree. In seventeen there has been 
no change in this respect. 

Of the twenty-six laundries advertised in 1927, one is now out of business, 
nine are complying, and in sixteen there is no change. There are nineteen 

establishments — three new firms in addition to the sixteen above mentioned 

with cases outstanding and no adjustment promised at the close of the 
present year. 

Effect of Decrees 

Some indication of the influence the decrees may have upon women's 
wages is suggested by a comparison of the wage situation in four occupations 
before the entrance of the present decrees and at subsequent inspections. 
Table III summarizes the inspection returns for the druggists' preparations, 
laundry, office cleaning and retail store decrees. 

The decree for druggists' preparations and chemical compounds went into 
effect January 2, 1924. It establishes a minimum rate of $13.20 and special 
rates for learners and apprentices of $9.60 and $10.60 a week. At the 
investigation in 1923, 85.9 per cent of the women employed in the occupation 
were paid at rates below $13 a week; and 24.9 per cent at rates below $12 
a week. Only 7.1 per cent had rates as high as $15 a week. At the inspec- 
tion the following year after the entrance of the decree, 35.8 per cent had 
rates below $13 and 19.5 per cent had rates below $12; while 39.5 per cent 
had rates of $15 a week and over. 

At the inspection in 1926, the proportion with rates below $13 and $12 a 
week had been reduced to 21.4 per cent and 15.4 per cent respectively. The 
proportion with rates of $15 and over had been raised to 48.9 per cent. At 
the most recent inspection — that in 1929 — there were 19.1 per cent with 
rates below $13 a week; 9.9 per cent with rates below $12; and 57.4 per cent 
with rates of $15 a week and over. 

There have been three publications of non-compliances under this decree. 
One firm was advertised in 1924. This establishment and one other was 
advertised in 1925 and again in 1927. Both are small estabUshments with 
only a few employees. They represent with respect to establishments .5 
per cent of the entire number; and with respect to cases .1 per cent of those 
for whom records were secured. 

As the changes under the laundry decree have been discussed in the pre- 
ceding section on inspection work in connection with that decree, they are 
not repeated here. 

The decree for office and other building cleaners became effective February 
1, 1921. It provides a minimum rate of 37c an hour, or $15.40 a week for 
employment of forty-two hours or more. At the inspection in 1920, 84.1 
per cent of the women engaged in this occupation had rates below 36c an 
hour. Only 12.6 per cent had rates of 38c and over. At the inspection in 
1922 following the present wage decree, only 16.4 per cent had rates under 
36c an hour and 33 per cent had rates of 38c and over. The inspection in 
1928 shows only 6.8 per cent of the women with rates below 36c an hour 
and 52.3 per cent with rates of 38c and over. 

There have been three publications under this decree — 1921, 1925, and 
1929. One firm representing a large establishment with several office build- 
ings was advertised in 1921 and again in 1925. This firm is now paying the 
minimum rate. Two establishments that had previously been published 
under the retail store and paper box decrees were published in 1929 under 
I the office and other building cleaners decree. There were three cases of non- 
I compliances in these two establishments, representing .1 per cent of the 
' entire number of cases. 

The present decree for retail stores became effective June 1, 1922. It 
provides a minimum rate of $14 a week with special rates of $10 and $12 for 



6 

v • anri TTimors At the inspection in 1919, 78.2 per cent of the women 
^'&/irret™ res had rates below $14 a week; 54.3 per cent had rates 
belor$12 ateeif an^^^ 23.2 per cent rates below $10 a week. Only 8.1 per 

^^^^'tfernfpecln 1922-1923, 31.6 per cent of the 

i LTrates X^^^^ week; 13.2 per cent below $12 a week, and 

oT lli Slow %lol week There were 26.3 per cent with rates of $17 a 
weTLTover^^^^^^^ 1926-1928, shows 19 5 per cent of 

The women ^^^^^ rates below $14 a week; 7.2 per cent with rates below $12 
P wP^k and only 1.7 per cent with rates below $10 a week. On the other 
Lnd there are 38 3 per cent with rates of $17 a week and over. 

Non-co^^^^^ been published twice under the retail store decree, 

in 1923 aS^l S Of the 53 firms advertised in 1923, 14 were complying 
in 1925- 8 had gone out of business; and in 31 there was no change m this 
respect.' There were 13 new firms advertised in 1925. 



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11 

Publication of Non-Compliances 

The law requires that the commission shall inspect to determine compli- 
ance with the wage decrees and that it shall publish the names of firms that 
fail or refuse to comply. Every effort is made to secure adjustment — and 
adjustment by wage increases — for the employees receiving below the mini- 
mum rates. Publication is a last resort after every other means has failed. 

The procedure in the case of non-compliances found through the inspection 
work is as follows : The matter in the first instance is taken up by the agent 
with the employer or his representative. When adjustment caimot be 
effected in this way, a letter is sent inviting the officials of the firm to come 
to the commission's office for a conference. When it is felt that reasonable 
extension of time will assist in bringing about the adjustment, that is author- 
ized. Sometimes transfer to other work or to another method of pajonent 
is suggested to see if that will make it possible for the employees to earn 
the minimum rate. When no other form of adjustment can be L^ecured, 
reduction of hours, so that the women are paid for the time worked on the 
basis of the minimum rate, may be suggested. 

Effort is made to prevent the displacement of employees in connection 
with the application of the wage decrees. The great majority of employers 
in all of the occupations covered meet the provisions of the decrees and do 
this by wage adjustment instead of displacing the employees. Displacement 
occurs sometimes, but in a comparatively small number of cases. 

The number of firms that it is necessary to publish represents a very small 
proportion of those in the various occupations covered. In the case of some 
of the decrees, as bread and bakery products, brush, corset, knit goods, 
men's clothing, millinery, and toys, games and sporting goods, it has not 
been necessary to publish a single firm. In others, as candy, canning and 
preserving and minor lines of confectionery, druggists' preparations, office 
, and other building cleaners, stationery goods and envelopes, and women's 
j clothing, only two or three firms have been published. The largest number 
and proportion of cases of non-compliances are under the retail store, laun- 
dry, men's furnishings and paper box decrees. 

It has been the practice of the commission to complete the inspection and 
reinspeetion under a decree before publishing so that all non-compliances 
would be advertised at the same time. As a result there have been two or 
more inspection visits, as well as correspondence, conferences, or opportun- 
ity for conference offered. In addition to this, before publication takes 
place, a warning letter is sent to the firms with cases outstanding, notify- 
ing them of the legal requirements and giving reasonable time within which 
to take the matter up with the commission. After the expiration of that 
time, the final letter is sent notifying the firms to which it is addressed that 
publication will appear on a specified date unless adjustment is made and 
notice of such adjustment received at the commission's office on or before 
I the given day. 

During the present year the commission has published four firms under 
; the electrical equipment and supplies decree. These included 291 cases of 
non-compliance, the majority of them in one firm. They represent five per 
cent of the number of records secured in the inspection and involve approxi- 
mately five per cent of the number of firms in the occupation. 



12 



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14 

Disposition of Inspection Cases 

Non-complianceB P/.^fZm7reyious7eI.'^^^^^^^ beginning of the present 
There were P^^^'ng from Previous y ^^^^^^y „f 

fiscal year. December ^'^^f^^_:!leve under the retail store decree A 
liiese cases-2,516 in 2^1 published after the previous inspection, 

number of these cases f ere in farms puo 9 electrical equip- 

Theren--uinmg cases included d^^^^ furnishing factories; 

ment and supplies establishments, 1^^^^ 146 
104 iu. 1 paper There were, in addition, a few scat- 

cases in ont kmt goods estaDiisnmei following decrees: candy, 

tere<) cases in one or more 6™^^"^^^, ^^fconfectionery, corset, druggists' 
Tr^pl?! JuSVy^lffircC^^^^^ stationery goods and envelopes, and 

r^^^:^::si. ^\^fra^°di?ral7a:^sr^^^^^^^ 

work, er by reducing tour| 'n 394 ca^^^^^^ rate ruling." or 

^^eTe eligK a'spelS Urnse'^Two cases had been incorrectly recorded 
as non-comr lances. pending went out of 

bi:Sr rl^te^^r dis^haSe^ ""'^ 

men's f"™^hings decrees^ A num^^^^^ ^j^^ reinspection 

supplies decree advertised ^^e ye^^. 

SaltyrrJet' XVu"tl\fe sStSe'dtposition of the various cases 
is given in Table IV. 

'^'Sii'J.nZiSr^^ to th. .Sort to th, «,». onUMlm 

many of h^^^^^^^^ were ones that had never complied fe^, 

ndtustments were possible. In 15 cases in 5 firms, wages were raised to meel 
thH-vi^^^^^^^^ decrees.^In 110 additional cases - -t^^^^^^^^ 
adjustment was promised. Twelve employees ^ ^ establishment^^^ 
during the year. There are pending at the end of the year l'^^^ ^f^J^ 
146 firms under five decrees. Publication under these decrees wi^^^^^^^^ P a^' 
early in the ensuing year. An outline of the disposition of the cases cite( 
is presented in Table V. 

♦ The Annual Report for 1928 liete 3,748 caaes pending from the «f ^^^^'^ee^ w^^^^ 

to the omission from the 1928 tabulation of one firm with 45 cases of non-compbance, wmcn 
been included that year. 



15 

TABLE V. 



Disposition of New Cases of Non-Compliance in Firms where Cases were 
Pending from Previous Years 

(C — Cases; E — Establishments) 



Situation and Disposition of 
Cases 


Laundry 


Men's 
Fur- 
nish- 
ings 


Muslin 
Under- 
wear 


Retail 
Store 


Women's 
Clothing 


Total 




C. E. 


C. E. 


C. E. 


C. E. 


C. E. 


C. E. 


Number of cases of non-compliance 


230 18 


73 3 


15 2 


1,423 134 


15 3 


1,756 160 


ADJUSTMENT* 

Wages raised .... 
Adjustment rep>orted or promised 
Left 

PENDING** .... 


5 1 
19 2 

206 15 


8 1 
65 3 


9 1 

i I 


6 3 
82 5 
3 2 
1,332 125 


4 1 

1 1 
10 2 


15 5 
110 8 
12 4 
1,619 146 



• See notes on Table VI. 

•• These cases are in .addition to those listed as pending in Tables IV and VT. 



Summary of Adjustments 

In the regular inspection work for the year, wage records for tabulation 
were secured for 25,590 women and girls in 922 establishments under 20 
decrees. There were in 903 establishments, 23,467 cases of full compliance; 
and in 636 establishments, representing 12,260 employees, there was not a 
single case of non-compliance at the time the inspection was made. 

There were 2,125 cases of non-compliance in 287 establishments. Of 
these cases, 1,009 were settled or adjustment promised before the close of 
the year. Wages were raised in 507 cases in 143 establishments. In 54 
cases in 17 establishments, the employees were able to earn the minimum on 
piece work. In four cases, hours were reduced so that the employees were 
paid on the basis of the minimum rate for the time worked. There were 
47 cases covered by the "piece rate ruling," and 10 cases of special licenses 
or special license type. Adjustment was promised in 199 cases in 30 estab- 
lishments. Nine cases had been incorrectly recorded as non-compliances. 
In 18 cases in five establishments employees receiving below the minimum 
rate were discharged or laid off. In 161 cases in 53 establishments, the 
employees left during the year. 

There are pending at the close of the period, 1,116 cases in 112 establish- 
ments. These are in addition to the cases pending from previous years 
and the new cases found in those establishments at the reinspections during 
the present year. In all there are 3,482 cases pending in 417 establishments. 



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18 

Minimum Wage Decrees Entered or Made Effective During the Year 1929 





Workers Affected 


Mini- 


Qualifications 


Date 


Kind of Work 

COVEBED 


Class 


Age 


mum 
Wage 
Rates 


Decree 
Entered 


Decree 
Effectiye 


Boot and Shoe 
Cut Stock and 
Findings 


Experienced females 
of ordinary ability 


17 or 
over 


$14.65 
weekly 


To be deemed "ex- 
perienced " after 
reaching the age of 
17 and having been 
employed three 
months in the oc- 
cupation. 


March 14, 
1929 


June 1, 
1929 


Learners and Appren- 

With less than three 
months' experience 

With three months' 
experience 

With less than three 
months' experi- 
ence 


17 or 
over 
Under 

17 
Under 

17 


$12.00 

weekly 
$12.00 
weekly 
$10.00 
weekly 







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20 

Status of Minimum Wage Decrees 

Minimum Wage Decrees Established in Massachusetts Since Enactment of the 
Minimum Wage Law {Effective July 'l, 1913) to December 1, 1929 



Occupations Covered 



1. *Bru8h 

2. *Laundry 

3. *Retail stores 

4. •Women's Clothing. 

5. *Men's Clothing and Raincoats . 

6. *Men's Furnishings. 

7. 'Mushn Underwear 

8. *Retail Millinery .... 

9. *Wholesale Millinery 

10. *Office Cleaners .... 

11. *Canning and Preserving 

12. 'Candy 

(1) 13. •♦Corset • 

(2) 14. ••Men's Clothing and Raincoats i (re 

vised) 

(3) 15. ••Knit Goods 

16. ••Women's Clothing (revised) 

17. ••Paper Box 

(4) 18. Office Cleaners (revised) 

19. •♦Minor Confectionery . 

(5) 20. Paper Box (revised) 

(6) 21. Women's Clothing (2d revised) . 

(7) 22. MusUn Underwear (revised) 

(8) 23. ♦•Men's Furnishings (revised) 

(9) 24. Retail Stores (revised) . 

(10) 25. Laundry (revised) .... 

(11) 26. Brush, 2 (revised) .... 

(12) 27. Druggists' Preparations and Proprie 

tary Medicines 

(13) 28. Canning and Preserving, Minor Con 

fectionery and Food Preparations- 
(combined and revised) . 

(14) 29. Bread and Bakery Products 

(15) 30. MiUinery^ (combined and revised) 

(16) 31. Stationery Goods and Envelopes 

(17) 32. Candy (revised) .... 

(18) 33. Jeweb-y and Related Lines . 

(19) 34. Toys, Games and Sporting Goods 

(20) 35. Electrical Equipment and SuppUes 

(21) 36. Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findings 



Minimum 
Rate 



$0,155 hr. 

8.00 

8.50 

8.75 

9.00 

9.00 

9.00 
10.00 
11.00 
.30 A.M. 
.26 P.M. 
11.00 
12.50 
13.00 



15.00 
13.75 
15.25 
15.50 
15.40 
or .37 hr. 
12.00 
13.50 
14.00 
13.75 
13.75 
14.00 
13.50 
13.92 

13.20 



13.00 
13.00 
13.00 
13.75 
13.00 
14.40 
13.50 
14.00 
14.65 



Date 
Entered 



June 29, 
July 1, 
Sept. 15, 
Sept. 28, 
Aug. 31, 
Oct. 26, 
July 1, 
July 1, 
Nov. 30, 

Jan. 27, 

July 21, 

July 19, 

Dec. 27, 

Dec. 27, 
Mar. 13, 
May 6, 
May 26, 
Dec. 30, 

Oc*. 4, 
April 27, 
April 27, 
April 27, 
April 27, 
April 27, 
May 19, 
Jan. 25, 



1914 
1915 
1915 
1916 
1917 
1917 
1918 
1918 
1918 

1919 
1919 
1919 
1919 

1919 
1920 
1920 
1920 
1920 

1921 
1922 
1922 
1922 
1922 
1922 
1922 
1923 



Sept. 27, 1923 



Nov. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Oct. 

Jan. 

Sept. 

Jan. 

April 

Mar. 



3, 1924 
17, 1925 
24, 1925 
27, 1925 
26, 1926 
9, 1926 
1, 1927 
5. 1928 



14, 1929 



Date 
Effective 



Aug. 15, 

Sept. 1, 

Jan. 1, 

Feb. 1, 

Jan. 1, 

Feb. 1 

Aug. 1 

Aug. 1 

Jan. 1 



Feb. 
July 
July 
July 
Feb. 



April 1 

Sept. 1 

Jan. 1 

Mar. 1 



Nov. 1 

May 15 

May 15 

June 1, 

June 1, 

June 1 

July 1 

Mar. 1, 

Jan. 2 



April 
May 
July 
Jan. 
Mar. 
Jan. 
Mar. 
June 
June 1 



• Decree entered prior to consolidation of State Departments, December, 1919. 
** Wage boards established or authorized, or arrangements for reconvening made prior to conflolida* 
of Departments, December, 1919. 

1 The Men's Clothing and Raincoat Wage Board was reconvened in 1921 to revise the existing 
The board recommended a minimuin rate of $14.75. This was not approved by the Commission. 

2 TJae Brush Wage Board was reconvened in 1921. This board recommended a minimum rate < 
$14.40. This was not approved by the Commission. Another board was formed in 1922, which 
mended a minimum rate of $13.92. The present decree is based on this recommendation. 

3 This board combines the work of the former Canning and Preserving Board and the Minor Conf 
tionery and Food Preparations Wage Board. 

■* This board combines the work of the former Retail Millinery Occupation Board and the Wholoa 
Millinery Occupation Board. 

6 Figures in parentheses ( ) refer to decrees now in effect. 



arfjE Commontoealtf) of iHaj3;s;acf)ugEtts{ 



; DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 



ft 



REPORT 



OF THE 



DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE 



REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 

For the Year Ending November 30, 1930 




Publication op this Document approved by the Commission i^DMiNiSTRATtdN and Finance 
800. 5-'31. Order 2112. 



2 



OFFICIALS 

Commissioner . ; f Assistant Commissioner 

E. LEROY SWEETSER ETHEL M. JOHNSON 

Associate Commissioners 

(Constituting the Division of Minimum Wage and the Board of 
Conciliation and Arbitration) 

EDWARD FISHER HERBERT P. WASGATT 

SAMUEL ROSS 



REPORT OF THE MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION 

Edward Fisher, Chairman; Herbert P. Wasgatt; Samuel Ross, 
Ethel M. Johnson, Acting Director 

Outline of Functions 

The duties of the minimum wage commission under the law comprise the 
following functions: investigating the wages of women employees in occupa- 
tions where there is reason to believe that the wages of a substantial number 
are below the requirements of healthful living; establishing wage boards to 
recommend minimum ratfes for women and minors; entering wage decrees 
based on the recommendations of the boards ; inspecting to determine com- 
pliance with the decrees; and publishing the result of the findings. 

An account of the work carried on during the year is given in the sections 
that follow. 

Work in 1930 

Since 1927 the field work conducted in connection with the minimum wage 
law has been confined for the most part to inspections to determine com- 
pliance with the wage decrees. There are now twenty-one decrees in effect 
covering as many different occupations. Approximately 75,000 women and 
girls are employed in the occupations covered by wage decrees. 

In addition to the regular inspections under the decrees, numerous rein- 
spections are required in connection with the adjustment of non-compliances 
found at the time of th&wiginal inspection. Many inspections are also made 
on complain.t.. .' This occasionally involves visiting the complainants to secure 
additional information.. or to explain the limitations of the law. Another 
phase of the, work that arises in connection with the inspections is interview- 
ing applicants- for speciaJ licenses. 

Wage boe.rd candidates ^re also interviewed as part of the field work when 
wage boards" are being "formed. There have been no wage boards in session 
during the year. It wa.s' the opinion of the commission that on account of 
the serious, business depression of the past year conditions of employment 
were far from iiorsrigl. For that reason no wage studies as the basis for the 
formation of tie w boar<ig have been initiated. 



3 

Publications '^'^ 

The only publication issued during the year is the reprint from the annual 
report of the department giving the outline of the work of the division of 
minimum wage. 

Advertisement of Non-Compliances 

The commission is by law required to publish names of firms that fail or 
refuse to comply with its decrees. Publication is regarded as a last resort. 
Every effort is made to secure adjustment of non-compliances without publi- 
cation. An account of the procedure taken in non-compliance cases prior to 
publication is given in the report for 1929. 



Table 1. — Advertisement of Non-Compliances Under Minimum 
Wage Decrees, 1930 





Date of 


Establish- 


Records in 


Cases of Non- 


Per cent of 


Occupation 


,. advertise- 


ments in 


most recent 


compliance 


Non-compliances 




ment 


most recent 


inspection 












inspection 


Firms 


Cases 


Firms 


Cases 


Candy .... 


12/30/29 














Men's Furnishings 


12/30/29 


109 


5756 


2 


56 


1.8 


1.0 


Office Cleaners 


12/31/29 


69 


4299 


8 


193 


11.6 


4.5 


Muslin Underwear 


1/3/30 


362 


2207 


2 


3 


.6 


.1 


Laundry .... 


8/9/30 


91 


2480 


4 


15 


4.3 


.6 


8/30/30 


337 


5890 


16 


291 


4.7 


4.9 


Electrical Equipment . 
Druggists' Compounds 


8/10/30 


74 


5434 


6 


272 


8.1 


5.0 


11/15/30 


60 


638 


2 


18 


3.3 


2.8 


Stationery Goods 


11/3/30 


71 


3747 


2 


15 


2.8 


.4 



Number of firms advertised during the year: 42, with 863 cases of non-compliance. 



Decrees and Cases 

In 1930 the commission published non-compliances under eight decrees as 
indicated in Table 1. This shows the extent of such advertisement. In each 
instance the number of firms it was necessary to publish represents only a 
small proportion of all the firms inspected in the occupation. The sam« is 
true in regard to non-compliance cases. 

Advertisements this year represent the second publication in the case of 
the electrical equipment and supplies decree; the third in the case of the 
candy, men's furnishings, muslin underwear, office and other building clean- 
ers, and stationery goods and envelopes decrees; and the fourth in the case of 
the druggists preparations and laundry decrees. 

Arrangements are being made for publication in December, 1930, under the 
boot and shoe cut stock and findings, paper box, jewelry and retail store 
decrees. 

Inspections 

Decrees 

Inspection was conducted in 1930 under nineteen decrees. This includes, 
however, inspection on complaint, partial inspection and that in connection 
with other decrees. Complete inspection was made during the year under 
seven decrees: bread and bakery products; canning and preserving and 
minor lines of confectionery; electrical equipment and supplies; men's furn- 
ishings; millinery; muslin underwear; and women's clothing. 

Inspections on complaint or incidental to the regular work, or reinspection 
preliminary to publication of non-compliances were made in one or more es- 
tablishments under each of the following decrees: brush, druggists' prepara- 
tions and proprietary medicines, office and other building cleaners, paper 
box, retail stores, toys and games and stationery goods and envelopes. 

Re-inspections 

In connection with the inspection work, wage records for tabulation were 
secured for 30,896 women and girls in 1,014 firms. In addition a large num- 



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ber of re-mspections were made. These include revisits to secure adjustment 
of non-compliances found in the course of the regular inspection; also rein- 
spection preliminary to publication in the ease of firms with cases pending 
from previous years. These reinspections alone represent visits to 417 es- 
tablishments and checking up 3,482 cases. 

In some instances several visits for various reasons are necessary in connec- 
tion with the inspection of a single establishment. If non-compliances are 
found, reinspection is made later to see if they are adjusted. In some in- 
stances several inspection visits are necessary to assist in the adjustment of 
non-compliances. 

These numerous revisits and reinspections are not included in the estab- 
hshments recorded in the inspection tables. In all, 2,724 establishment 
visits were made by agents of the commission during the year. 

Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findings Decree 

The initial inspection under the boot and shoe cut stock and findings de- 
cree was completed in the early part of this year. This decree became effec- 
tive June 1 , 1929. It establishes a minimum rate of $14.65 a week for women 
of ordinary ability with special rates of $12.00 and $10.00 for inexperienced 
workers according to age. 

This industry includes the manufacture of counters, innersoles, shanks, 
rands, heels other than wood, shoe trimmings, ornaments, and similar prod- 
ucts. Most of the plants engaged in this work are located near the shoe 
centers. 

The inspection under this decree was started in June, 1929, and completed 
in February, 1930. The principal part of the inspection came in the fall and 
winter. 

Rates and Earnings* 

In the course of the inspection wage records for tabulation of weekly earn- 
ings were secured for 1,432 women in 109 establishments and weekly rates for 
695 women in 96 establishments. Rates by type of establishment are shown 
in Table 2. From this it will be seen that there is wide difference in wages in 
the various lines. 

Comparison of the wage situation at the time of the investigation prelimi- 
nary to the entrance of the decree and at the inspection directly after the de- 
cree went into effect is shown in Table 3. Notwithstanding the general busi- 



Table 3. — Comparison of Rates in Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findings 
Establishments in Massachusetts at Investigation Prior to Decree and 
at Subsequent Inspection 









Number and Per Cent of Workers with Rates 








Under 
$9 


Under 
*10 


Under 
$11 


Under Under Under Under Under 
S12 $13 $14 $15 $16 


Under 
$17 


Under 
$18 


$18 & 

Over 


Total 


Investigation, 1924-1925 


Number 
Per cent 


9 

2.6 


13 
3. 


25 
7 7.1 


44 99 117 186 228 
12.6 28.3 33.4 53.1 65.1 


259 
74.0 


280 
80.0 


70 

20.0 


350 
100 


1st Inspection, 1929 


Number 
Per cent 


8 

1.2 


16 
2.3 


39 
5.6 


53 174 234 346 489 
7.6 25.0 33.7 49.8 70.4 


551 
79.3 


671 
82.2 


124 

17.8 


095 
100 



Date of Decree— June 1, 1929. Minimum rate— $14.65» Special Rates— $12.00, $10.00 



•Earnings should not be confused with rates. Rates are definite amounts indicated for full time employ- 
ment either by hour, day or week. Earnings are what employees are paid as shown by payrolls. In many 
cases earnings are less than rates would indicate the employees should receive because of their working part 
time. 



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ness depression there is an improvement in the wages of the women and ^Is 
who were receiving less than the minimum rate prior to the entrance of the 
decree as an analysis of the tables show. 



Electrical Equipment and Supplies Decree 
Two inspections have been made under the electrical equipment and sup- 
plies decree which went into effect June 1, 1928. This decree provides a 
minimum rate of $14.00 a week for women with six months' experience in the 
occupation and a special rate of $12.00 a week for beginners. 

The inspection this year was started in December, 1929, and completed in 
February, 1930. Wage records for the tabulation of earnings were secured 
for 5,890 women employed in 58 establishments. Weekly earnings of these 
women by occupations are shown in Table 4. 

Rates and Earnings* 

The effect of the business depression is doubtless reflected in the earnings. 
Approximately one-half of the women (50.4 percent) earned less than $14.00 
a week; and more than one-fourth (28.6 percent) earned less than $12.00 a 
week. 

More than one-half of the women recorded were on piece work. Weekly 
rates for tabulation were secured for 2,260 women in 55 establishments. 
These are shown in Table 5. Nowhere is the contrast in the wages paid by 
different firms in the same industry more striking than here. 

Comparison of the rates in the occupation at the time of the investigation 
before the decree was entered and at subsequent inspections was made in 
Table 6. At the investigation three-fifths (59.0 percent) had rates for full- 
time employment under $14.00 a week, the present minimum rate. One- 
fifth (22.7 percent) had rates under $12.00 a week. 

The majority of the firms in the industry have accepted the decree and are 
meeting its provisions. Non-complying firms were advertised in August of 
this year. An account of that action is given in the section on publications 
in this report. 

Disposition of Inspection Cases 
Disposition of Non-Compliances Pending From Previous Years 

At the beginning of the fiscal year, there were outstanding from previous 
years, 3,482 cases of non-compliances in 417 firms. Most of these came under 
the retail store decree — 2,050 cases in 272 firms, the majority of which had 
been advertised one or more times. 

There were also 337 cases in 34 laundries, 182 in an electrical equipment 

! and supplies establishment, 178 in 22 boot and shoe cut stock and findings 
estabhshments, 147 in 12 men's furnishings establishments, 117 in 19 paper 
box factories, and 63 in six corset factories. 

The remaining cases were divided among a few firms under each of the 
following decrees: bread and bakery products, candy, canning and preserving 
and minor lines of confectionery, druggists' preparations, jewelry, knit goods, 
men's clothing, muslin underwear, office cleaning, stationery goods and en- 
velopes, toys, games and sporting goods, and women's clothing. 

: Reinspection was made in all of the firms with cases pending to try and 
secure adjustment; or, when this could not be effected, as a preliminary to 

I publication. In connection with the advertisement of non-compliances, it is 
the intent of the commission to have reinspection made within a reasonable 
time prior to publication. 

! 

j Adjustments 

So large a part of the cases were in firms previously published, compara- 
} tively few adjustments were effected. Wages were raised to meet the pro- 
■ visions of the decrees in 275 cases in 91 firms. Adjustment by changmg type 
of work or method of payment or hours so that the employees were enabled 



•See note on Page 54. 



10 



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100 




2,099 
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96.3 




1,905 
90.8 




621 
94.7 




1,755 
83.6 




602 
91.8 




1,661 
79.1 




577 
88.0 




1,583 
75.4 




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00 


1 


1,382 
65.8 


i 


475 
72.4 


InspectioTi 


1,196 
57.0 


Inspectior, 


387 
59.0 




867 
41.3 




277 
42.2 




726 
34.6 




149 
22.7 




286 
13.6 




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Number 
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ToyB, Games 
and Sport- 
ing Goods 




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Stationery 
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Situation and Disposition of Cases 




ADJUSTMENT* 

Earning Minimum on piece work 

Special license, special license type or similar case 

Left . . . : . : : : : : 

ADVERTISED 1930 

PENDING 



15 




16 



Total 




T}<moOO INCO(NCHO <N CO (N to 
OOiCOCO Ti ^ 


6 


30,896 
28,018 

1 A 1 /I /< 

Id, 144 
2,878 

S28 
134 
2 

104 
117 

18 
23 

281 
11 
84 

272 
1.504 


Women's 
Clothing 






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Toys, 
Games, 
and 
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Goods 1 






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Stationery 
Goods 
and 
Envelopes 3 




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Retail 
Stores 




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Millinery 




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COIN 


Situation and Disposition of Cases 


Records for tabulation and establishments repre- 
sented ....... 

Compliance at inspection .... 

Establishments with full compliance and cases 
Cases of non-compliance ..... 

ADJUSTMENT* 

Wages raised ...... 

Earning minimum on piece work . 

Hours reduced; change of work . 

Adjustment promised or reported 5 

Covered by piece rate ruling » . . . 

Special license, special license type or similar 
case ....... 

■ Incorrectly recorded by investigator 

Left 7 

Discharered or laid off 

Firm out of business ..... 

ADVERTISED 

PENDING** 



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17 

to earn the minimum was made in 65 additional eases. Further adjustments 
were reported or promised in 169 cases representing 31 establishments. 

There were 19 employees in four establishments covered by the piece rate 
ruling; and 11 eases in five establishments that were covered by special 
licenses. It was found that 27 cases in eight firms had been incorrectly re- 
corded as non-compliance. 

Advertisements 

The firms advertised include 520 of the cases pending at the beginning of 
the year, and were distributed as follows: 56 in two candy factories, 291 in 
16 laundries, 193 in eight men's furnishings establishments; 15 in four muslin 
underrv'ear establishments, 15 in two stationery goods and envelopes fac- 
tories, 14 in two establishments manufacturing druggists' preparations, and 
one under the office and other building cleaners decree. 

Cases Pending 

There are outstanding at the close of the year 1.106 cases in 205 establish- 
ments, mainly under the retail store, boot and shoe cut stock and findings and 
paper box decrees. Arrangements have been made for publication under 
these decrees in December. An outline of the disposition of these cases is 
given in Table 7. 

Disposition of Inspection Cases 
Disposition of Neiv Cases 

In the course of the reinspection of firms with cases outstanding from 
previous years, 1,069 new cases were found in 162 firms. The majority of 
these 748 cases in 120 firms came under the retail store decree. Most of the 
remaining cases were in paper box factories, men's furnishings establishments, 
and boot and shoe cut stock and findings plants. 

There were some additional cases in one or more establishments under each 
of the following decrees: corset, druggists' preparations, jewelry, laundry, 
men's clothing, office cleaning, stationery goods and envelopes, and toys, 
games and sporting goods. 

Adjustments 

As the greater number of these cases were in firms that had never complied, 
adjustments were secured in comparatively few instances. In 30 cases in 
eight firms wages were raised to meet the provisions of the decree. Adjust- 
ment was promised in 105 additional ca«es. 

In 38 cases in 13 establishments employees who were receiving below the 
minimum left, and in 12 cases involving three firms, the employees were laid 
off. One firm went out of business during the year. Four firms in which 
there were 71 cases of non-compliance were advertised. 

Cases Pending 

There are pending at the close of the year 806* cases in 123 firms. These 
include 643 cases in retail stores, 82 in paper box factories, and 55 in boot and 
shoe cut stock and findings plants. Publication under these decrees will be 
made in December, 1930. An outline of the disposition of the cases under the 
various decrees represented is given in Table 8. 

Disposition of Inspection Cases 
Disposition of Cases in the Regular Inspection Work 

In 316 establishments, 2,878 cases of non-compliance were found. Of this 
number 1,374 were settled or adjustment was promised before the close of the 
year. Some of the remaining cases will doubtless be adjusted in connection 
with the reinspections which will be made after the regular inspection work 
has been completed. 
Adjustments 

With respect to the cases settled, wages were raised for 328 women in 122 
establishments. In 136 other cases women were enabled to earn the mini- 

I * It should be understood that these caaes are in addition to those listed a« pending from previous 
I years, and those from the regular inspection work of the present year, The entire number of cases out- 
I standing at the close of the year is the sum of the cases listed as pending under these several headings. 



18 



mum on piece work or by reduction of hours or change of work. Adjustment 
was promised or reported in 104 additional cases. 

There were 117 women in 45 establishments who came under the piece 
rate ruling. This is the provision in the case of experienced operators that 
where the great majority on a given operation are earning the minimum or 
over the rates are considered in accordance with the decree. Eighteen women 
in 12 establishments were covered by special license provisions. 

Cases Pending 

At the close of the year there are pending from the regular inspection work, 
1 ,504 cases in 104 establishments. These are mainly under decrees where the 
inspection is still in progress as the candy, laundry and men's clothing de- 
crees; or where reinspections are necessary prior to the publication, as in the 
muslin underwear and men's furnishings decrees; or in the case of new firms, 
as under the retail store decree. 

The 148 cases hsted as pending under the electrical equipment and supplies 
decree are in a new establishment. This inspection was made after the pub- 
Hcation which followed the required inspection under that decree. 

A number of cases pending under the clothing decrees are in establishments 
which have recently come to Massachusetts from outside the state and lo- 
cated in the textile centers. The low wages paid by a number of these con- 
cerns is creating a problem. 

Summary 

The entire number of cases handled during the year include, in addition to 
those in connection with the regular inspection program, the cases pending 
from previous years and represents more than 34,000. The total non-com- 
pliance cases are the 2,878 from the regular inspection work with the 3,482 
pending at the beginning of the year and the 1,069 new cases found in the re- 
inspections of these firms. The entire number is 7,249 cases. 

Of this number 4,013 have been settled or adjustment promised before the 
close of the year. Wage adjustments or equivalent arrangement enabling 
the employees to earn the minimum were effected in 837 cases. In a number 
of additional instances adjustments were promised. There were 863 cases in 
the 42 firms advertised. There are pending at the close of the year 3,416 
cases. A large part of these are under decrees listed for publication in 
December.* 

Non-Compliances in New Establishments 
A situation which causes concern has arisen in several of the textile centers 
within the past year or two. Firms have come to Massachusetts from other 
states, taken over unoccupied mill buildings, and started factories of various 
kinds. 

In a number of instances the wages paid by these concerns are far below 
any minimum rate established under the wage decrees. Rates of $5, $6 and 
$7 a week for full-time employment are in some instances paid to women and 
girls, in some individual cases rates even as low as $3 and $4 a week have been 
found. 

Some of the work, as the manufacture of men's furnishings, children's 
clothing, underwear and radio parts come under existing wage decrees. In 
other instances no decree has been established for the occupation. 

This situation exists particularly in some of the textile cities. Owing to the 
serious business depression, it has been possible for these concerns to secure 
women and girls, and men and boys as well, at sub-normal rates of wages. 

Many complaints have come to the commission regarding these condi- 
tions. Efforts to secure adjustment to meet the provisions of the wage de- 
crees have in the majority of instances been unsuccessful. It will be neces- 
sary to publish a number of firms under decrees where in the past there have 
been no publication or only in a few cases. 

*The fiscal year ends November 30, 1930. 



19 



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February 9, 1923. — Minority report recommending that the law be made 
mandatory. (House 1325 of 1923.) 

June 7, 1923. — Test case brought against the Boston Transcript to deter- 
mine constitutionality of sections twelve and thirteen of chapter 151 of the 
General Laws requiring newspapers to publish the commission's notices and 
purporting to exempt the commission and newspapers from action for dam- 
ages for publications. (Commonwealth vs. Boston Transcript Company 
249 Mass. 477.) 

June 12, 1924. — Decision of Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts 
declaring sections twelve and thirteen of chapter 151 of the General Laws 
unconstitutional, reaffirming constitutionality of the law in its essential 
provisions as in decision in 1918, and stating that opinion of the United 
States Supreme Court of the District of Columbia declaring minimum wage 
law unconstitutional does not apply to Massachusetts law since that law 
is recommendatory. (Commonwealth vs. Boston Transcript Companv ^^49 
Mass. 477.) ^ ^ - 



(ECije Commontoealti) of Msmat^Mtttfi 



DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 



REPORT 



DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE 



REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 



Year ending November 30, 1929 



OFFICIALS 

Commissioner Assistant Commissioner 

E. LEROY SWEETSER ETHEL M. JOHNSON 

Associate Commissioners 

(Constituting the Division op Minimum Wage and the Boabd op 
Conciliation and Arbitration) 

EDWARD FISHER HERBERT P. WASGATl' 

SAMUEL ROSS 




Pubucation of this Document approved by the Commission on Administration and Finance 
800. 6-*80. Order 9202. 



ir5 



REPORT OF THE MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION 

Edward Fisher, Chairman, H-erbert P. Wasgatt, Samuel Ross, 

Ethel M. Johnson, Acting Director 

Outline of Functions ^ 

The duties of the minimum wage commission under the law comprise 
the following functions: investigating the wages of women employees in 
occupations where there is reason to believe that the wages of a substantial 
number are below the requirements of healthful living; establishing wage 
boards to recommend minimum rates of wages for women and minors; 
entering wage decrees based on the recommendations of the boards ; inspect- 
ing to determine compUance with the decrees; and publishing the results 

of the findings. , , , • .1 , .1 . 

An account of the work conducted durmg the year along these lines is 
given in the sections following. 

Work in 1929 

For several years the field work conducted in connection with the mini- 
mum wage law has been confined mainly to inspection to determine com- 
pliance with the wage decrees. There are now twenty-one decrees in effect 
covering as many (Efferent occupations. In addition to inspections, rein- 
spections are required in all cases where non-compliances are found at the 
time of the original inspection. Then there are complaints regarding non- 
compliance which should be investigated promptly. 

During the year, authorization was given for an additional investigator, 
bringing the number to four. 

Publications 

The publications issued during the year are the statement and decree 
for the boot and shoe cut stock and findings occupation and the reprint from 
the annual report of the department giving the outline of the work of the 
minimum wage commission. 

Wage Boards 

The boot and shoe cut stock and findings wage board, which was organ- 
ized in 1928, completed its work in the early part of 1929. Ten meetings 
were held in all, five of these coming in the present year. On January 9, 
1929, the board submitted a unanimous report of its determinations to the 
minimum wage commission. 

The board estimated • the. cost, -of living for -aelf-supporting woman in 
the occupation as $14*66 a Week: 'It recomiKeiideu th?vt this be established 
as the m inim um rate for a woman seventeen years of age or over with three 
months' experience in the occupation;' anxi that special rates of SIO and $12 
be fixed for experienced employees under seventeen years, and for learners 
and apprentices. 

In submitting its .report,, tiie -wkge board "presented > he claim of some of 
the employer members tHat efer'taih of " the lines covered, as pasted inner- 
soles, would not be able to pay a minimum rate based on the cost of living 
budget adopted by the board. 

Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findings Decree 

After approving provisionally the report of the wage board for the boot 
and shoe cut stock and findings occupation, the commission held a public 
neanng on the question, February 7, 1929. Five employers appeared in 
opposition to the determinations. 

fv^H^ considering the matter, the commission entered a decree based on 
tne determmation of the wage board effective June 1, 1929. 



3 

Inspection Work 



, Inspections were conducted during the year under twen^ that 
IS, under aU of the decrees now in effect with the exception of that for the 
mUhnery occupation. In the case of eight decrees-those for canning 
preserving and minor hues of confectionery, electrical equipment and sup- 
phes, men s clothing, men's furnishings, muslin underwear, women's cloth- 
mg, office cleanmg, and retail stores— only partial inspections were made 

Initial inspection was started under the boot and shoe cut stock and find- 
mgs occupation decree which became effective June 1, 1929. Although this 
was a dull season in the industry, visits were made foUowing that date in 
order to see that the provisions of the decree were understood and that the 
fr? f^! ? f f decree was posted. It was necessary to continue the inspection 
in the latter part of the year. That work is in progress at the close of the 
fewel^'^dlc^ee "^""^ ^"^^ inspection under the 

Complete inspections were made under the foUowing decrees— bread 
and bakery products, brush, corset, druggists' preparations, knit goods 
paper box, stetionery goods and envelopes, and toys and games The 
mspection under the candy and laundry decrees was initiated the previous 
year and completed during the present year. cviuub 

coJ.f.f?''/'®'' o?"!:^*^ inspection work, wage records for tabulation were 
secured for 25 590 women and girls in 922 establishments. Reinspection 
visits were made m a number of instances to help in the adjustment of cases 

fT%nTi'^'^''''^-.v,^^®'^ addition to the reinspections made 

in tne dU5 nrms with cases outstanding from previous years 

The inspection tables include only a part of the estabUshment visits made 
by the commission s agents during the year. It is sometimes necessary to 
maJie several reinspections m a single establishment to effect an adjustment 
in many instances a second visit is required before inspection can be made! 
1 he oflicial m charge of the payroll may be away at the time of the first 
visit, or some of the information essential to determine compliance may be 
lackmg. In addition there are the various cases where the firms listed from 

lorj'^'^.l'^'Pf °^ov®d' ^one out of business, or 

changed the nature of the work so they no longer come under the decree. 

iQoo A^i "^^^^ °^^de commission's agents 

dunng 1929. A large part of this work represents reinspections to assist in 
securmg compbance with the decrees. 

Laundry Decree 

The present decree for laundries— the second entered for the occupation— 

wrS«^f£f -^'"^r '^^^lool' ^^l^' inspection under thifdecree 

was started m April, 1928, and completed in April of the present year. In 
connection with this mspection, wage records for the tabulation of earnings 
were secured for 5,482 women and girls in 313 laundries «cirmngs 
ToTfo tt"*^ ^''^ by occupations in Table I and by type of laundry in 

lable 11. Comparison of the rates paid with those paid at previous inspec- 
is £verii''&^ n preceding the entrance of the present decree, 

Each inspection shows a steady improvement in the wage situation, 
l^aundry wages have advanced markedly since 1919, the time of the inspec- 
tion prior to the entrance of the present decree. At that time only 14 per 

if 1Q9Q 7n'^''°'^'' wi?o''^^A^^''''^^/ ^^^^ P^^^ much as $14 a week. 
A U? ' ^? ^^^-^^ r^tes of $14 a week and over, 

fi the most striking contrast is that in the wage rates before and 
directly after the decree went into effect, the progress shown at the subse- 
quent mspections IS of interest. The proportion of women with rates under 
^aon inspections noted is as follows: In 1919, there 

were o».2 per cent of the women with rates below $13; in 1923, 33 4 per 
^nf ' F ^M^' ^^'Kl^^^ eent; in 1926, 18.7 per cent; and in 1929, 14.6 per 
cent. or those with rates under $1 1 a week— the lowest special rate under 



nrp^pnt decree— there has been a decrease from 30.7 per cent with rates 

be^rtwra^^^ , ,,,,,,, , 

As 1919 was in general a period of high wages, and as 1923 followed a 
serious business depression with wage reductions, it seems fair to attribute 
Dart at least of the marked advance in the wages of women laundry workers 
durine this period to the effect of the decree. The steady advance in wage 
levels since the decree became effective, and the increasing proportion of 
women receiving more than the minimum rate, disprove the theory which 
is sometimes advanced that the minimum tends to become the maximum. 

In considering the inspection figures, it should be kept in mind that they 
represent rates for all women employed in laundries without regard to length 
of experience. The rates under the decree, however, range from $11 for 
beginners and $12.50 for those with three months' experience, to the mini- 
mum rate of $13.50 for a woman who has been employed five months in a 

^^^he^tables do not show compliance or non-compliance with the decree, 
but indicate the wage level for a given period. Moreover, they give the 
situation at the time of the inspection and not after all of the possible adjust- 
ments have been made. As $11 is the lowest special rate, all of the rates 
under this amount represent non-compliances. It will be noted that the 
proportion of non-compliances at this lowest level has been reduced from 
year to year. 

The classification by occupations. Table I, shows the flat work ironers 
with the largest number and proportion in the lower wage group. More 
than two-thirds of these women (67.9 per cent) have rates below $15 a week; 
and one-fourth (24.9 per cent) have rates below $13 a week. Hand washers 
come next with one-half (50.0 per cent) with rates below $15 a week. On 
the other side, from three-fourths to two- thirds of the hand ironers, collar 
ironers, starchers and menders have rates of $15 a week and over. 

Even more striking is the contrast in wages in different types of laundries 
as shown in Table II. Hand and wet wash laundries have the highest rates. 
More than one-fifth (21.8 per cent) of the women employed in hand laundries 
had rates of $20 a week and over; while one-sixth (16.1 per cent) in the wet 
wash establishments came in the same classification. Nearly three-fourths 
of the women (70.7 per cent) in the case of hand laundries, and (74.1 per cent) 
in the case of wet wash laundries — had rates of $15 a week and over. 

At the other end of the scale are the wholesale laundries and coat and 
apron supply houses. Wholesale laundries include those catering to hotel 
and steamship trade, hospitals, and other institutions. Coat and apron 
supply houses supply barbers, butchers, bakers, hotel and restaurant 
employees. 

Nine- tenths (91.4 per cent) of the women working in the wholesale laun- 
dries, and eight-tenths (79.6 per cent) in the coat and apron supply estab- 
lishments were paid at rates below $15 a week. Nearly two-thirds (61.5 per 
cent) of the women in the wholesale laundries, and more than one- third 
(35.3 per cent) of those in the coat and apron supply houses had rates for 
full-time employment below $13 a week. 

Between these two classes of laundries — the hand and wet wash on one 
side and the wholesale and coat and apron supply houses on the other — 
comes the general laundry which handles much of the family washing. 
More than one-half (57.2 per cent) of the women in these laundries have 
rates of $15 a week and over, and less than one-tenth (9.0 per cent) have 
rates below $13 a week. 

Non-compliances under the laundry decree have been published three 
times. In each instance the firms advertised represented approximately 
eight per cent of the establishments inspected. In 1923 the commission 
pubhshed twenty-two firms; in 1925, twenty-one firms; and in 1927, 
twenty-six firms. It should be noted that the inspection for 1927 included 
nineteen more laundries than that for 1923; also that a much larger number 
ot wage records were secured in 1927 than either in 1923 or 1925. 

the twenty-two firms pubUshed in 1923, eleven were published in 1925 



5 

and again in 1927. Three have gone out of business. Three complied with 
the decree after the first publication; two after the second; and three after 
the third. The twenty-one laundries published in 1925 included eighteen 
of those published in 1923, and three new establishments. Four of the 
laundries are now complying with the decree. In seventeen there has been 
no change in this respect. 

Of the twenty-six laundries advertised in 1927, one is now out of business, 
nine are complying, and in sixteen there is no change. There are nineteen 
estabUshments — three new firms in addition to the sixteen above mentioned — 
with cases outstanding and no adjustment promised at the close of the 
present year. 

Effect of Decrees 

Some indication of the influence the decrees may have upon women's 
wages is suggested by a comparison of the wage situation in four occupations 
before the entrance of the present decrees and at subsequent inspections. 
Table III summarizes the inspection returns for the druggists' preparations, 
laundry, office cleaning and retail store decrees. 

The decree for druggists' preparations and chemical compounds went into 
effect January 2, 1924. It establishes a minimum rate of $13.20 and special 
rates for learners and apprentices of $9.60 and $10.60 a week. At the 
investigation in 1923, 85.9 per cent of the women employed in the occupation 
were paid at rates below $13 a week; and 24.9 per cent at rates below $12 
a week. Only 7.1 per cent had rates as high as $15 a week. At the inspec- 
tion the following year after the entrance of the decree, 35.8 per cent had 
rates below $13 and 19.5 per cent had rates below $12; while 39.5 per cent 
had rates of $15 a week and over. 

At the inspection in 1926, the proportion with rates below $13 and $12 a 
week had been reduced to 21.4 per cent and 15.4 per cent respectively. The 
proportion with rates of $15 and over had been raised to 48.9 per cent. At 
the most recent inspection — that in 1929 — there were 19.1 per cent with 
rates below $13 a week; 9.9 per cent with rates below $12; and 57.4 per cent 
with rates of $15 a week and over. 

There have been three publications of non-compliances under this decree. 
I One firm was advertised in 1924. This establishment and one other was 
1 advertised in 1925 and again in 1927. Both are small establishments with 
, only a few employees. They represent with respect to establishments .5 
per cent of the entire number; and with respect to cases .1 per cent of those 
for whom records were secured. 

As the changes under the laundry decree have been discussed in the pre- 
ceding section on inspection work in connection with that decree, they are 
not repeated here. 

The decree for office and other building cleaners became effective February 
1, 1921. It provides a minimum rate of 37c an hour, or $15.40 a week for 
jemplojanent of forty-two hours or more. At the inspection in 1920, 84.1 
iper cent of the women engaged in this occupation had rates below 36c an 
hour. Only 12.6 per cent had rates of 38c and over. At the inspection in 
11922 following the present wage decree, only 16.4 per cent had rates under 
;56c an hour and 33 per cent had rates of 38c and over. The inspection in 
928 shows only 6.8 per cent of the women with rates below 36c an hour 
nd 52.3 per cent with rates of 38c and over. 
There have been three publications under this decree — 1921, 1925, and 
929. One firm representing a large establishment with several office build- 
Qgs was advertised in 1921 and again in 1925. This firm is now paying the 
linimum rate. Two establishments that had previously been published 
nder the retail store and paper box decrees were published in 1929 under 
,he office and other building cleaners decree. There were three cases of non- 
jompliances in these two establishments, representing .1 per cent of the 
mtire number of cases. 

The present decree for retail stores became effective June 1, 1922. It 
|rovides a minimum rate of $14 a week with special rates of $10 and $12 for 

i 



rF^tJ"a week' and 23! pt centrli below $10 a week. Only 8.1 per 

^rhad rates of. a ^^^/"^^eTc'ee, 1922-1923, 31.6 per cent of the 
In the inspection /oHo^f^S in.e u ^ ^^^^^ a week, and 

women had ra es below $14 a week 1^ P^^ 3 ^th ^a^s of $17 a 

3.0 per cent below «10 a weeK. 1 1 1926-I928, shows 19.5 per cent of 

week and over The PJffe°Vl4 a week' 7.2 per cent with rates below $12 
the women with rates below »l^a week 7^^ p^ ^ ^^^^^ 

a week ; and only l-^ rates of $17 a week and oyer 

hand, there are 38-3 cenlj^t ^^^^^ ^^^^^j ^^^^^ ^ 

Non-comphances have been P!^' ^^^^^ised in 1923, 14 were complymg 

^ iolt-^S had eone out of bustaess; and in 31 there was no change in this 

~f ' There were 13 new firms advertised in 1925. 



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Publication of Non-Compliances 

The law requires that the commission shall inspect to determine compli- 
ance with the wage decrees and that it shall publish the names, of firms that 
fail or refuse to comply. Every effort is made to secure adjustment — and 
adjustment by wage increases — for the employees receiving below the mini- 
mum rates. Publication is a last resort after every other means has failed. 

The procedure in the case of non-compliances found through the inspection 
work is as follows : The matter in the first instance is taken up by the agent 
with the employer or his representative. When adjustment cannot be 
effected in this way, a letter is sent inviting the officials of the firm to come 
to the commission's office for a conference. When it is felt that reasonable 
extension of time will assist in bringing about the adjustment, that is author- 
ized. Sometimes transfer to other work or to another method of payment 
is suggested to see if that will make it possible for the employees to earn 
the minimum rate. When no other form of adjustment can be isecured, 
reduction of hours, so that the women are paid for the time worked on the 
basis of the minimum rate, may be suggested. 

Effort is made to prevent the displacement of employees in connection 
with the application of the wage decrees. The great majority of employers 
in all of the occupations covered meet the provisions of the decrees and do 
this by wage adjustment instead of displacing the employees. Displacement 
occurs sometimes, but in a comparatively small number of cases. 

The number of firms that it is necessary to publish represents a very small 
proportion of those in the various occupations covered. In the case of some 
of the decrees, as bread and bakery products, brush, corset, knit goods, 
men's clothing, millinery, and toys, games and sporting goods, it has not 
been necessary to publish a single firm. In others, as candy, canning and 
preserving and minor lines of confectionery, druggists' preparations, office 
and other building cleaners, stationery goods and envelopes, and women's 
clothing, only two or three firms have been published. The largest number 
and proportion of cases of non-compliances are under the retail store, laun- 
dry, men's furnishings and paper box decrees. 

It has been the practice of the commission to complete the inspection and 
reinspection under a decree before publishing so that all non-compliances 
would be advertised at the same time. As a result there have been two or 
more inspection visits, as well as correspondence, conferences, or opportun- 
ity for conference offered. In addition to this, before publication takes 
place, a warning letter is sent to the firms with cases outstanding, notify- 
ing them of the legal requirements and giving reasonable time within which 
to take the matter up with the commission. After the expiration of that 
time, the final letter is sent notifying the firms to which it is addressed that 
publication will appear on a specified date unless adjustment is made and 
notice of such adjustment received at the commission's office on or before 
the given day. 

During the present year the commission has published four firms under 
the electrical equipment and supplies decree. These included 291 cases of 
non-compliance, the majority of them in one firm. They represent five per 
cent of the number of records secured in the inspection and involve approxi- 
mately five per cent of the number of firms in the occupation. 



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Situation and Disposition of 
Cases 

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Pending from previous yefirs . 


ADJUSTMENT* 

Wages raised .... 
Earning minimum on piecework 
Hours reduced or change of work 
Adjustment reported or promised 
Special license, special Hcense 

type or similar case 
Piece Rate Ruling 
Incorrectly recorded by inspector 

Left 

Discharged 

Firm bankrupt or out of business 

ADVERTISED IN 1929 . 

PENDING** 



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13 




14 

Disposition of Inspection Cases 



Non-comvliances Per^^^^^ of the present 

There were P^^^^^^^^ 92^* 3 793 in 305 firms. The majority of 

fiscal year. Decemto 1^ f 2^8^^^_^y^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^.^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ 

vhese cases— ;i,t)io published after the previous inspection. 

nTiTnher of these cases were m n p laundries; 351 in 9 electrical equip- 
The resuming cases mcM^ ' ,g furnishing factories; 

^'n«fp^b^x fafto^^^^^ underwear factories and 146 

l(k lu 1 box ta^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ addition, a few scat- 

cases m one ^^^t good^ estaon^^ following decrees: candy, 

ofn^ iryeseS confectionery, corset, druggists' 

preplS^^^^^^^^ offi^^ ^1^^^^^^' envelopes, and 

women's clothing. transfer to piece work or other 

^^t'thyt^^^^ cais'. In 32 additional cases adjust- 

Te^it was ^oS^ Six cases were covered by the ''piece rate ruhng, or 
we eHe f^r a special license. Two cases had been incorrectly recorded 

^'Twe;Trii^-nts''T^^ there had been 170 cases pending went out of 

business or Bded during the period covered. In 20 cases in three firms 
women who were receiving below the minimum rate were discharged. 

There werr2,131 cases in 216 establishments where employees who were 
receivTng below the minimum at the inspection had left at the time of th«i 
^eiXction. Most of these cases come under the retail store, laundry am 
mrn'rfurmshings decrees. A number of these were m firms that had no 
complied and were not complying at the time of the reinspection 

There were 291 cases in the four firms under the electrical equipment am 
supplies decree advertised during the year. There are still Pending at th 
close of the year 747 cases in 159 firms, many of these under the retail stoi 
and laundry decrees. An outline showing the disposition of the various cas( 
is given in Table IV. 

Disposition of New Cases , . , . ^. j:„ 

At the reinspections made in the effort to adjust the cases outstandm 
from previous years, there were found 1,756 new cases of non-compliam 
in 160 firms. With the exception of 15 cases in three women s clothing stiOD 
and 15 cases in two muslin underwear factories, all of these cases were foun 
in retail stores, laundries, and men's furnishings estabhshments. 

As many of these establishments were ones that had never complied, te^ 
adjustments were possible. In 15 cases in 5 firms, wages were raised to me< 
the provisions of the decrees. In 110 additional cases m 8 estabhshment! 
adjustment was promised. Twelve employees in 4 estabhshments 1^ 
during the year. There are pending at the end of the year 1,619 cases i 
146 firms under five decrees. Publication under these decrees will take pla^ 
early in the ensuing year. An outline of the disposition of the cases cite 
is presented in Table V. 

• The Annual Report for 1928 lists 3,748 cases pending from the end of the year. The difference w 
to the omission from the 1928 tabulation of one firm with 45 cases of non-comphance, which snoma i 



been included that year. 



15 



TABLE V. 

Disposition of New Cases of Non-Compliance in Firms where Cases were 
Pending from Previous Years 

(C — Cases; E — Establishments) 



sittjation and disposition of 
Cases 


Laundry 


Men's 
Fur- 
nish- 
ings 


Muslin 
Under- 
wear 


Retail 
Store 


Women's 
Clothing 


Total 




C. E. 


C. E. 


C. E. 


C. E. 


C. E. 


C. E. 


Number of cases of non-compliance 


230 18 


73 3 


15 2 


1,423 134 


15 3 


1.756 160 


ADJUSTMENT* 

Wages raised .... 
Adjustment reported or proroised 
Left 

PENDING** .... 


5 1 
19 2 

206 15 


8 1 
65 3 


9 1 
6 1 


6 3 
82 5 
3 2 
1,332 125 


4 1 

1 1 
10 2 


15 5 
110 8 
12 4 
1,619 146 



• See notes on Table VI. 

These cases are in .addition to those listed as pending in Tables IV and VI. 



Summary of Adjustments 

In the regular inspection work for the year, wage records for tabulation 
were secured for 25,590 women and girls in 922 establishments under 20 
decrees. There were in 903 establishments, 23,467 cases of full compliance; 
and in 636 establishments, representing 12,260 employees, there was not a 
single case of non-compliance at the time the inspection was made. 

There were 2,125 cases of non-compliance in 287 establishments. Of 
these cases, 1,009 were settled or adjustment promised before the close of 
the year. Wages were raised in 507 cases in 143 establishments. In 54 
cases in 17 establishments, the employees were able to earn the minimum on 
piece work. In four cases, hours were reduced so that the employees were 
paid on the basis of the minimum rate for the time worked. There were 
47 cases covered by the "piece rate ruling," and 10 cases of special licenses 
or special license type. Adjustment was promised in 199 cases in 30 estab- 
lishments. Nine cases had been incorrectly recorded as non-compliances. 
In 18 cases in five establishments employees receiving below the minimum 
rate were discharged or laid off. In 161 cases in 53 establishments, the 
employees left during the year. 

There are pending at the close of the period, 1,116 cases in 112 establish- 
ments. These are in addition to the cases pending from previous years 
and the new cases found in those establishments at the reinspections during 
the present year. In all there are 3,482 cases pending in 417 establishments. 



16 



09 



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18 



Minimum Wage Decrees Entered or Made Effective During the Year 1929 





Workers Affected 


Mini- 


Qualifications 


Date 


Kind of Wobk 
Covered 


ClasB 


Age 


mum 
Wage 
Rates 


Decree 
Entered 


Decree 
Effective 


Boot and Shoe 
Cut Stock and 
Findings 


Experienced females 
of ordinary ability 


17 or 
over 


$14.65 
weekly 


To be deemed "ex- 
perienced " after 
reaching the age of 
17 and having been 
employed three 
months in the oc- 
cupation. 


March 14, 
1929 


June 1, 
1929 


Learners and Appren- 
tices: 

With less than three 
months' experience 

With three months' 
experience 

With less than three 
months' experi- 
ence 


17 or 
over 
Under 

17 
Under 

17 


$12.00 
weekly 
$12.00 
weekly 
$10.00 
weekly 








19 



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20 



Status of Minimum Wa(;e Decrees 



iir T^^rTPP^ FMahlished in Massachusetts Since Enactment of the 



Occupations Covered 



10. 



♦Brush . • • • • 
•Laundry . • • • • 
♦Retail stores . • • • 
♦Women's Clothing. • ■ 
♦Men's Clothing and Raincoats 
♦Men's Furnishings. 
♦Mushn Underwear 
♦Retail Millinery . 
♦Wholesale Millinery 
♦OfiBce Cleaners 

♦Canning and Preserving 
'Candy 



(1) 13. ♦♦Corset 



(2) 14. 



♦♦Men's Clothing and Raincoats 
vised) . • • • • 

(3) 15. ♦♦Knit Goods . • • . • 

16. ♦•Women's Clothing (revised) 

17. •♦Paper Box . • 

(4) 18. Office Cleaners (revised) 



19. 

(5) 20. 

(6) 21. 

(7) 22. 

(8) 23. 

(9) 24. 

(10) 25. 

(11) 26. 

(12) 27. 

(13) 28. 



(14) 29. 

(15) 30. 

(16) 31. 

(17) 32, 

(18) 33. 

(19) 34, 

(20) 35 

(21) 36 



♦♦Minor Confectionery . 
Paper Box (revised) • . • , 
Women's Clothing (2d revised) 
Mushn Underwear (revised) 
♦♦Men's Furnishings (revised) 
Retail Stores (revised) . 
Laundry (revised) . 
Brush, 2 (revised) j t. • 

Druggists' Preparations and Proprie 

tary Medicines • •. • 

Canning and Preserving, Minor con- 
fectionery and Food Preparations 3 
(combined and revised) . 
Bread and Bakery Products • ■ 
MilUnery* (combined and revised) 
Stationery Goods and Envelopes 
Candy (revised) . ■ 
Jewelry and Related Lines • • 
Toys, Games and Sporting Goods 
Electrical Equipment and Supplies 
Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findings 



Minimum 
Rate 



(re- 



$0,155 hr. 

8.00 

8.50 

8.75 

9.00 

9.00 

9.00 
10.00 
11.00 
.30 A.M. 
.26 P.M. 
11.00 
12.50 
13.00 

15.00 
13.75 
15.25 
15.50 
15.40 
or .37 hr. 
12.00 
13.50 
14.00 
13.75 
13.75 
14.00 
13.50 
13.92 

13.20 



13.00 
13.00 
13.00 
13.75 
13.00 
14.40 
13.50 
14.00 
14.65 



Date 
Entered 



June 
July 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Aug. 
Oct. 
July 
July 
Nov. 



29, 1914 
1, 1915 

15, 1915 
28, 1916 
31, 1917 
26, 1917 
1, 1918 
1, 1918 

30, 1918 



Jan. 27, 1919 

July 21, 1919 

July 19, 1919 

Dec. 27, 1919 

Dec. 27, 1919 
Mar. 13, 1920 
May 6, 1920 
May 26, 1920 
Dec. 30, 1920 

Oct. 4, 1921 
April 27, 1922 
April 27, 1922 
April 27, 1922 
April 27, 1922 
April 27, 1922 
May 19, 1922 
Jan. 25, 1923 

Sept. 27, 1923 



Nov. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Oct. 

Jan. 

Sept. 

Jan. 

April 

Mar. 



3, 1924 
17, 1925 
24, 1925 
27, 1925 
26, 1926 
9, 1926 
1, 1927 
5, 1928 
14, 1929 



Date 
Effective 



Aug. 
Sept. 
Jan. 
Feb. 
Jan. 
Feb. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Jan. 



15, 1914 
1, 1915 
1, 1916 
1, 1917 
1, 1918 
1, 1918 
1, 1918 
1, 1918 
1, 1919 



Status 



Obsolete 



April 1, 1919 

Sept. 1, 1919 

Jan. 1, 1920 

Mar. 1, 1920 



Feb. 
July 
July 
July 
Feb. 



1, 1920 
1, 1920 
1. 1920 
1, 1920 
1, 1921 



Nov. 1, 1921 

May 15, 1922 

May 15, 1922 

June 1, 1922 



June 
June 
July 
Mar. 



1, 1922 
1, 1922 
1, 1922 
1, 1923 



In effect 



Obsolete j 

u 

In effect 

Obsolete I 
In effect 



Jan. 2, 1924 



April 

May 

July 

Jan. 

Mar. 

Jan. 

Mar. 

June 

June 



1, 1925 
1, 1925 
1. 1925 
1, 1926 
1, 1926 
1, 1927 
1, 1927 
1, 1928 
1, 1929 



• Decree entered prior to consoUdation of State Departments, December, 1919- oon«oUda' 
•♦ wie Sards established or authorized, or arrangements for reconvemng made prior to consohda 

P^Ee'StcSS^^nd Riincoat Wage Board was reconvened in 1921 tg revise th^^x^sting ra 
The bSLd ??commende|l a minimum rate of S14.75 This was not approv^ 

2 The Brush Wage Board was reconvened in 1921. This Doard^^^°'^^^^^j_ 

S14 40 This was not approved by the Commission. Another board was formed in 19/^, wmcn re 
mended a mSnimum Ste'S $13.92."^ The present decree is based on f^^.I^f^^Z^'^Tth^ Minor Co" 

3 This board combines the work of the former Canmng and Preserving Board and tne Minor 

''TTZ^lilr^c^^^^^ tKrmer Retail MiUinery Occupation Board and the Who 

Millinery Occupation Board. . 

6 Figures in parentheses ( ) refer to decrees now m effect. 



^ DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES : 

J4 y^^y-ty%^^^/^-^^ ^VV<Z^i~~ 



REPORT 



OF THE 



DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE 



REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 

For the Year Ending November 30, 1930 




Publication of this Document approved by the Commission jjn' Administration and Finajjce 
800. 5-'31. Order 2112. 



2 



OFFICIALS 

Commissioner rtf^i^UJLkJM Assistant Commissioner 

E. LEROY SWEETSER ETHEL M. JOHNSON 

Associate Commissioners 

(Constituting the Division of Minimum Wage and the Board of 
Conciliation AND Arbitration) 

EDWARD FISHER HERBERT P. WASGATT 

SAMUEL ROSS 



REPORT OF THE MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION 

Edward Fisher, Chairman; Herbert P. Wasgatt; Samuel Ross, 
Ethel M. Johnson, Acting Director 

Outline of Functions 

The duties of the minimum wage commission under the law comprise the 
following functions: investigating the wages of women employees in occupa- 
tions where there is reason to believe that the wages of a substantial number 
are below the requirements of healthful living; establishing wage boards to 
recommend minimum ratfes for women and minors; entering wage decrees 
based on the recommendations of the boards ; inspecting to determine com- 
pliance with the decrees; and publishing the result of the findings. 

An account of the work carried on during the year is given in the sections 
that follow- 

Work in 1930 

Since 1927 the field work conducted in connection with the minimum wage 
law has been confined for the most part to inspections to determine com- 
pliance with the wage decrees. There are now twenty-one decrees in effect 
covering as many different occupations. Approximately 75,000 women and 
girls are employed in the occupations covered by wage decrees. 

In addition to the regular inspections under the decrees, numerous rein- 
spections are required in connection with the adjustment of non-compliances 
found at the time of the.«riginal inspection. Many inspections are also made 
on complaiiLt.. .' This ocfiasionally involves visiting the complainants to secure 
additional information,. or to explain the limitations of the law. Another 
phase of the work that arises in connection with the inspections is interview- 
ing applicants- for special licenses. 

Wage board candidates ^re also interviewed as part of the field work when 
wage boards" are being Yormed. There have been no wage boards in session 
during the year. It was' the opinion of the commission that on account of 
the serious, business; depression of the past year conditions of employment 
were far from iiorsigl. For that reason no wage studies as the basis for the 
formation pf::iiew boarcig have been initiated. 



3 

Publications 'J^ 

The only publication issued during the year is the reprint from the annual 
report of the department giving the outline of the work of the division of 
minimum wage. 

Advertisement of Non-Compliances 

The commission is by law required to publish names of firms that fail or 
refuse to comply with its decrees. Publication is regarded as a last resort. 
Every effort is made to secure adjustment of non-compliances without publi- 
cation. An account of the procedure taken in non-compliance cases prior to 
publication is given in the report for 1929. 

Table 1. — Advertisement of Non-Compliances Under Minimum 
Wage Decrees, 1930 





Date of 


Establish- 


Records in 


Cases of Non- 


Per cent of 


Occupation 


,. advertise- 


ments in 


most recent 


compliance 


Non-compli ances 




ment 


most recent 


inspection 












inspection 














Firms 


Cases 


Firms 


Cases 


Candy .... 


12/30/29 














Men's Furnishings 


12/30/29 


109 


5756 


2 


56 


1.8 


1.0 


Office Cleaners 


12/31/29 


69 


4299 


8 


193 


11.6 


4.5 


Muslin Underwear 


1/3/30 


362 


2207 


2 


3 


.6 


.1 


Laundry .... 


8/9/30 


91 


2480 


4 


15 


4.3 


.6 


8/30/30 


337 


5890 


16 


291 


4.7 


4.9 


Electrical Equipment . 
Druggists' Compounds 
Stationery Goods 


8/10/30 


74 


5434 


6 


272 


8.1 


5.0 


11/15/30 


60 


638 


2 


18 


3.3 


2.8 


U/3/30 


71 


3747 


2 


15 


2.8 


.4 



Number of firms advertised during the year: 42, with 863 cases of non-compliance. 



Decrees and Cases 

In 1930 the commission published non-compliances under eight decrees as 
indicated in Table 1. This shows the extent of such advertisement. In each 
instance the number of firms it was necessary to publish represents only a 
small proportion of all the firms inspected in the occupation. The sam« is 
true in regard to non-compliance cases. 

Advertisements this year represent the second publication in the case of 
the electrical equipment and supplies decree; the third in the case of the 
candy, men's furnishings, muslin underwear, office and other building clean- 
ers, and stationery goods and envelopes decrees; and the fourth in the case of 
the druggists preparations and laundry decrees. 

Arrangements are being made for publication in December, 1930, under the 
boot and shoe cut stock and findings, paper box, jewelry and retail store 
decrees. 

Inspections 

Decrees 

Inspection was conducted in 1930 under nineteen decrees. This includes, 
however, inspection on complaint, partial inspection and that in connection 
with other decrees. Complete inspection was made during the year under 
seven decrees: bread and bakery products; canning and preserving and 
minor lines of confectionery; electrical equipment and supplies; men's furn- 
ishings; millinery; muslin underwear; and women's clothing. 

Inspections on complaint or incidental to the regular work, or reinspection 
preliminary to publication of non-compliances were made in one or more es- 
tablishments under each of the following decrees: brush, druggists' prepara- 
I taons and proprietary medicines, office and other building cleaners, paper 
box, retail stores, toys and games and stationery goods and envelopes. 

Re-inspections 

In connection with the inspection work, wage records for tabulation were 
secured for 30,896 women and girls in 1 ,014 firms. In addition a large num- 



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ber of re-inspections were made. These include revisits to secure adjustment 
of non-compliances found in the course of the regular inspection; also riBin- 
spection preliminary to publication in the case of firms with cases pending 
from previous years. These reinspections alone represent visits to 417 es- 
tablishments and checking up 3,482 cases. 

In some instances several visits for various reasons are necessary in connec- 
tion with the inspection of a single establishment. If non-compliances are 
found, reinspection is made later to see if they are adjusted. In some in- 
stances several inspection visits are necessary to assist in the adjustment of 
non-compliances. 

These numerous revisits and reinspections are not included in the estab- 
hshments recorded in the inspection tables. In all, 2,724 establishment 
visits were made by agents of the commission during the year. 

Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findings Decree 

The initial inspection under the boot and shoe cut stock and findings de- 
cree was completed in the early part of this year. This decree became effec- 
tive June 1, 1929. It establishes a minimum rate of $14.65 a week for women 
of ordinary ability with special rates of S12.00 and $10.00 for inexperienced 
workers according to age. 

This industry includes the manufacture of counters, innersoles, shanks, 
rands, heels other than wood, shoe trimmings, ornaments, and similar prod- 
ucts. Most of the plants engaged in this work are located near the shoe 
centers. 

The inspection under this decree was started in June, 1929, and completed 
in February, 1930. The principal part of the inspection came in the fall and 
winter. 

Rates and Earnings* 

In the course of the inspection wage records for tabulation of weekly earn- 
ings were secured for 1 ,432 women in 109 establishments and weekly rates for 
695 women in 96 establishments. Rates by type of establishment are shown 
in Table 2. From this it will be seen that there is wide difference in wages in 
the various lines. 

Comparison of the wage situation at the time of the investigation prelimi- 
nary to the entrance of the decree and at the inspection directly after the de- 
cree went into effect is shown in Table 3. Notwithstanding the general busi- 



Table 3. — Comparison of Rates in Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findings 
Establishments in Massachusetts at Investigation Prior to Decree and 
at Subsequent Inspection 







Number and Peb Cent of Workers with Rates 








Under 
$9 


Under Under 
$10 $11 


Under Under Under Under Under 
$12 $13 $14 $15 $16 


Under 
$17 


Under 
$18 


$18 & 

Over 


Total 


Investigation, 1924-1925 


!f umber 
Per cent 


9 

2.6 


13 25 
3.7 7.1 


44 99 117 186 228 
12.6 28.3 33.4 53.1 65.1 


259 
74.0 


280 
80.0 


70 
20.0 


350 
100 


Ibt Inspection, 1929 


'dumber 
i*er cent 


8 

1.2 


16 39 
2.3 5.6 


53 174 234 346 489 
7.6 25.0 33.7 49.8 70.4 


551 
79.3 


571 
82.2 


124 
17.8 


69$ 
100 



>ate of Decree— June 1, 1929. Minimum rate— $14.65. Spetial Rates— $12.00, $10.00 



*Earning8 should not be confused with rates. Rates are definite amounts indicated for full time employ- 
«nt either by hour, day or week. Earnings are what employees are paid as shown by payrolls. In many 
laes earnings are leee than rates would indicate the employees should receive because of their working part 



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9 

ness depression there is an improvement in the wages of the women and girls 
who were receiving less than the minimum rate prior to the entrance of the 
decree as an analysis of the tables show. 

Electrical Equipment and Supplies Decree 
Two inspections have been made under the electrical equipment and sup- 
plies decree which went into effect June 1, 1928. This decree provides a 
minimum rate of $14.00 a week for women with six months' experience in the 
occupation and a special rate of $12.00 a week for beginners. 

The inspection this year was started in December, 1929, and completed in 
February, 1930. Wage records for the tabulation of earnings were secured 
for 5,890 women employed in 58 establishments. Weekly earnings of these 
women by occupations are shown in Table 4. 

Rates and Earnings* 

The effect of the business depression is doubtless reflected in the earnings. 
Approximately one-half of the women (50.4 percent) earned less than $14.00 
a week; and more than one-fourth (28.6 percent) earned less than $12.00 a 
week. 

More than one-half of the women recorded were on piece work. Weekly 
rates for tabulation were secured for 2,260 women in 55 establishments. 
These are shown in Table 5. Nowhere is the contrast in the wages paid by 
different firms in the same industry more striking than here. 

Comparison of the rates in the occupation at the time of the investigation 
before the decree was entered and at subsequent inspections was made in 
Table 6. At the investigation three-fifths (59.0 percent) had rates for full- 
time employment under $14.00 a week, the present minimum rate. One- 
fifth (22.7 percent) had rates under $12.00 a week. 

The majority of the firms in the industry have accepted the decree and are 
meeting its provisions. Non-complying firms were advertised in August of 
this year. An account of that action is given in the section on publications 
in this report. 

Disposition of Inspection Cases 
Disposition of Non-Compliances Pending From Previous Years 

At the beginning of the fiscal year, there were outstanding from previous 
years, 3,482 cases of non-compliances in 417 firms. Most of these came under 
the retail store decree — 2,050 cases in 272 firms, the majority of which had 
been advertised one or more times. 

There were also 337 cases in 34 laundries, 182 in an electrical equipment 
and supplies establishment, 178 in 22 boot and shoe cut stock and findings 
establishments, 147 in 12 men's furnishings establishments, 117 in 19 paper 
box factories, and 63 in six corset factories. 

The remaining cases were divided among a few firms under each of the 
following decrees: bread and bakery products, candy, canning and preserving 
and minor lines of confectionery, druggists' preparations, jewelry, knit goods, 
men's clothing, muslin underwear, office cleaning, stationery goods and en- 
velopes, toys, games and sporting goods, and women's clothing. 

Reinspection was made in all of the firms with cases pending to try and 
secure adjustment; or, when this could not be effected, as a preliminary to 
publication. In connection with the advertisement of non-compliances, it is 
the intent of the commission to have reinspection made within a reasonable 
time prior to publication. 

Adjustments 

So large a part of the cases were in firms previously published, compara- 
tively few adjustments were effected. Wages were raised to meet the pro- 
visions of the decrees in 275 cases in 91 firms. Adjustment by changmg type 
of work or method of payment or hours so that the employees were enabled 

•See note on Page 54. 



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Knit 
Goods 




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d 


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CO 


Jewelry 






coil llliC! 11^ 


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Electrical 
Equipment 

and 
Supplies 






1 III 1 1 1 1 1 ^11 


d 


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1 III 1 1 1 1 1 CM 1 1 

00 


Druggists' 
Prepara- 
tions and 
Proprie- 
tary Medi- 
cines 




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Canning 
and Pre- 

servins; and 
Minor Lines 

of Confec- 
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^ III 1 1 1 1 1 III 


d 


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Candy 






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and 
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Products 






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Boot and 
Shoe Cut 
Stock and 
Findings 






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Situation and Disposition 
of Cases 


Pending from previous years 


ADJUSTMENT* 
Wages raised . 

Earning minimum on piece work or on 
commission basis .... 
Hours reduced or change of work 
Adjustment reported or promised 
Special license, special license type or 

Piece rate ruling .... 
Incorrectly recorded by investigator . 

Left 

Discharged 

Firm bankrupt, out of business, or 
moved out of State 
ADVERTISED IN 1930 . 
PENDING 



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Total 




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CO 




d 


1,069 


CO O COrH t^O 
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ToyB, Games 
and Sport- 
ing Goods 






1 I 1 1 1 •H 1 1 1 


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Stationery 
Goods and 
Envelopes 


m 




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Retail 
Store 




1 


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rH 00 


Paper 
Box 




:^ 


1 1 C^t-t 1 C<li-l 1 1 «o 


d 




1 1 00-1 1 '^r-l 1 1 N 

00 


Office 
Cleaning 






1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ^ 1 


d 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (N 1 


Men's 
Furnishings 




(N 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 C4 1 


d 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 >o 1 


Situation and Disposition of Cases 




ADJUSTMENT* 

Adjustment reported or promised ..... 

Special license, special license type or similar case 

Piece rate ruling ........ 

Left . 

Laid off 

ADVERTISED 1930 

PENDING 



15 



So 

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ment 
and 
Supplies 




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1 1 1 1 


1 


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to "5 CO 


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Druggists' 
Com- 
pounds 
and Pro- 
prietary 
Medi- 
cines' 


r-ri 




1 1 


1 1 1 1 ^ 1 1 










1 1 1 1 IN 1 1 


1 1 1 


Canning 
and Pre- 
serving 
and Minor 
Lines of, 
Confec- 
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Total 




TfinoOO (Me0(NO5iO (N O Tj< (N CO 
^0505—1 (M iM (N-^ 100 O 
005COCO T-H '-' 


d 


30,896 
28,018 
16,144 
2,878 

828 
134 
2 

104 
117 

18 
23 

281 
11 
84 

272 
1.504 


Women's 
Clothing 




f^-^eooo ,^^|,-(^ 1 ICO 
CO CO — < ^ ^ 


d 




Toys, 
Games, 
and 
Sporting 
Goods 1 






d 


OOJlTjt ,^1111 IIICOIII 


Stationery 
Goods 
and 
Envelopes 3 




( ^ ,^1111 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


d 


OlO 1 .-H i-H 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Retail 
Stores 




j^^aoco b»ilcoi II— ililcD 


d 


>OC0OC^ lOlliOl IICTillICO 

■<}< CO lO ^ 

TfCOIN-i 


Paper 
Box 3 




00 CO "-^llll IIMIIIM 


d 


C0OC5O <-i|||| l|Tt<lll>C 
0COO<N -1 


Office 
Clean- 
ers 3 




>0CT>C003 CO 1 1 1 1 1— CJCI^ 1 1 r-^ 


d 


OOt^in-i CO 1 1 1 1 — i(N(NO 1 1 —1 


Muslin 
Under- 
wear 




— <^C^35 OOlCOOO ^It^l 1 ICO 
OOOOCOrt ^ ^ ^ Ci 




CO 


MilUnery 




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CO O CD 


d 


ooc^o eocoiwoo 1 1^1 111 

00 ^ -"J* 
O5 00 w 


Men's 
Furnish- 
ings 




^OO-H COt^ 1 1 IM (N 1 05 1 -1 1 (N 
t^t^CO-<t — 1 ^ ,-1 


d 


£222=^^ rfOI IC-. OllCOIt^lO 
V;3eO(N (N(N CO (NO-* 
^.^-00 uo CO 
CO(N 


Situation and Disposition of Cases 


Records for tabulation and establishments repre- 
sented ....... 

Compliance at inspection .... 

Establishments with full compUance and cases 

Cases of non-comphance ..... 

ADJUSTMENT 4 

Wages raised ...... 

Earning minimum on piece work . 
Hours reduced; change of work . 
Adjustment promised or reported 5 
Covered by piece rate ruling 6 
Special license, special Hcense type or similar 
case ....... 

Incorrectly recorded by investigator 

Left 7 

Discharged or laid off . 

Firm out of business ..... 

ADVERTISED 

PENDING** 



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i 

to earn the minimum was made in 65 additional cases. Further adjustments 
were reported or promised in 169 cases representing 31 establishments 

There were 19 employees in four establishments covered by the piece rate 
ruling; and 11 cases in five establishments that were covered by special 
licenses. It was found that 27 cases in eight firms had been incorrectly re- 
corded as non-compliance. 

Advertisements 

The firms advertised include 520 of the cases pending at the beginning of 
the year, and were distributed as follows: 56 in two candy factories, 291 in 
16 laundries, 193 in eight men's furnishings establishments; 15 in four muslin 
underwear establishments, 15 in two stationery goods and envelopes fac- 
tories, 14 in two establishments manufacturing druggists' preparations, and 
one under the office and other building cleaners decree. 

Cases Pending 

There are outstanding at the close of the year 1,106 eases in 205 establish- 
ments, mainly under the retail store, boot and shoe cut stock and findings and 
paper box decrees. Arrangements have been made for publication under 
these decrees in December. An outline of the disposition of these cases is 
given in Table 7. 

Disposition of Inspection Cases 
Disposition of New Cases 

In the course of the reinspection of firms with cases outstanding from 
previous years, 1,069 new cases were found in 162 firms. The majority of 
these 748 cases in 120 firms came under the retail store decree. Most of the 
remaining cases were in paper box factories, men's furnishings establishments, 
and boot and shoe cut stock and findings plants. 

There were some additional cases in one or more establishments under each 
of the following decrees: corset, druggists' preparations, jewelry, laundry, 
men's clothing, office cleaning, stationery goods and envelopes, and toys, 
games and sporting goods. 

Adjustments 

As the greater number of these cases were in firms that had never complied, 
adjustments were secured in comparatively few instances. In 30 eases in 
eight firms wages were raised to meet the provisions of the decree. Adjust- 
ment was promised in 105 additional cases. 

In 38 cases in 13 establishments employees who were receiving below the 
minimum left, and in 12 cases involving three firms, the employees were laid 
off. One firm went out of business during the year. Four firms in which 
there were 71 cases of non-compliance were advertised. 

Cases Pending 

There are pending at the close of the year 806* cases in 123 firms. These 
include 643 cases in retail stores, 82 in paper box factories, and 55 in boot and 
shoe cut stock and findings plants. Publication under these decrees will be 
made in December, 1930. An outline of the disposition of the cases under the 
various decrees represented is given in Table 8. 

Disposition of Inspection Cases 
Disposition of Cases in the Regular Inspection Work 

In 316 establishments, 2,878 cases of non-compliance were found. Of this 
number 1,374 were settled or adjustment was promised before the close of the 
year. Some of the remaining cases will doubtless be adjusted in connection 
with the reinspections which will be made after the regular inspection work 
has been completed. 
I Adjustments 

i With respect to the cases settled, wages were raised for 328 women in 122 
establishments. In 136 other cases women were enabled to earn the mini- 

* It should be underatood that these cases are in addition to those listed as pending from previous 
years, and those from the regular inspection work of the present year, The entire number of oases out- 
standing at the close of the year is the sum of the cases listed as pending under these several headings. 



18 



mum on piece work or by reduction of hours or change of work. Adjustment 
was promised or reported in 104 additional cases. 

There were 117 women in 45 establishments who came under the piece 
rate ruling. This is the provision in the case of experienced operators that 
where the great majority on a given operation are earning the minimum or 
over the rates are considered in accordance with the decree. Eighteen women 
in 12 establishments were covered by special license provisions. 

Cases Pending 

At the close of the year there are pending from the regular inspection work, 
1 ,504 cases in 104 establishments. These are mainly under decrees where the 
inspection is still in progress as the candy, laundry and men's clothing de- 
crees; or where reinspections are necessary prior to the publication, as in the 
muslin underwear and men's furnishings decrees; or in the case of new firms, 
as under the retail store decree. 

The 148 cases listed as pending under the electrical equipment and supplies 
decree are in a new establishment. This inspection was made after the pub- 
lication which followed the required inspection under that decree. 

A number of cases pending under the clothing decrees are in establishments 
which have recently come to Massachusetts from outside the state and lo- 
cated in the textile centers. The low wages paid by a number of these con- 
cerns is creating a problem. 

Summary 

The entire number of cases handled during the year include, in addition to 
those in connection with the regular inspection program, the cases pending 
from previous years and represents more than 34,000. The total non-com- 
pliance cases are the 2,878 from the regular inspection work with the 3,482 
pending at the beginning of the year and the 1,069 new cases found in the re- 
inspections of these firms. The entire number is 7,249 cases. 

Of this number 4,013 have been settled or adjustment promised before the 
close of the year. Wage adjustments or equivalent arrangement enabling 
the employees to earn the minimum were effected in 837 cases. In a number 
of additional instances adjustments were promised. There were 863 cases in 
the 42 firms advertised. There are pending at the close of the year 3,416 
cases. A large part of these are under decrees listed for publication in 
December.* 

Non-Compliances in New Establishments 
A situation which causes concern has arisen in several of the textile centers 
within the past year or two. Firms have come to Massachusetts from other 
states, taken over unoccupied mill buildings, and started factories of various 
kinds. , 

In a number of instances the wages paid by these concerns are far below 
any minimum rate established under the wage decrees. Rates of $5, $6 and 
$7 a week for full-time employment are in some instances paid to women and 
girls, in some individual cases rates even as low as $3 and $4 a week have been 
found. 

Some of the work, as the manufacture of men's furnishings, children's 
clothing, underwear and radio parts come under existing wage decrees. In 
other instances no decree has been established for the occupation. 

This situation exists particularly in some of the textile cities. Owing to the 
serious business depression, it has been possible for these concerns to secure 
women and girls, and men and boys as well, at sub-normal rates of wages. 

Many complaints have come to the commission regarding these condi- 
tions. Efforts to secure adjustment to meet the provisions of the wage de- 
crees have in the majority of instances been unsuccessful. It will be neces- 
sary to publish a number of firms under decrees where in the past there have 
been no publication or only in a few cases. 

♦The fiscal year enda November 30, 1930. 



19 



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To be deemed "experienced" after 

reaching the age of 18 and hav- 
ing one year's experience in the 
occupation. 


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employed in the occuptaion one 
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years. 


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employed in the occupation for 
at least 52 weeks. 


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employed in the occupation 52 
weeks, 26 of which shall have 
been in the present employer's 
shop. 


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five months' employment in the 
occupation. 


$13.50 weekly. 
$12.00 weekly. 


$10.00 weekly. 
$8.50 weekly. 


$14 weekly. 


$12 weekly. 
$10 weekly. 


$13.75 weekly. 


$12 weekly. 
$10 weekly, 
$9 weekly. 

$12 weekly, 
$10 weekly. 
$8 weekly. 


$13.75 weekly. 


$12 weekly. 
$10 weekly, 
$8 weekly. 

$12 weekly. 
$10 weekly. 
$7.50 weekly. 


$13.50 weekly. 


$12.50 weekly. 
$11 weekly. 


(1) 18 or over. 

(2) Under 18. 


(1) 18 or over. 

(2) Under 18. 


19 or over. 


(1) 18 or over, 

(2) Less than 18. 


16 or over. 


(1) 16 or over. 

(2) Less than 16. 


16 or over. 


(1) 16 or over. 

(2) Less than 16. 


Any, 


Any. 


Experienced females of ordi- 
nary abihty. 


Learners and apprentices. 


Experienced females of ordi- 
nary ability. 


Learners and apprentices. 


Experienced females of ordi- 
nary ability. 


Learners and apprentices: 

(1) 26-52 weeks' experience. 

(2) 13-26 weeks' experience. 

(3) Less than 13 weeks' ex- 
perience. 

(1) 52 weeks or over. 

(2) 26-52 weeks' experience. 

(3) Less than 26 weeks' ex- 
perience. 


Experienced females of ordi- 
nary ability. 


Learners and apprentices: 

(1) 26-52 weeks' experience. 

(2) 13-26 weeks' experience. 

(3) Less than 13 weeks' ex- 
perience. 

(1) 52 weeks or over. 

(2) 26-52 weeks' experience. 

(3) Less than 26 weeks' ex- 
perience. 


Experienced females of ordi- 
nary ability. 


Learners and apprentices: 

(1) 3-5 months' experience. 

(2) Less than 3 months' ex- 
perience. 


^BSF'box occupation (including 
^iR-up, corrugated and folding 

boxes). 6 

(revised decree) 


Retail stores. ^ 
(revised decree) 


Men's furnishings factories (man- 
ufacturers of men's and boys' 
shirts, overalls and other work- 
ingmen's garments, men's 
neckwear and other furnish- 
ings, and men's, women's and 
children's garters and suspen- 
ders.) 7 

(revised decree) 


MusUn underwear, petticoat, 
apron, kimono, house dress, 
women's neckwear and chil- 
dren's clothing factories. 8 
(revised decree) 


Laundry. » 

(revised decree) 



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DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES;]] 



REPORT 

OF THE 

DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE 



REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 

For the Year Ending November 30, 1931 



OFFICIALS 

Commissioner Assistant Commissioner 

E. LEROY SWEETSER ETHEL M. JOHNSON 

Associate Commissioners 

(Constituting the Division of Minimum Wage and the Board of 
Conciliation and Arbitration) 

EDWARD FISHER HERBERT P. WASGATT 

SAMUEL ROSS 




Publication of this Document approved by the Commission on Administkation and FiJ«jance 
600. 7- 32. Order 5955. 



NOV 1932 

STATE HOUSE BOSTON 
REPORT OF THE MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION 

Edward Fisher, C/iaimalf/'^feRTB'ERT F.-%asgatt, Samuel Ross, 
Ethel M. Johnson, Acting Director 
Outline of Functions 
The duties of the minimum wage commission under the law comprise the follow- 
ing functions: investigating the wages of women employees in occupations where 
there is reason to believe that the wages of a substantial number are below the re- 
quirement of healthful living; establishing wage boards to recommend minimum 
rates for women and minors; entering wage decrees based on the recommendations 
of the boards; inspecting to determine compliance with the decrees; and publishing 
the result of the findings. 

An account of the work carried on during the year is given in the sections that 
follow. 

Work in 1931 

There are now twenty-one wage decrees in effect. As usual, field work during the 
year has been confined to a great extent to inspections to determine compliance 
with these wage decrees, together with numerous re-inspections made in connection 
with the adjustment of non-compliances found at the time of the original inspec- 
tions. Many inspections were also made as the result of complaints. In addition, 
with a view to establishing wage boards in the business of pocketbooks and leather- 
specialties manufacturing and in waste-sorting, investigations of the wages of women 
in these two occupations have been made. As a result of these studies the commis- 
sion voted to establish a wage board for women employed in the manufacture of 
pocketbooks and leather specialties, and has under consideration the establishing of a 
board in the waste-sorting occupation. During the year the commission has pub- 
lished non-compliances under fifteen decrees, the largest number ever published, in 
any one year. 

The continued period of depression has presented to the commission many un- 
usual problems and many difficulties in securing compliance with its decrees. 
This has been accentuated by more or less general wage reductions in different lines 
of industry and periods of part time employment by reason of the depression. 
Some requests have also been presented to the commission to reconvene wage boards 
in various occupations in order to revise the decrees downward. Thus far the com- 
mission has taken no definite action thereon. It is hoped that the present legislature 
will enact legislation simplifying and expediting the procedure under which existing 
decrees may be altered or changed without the delay and expense necessitated 
through the reconvening of wage boards or establishing new ones. 

''■'rV Publications 
' 'The only publication other than press notices issued during the year is the reprint 
frorn the aniiual report of the department of labor and industries giving the outline 
of the work of , the division of minimum wage. 

J Investigations in 1931 

Pocketbook and Leather Goods Industry 

An investigation of the pocketbook and leather goods industry was made in the 
summer oi 1931. Payroll transcripts were taken for the months of June and July. 
Payroll records were available for tabulation for 820 women employed in 30 firms. 
())" tliis number, 88.2 per cent were earning under $15 a week and 78.7 per cent were 
eaimng under $j3 a week. Of the 714 women paid on a part-time basis, 79.3 per 
cent had rates for full time employment below $15 a week, and 69.0 per cent had 
rates below $13 4 week. The tables following show in detail the wage situation 
fouiid in the inye/stigation. The commission has voted to form a wage board for 
tl^r is industry. 



3 

Waste, Sorting Industry 

An investigation was also made in the summer of 1931 into the wages paid to 
women and girls in the waste sorting industry. These records covered a period of 
three months, April through June. Payroll records for tabulation were received for 
460 women employed in 41 waste sorting shops. The following tables show that 
25.6 per cent had rates under SIO, 68.9 per cent with rates under $11, and 73.9 per 
cent had rates under $12 a week. 

Advertisement of Non-Compliances 
The commission is by law required to publish names of firms that fail or refuse to 
comply with its decrees. Publication is regarded as a last resort. Every effort is 
made to secure adjustment of non-compliances without publication. An account of 
the procedure taken in non-compliance cases prior to publication is given in the 
report for 1929. Table three outlines the non-compUance publications during the 
fiscal year ending November 30, 1931. 

Decrees and Cases 

Table three following shows the extent of the advertisements under decrees 
during the current year. In most instances the number of firms it was necessary to 
publish represents only a very small proportion of all of the firms inspected in the 
occupation. The same is true in non-compliance cases. 

Advertisements this year represent the fifth publication under the druggists' 
preparations, laundry and paper box decrees; the fourth publication under the 
candy, men's furnishings, muslin underwear and women's clothing decrees; the 
third under the retail store, electrical equipment and supplies, and stationery goods 
and envelopes decrees; the second in the case of the jewelry decree; and the initial 
publication for the boot and shoe cut stock and findings decree, corset, knit goods 
and men's clothing industries. 



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5= 



5" 





(NO 

too 


050 
050 




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05 05 


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OS 


ooi 

COO) 


>oa> 
■*(» 


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05 0S 






OS 


00" 

no 












(NO 




wee 




« 




(NOS 


o>o 


coo 


1 1 


(» 


r|< 




food 
ton 


05 0S 

ecco 




IN 


(N 




(N 












nao 


CO CO 











os>d 










Mill Rem 
Numbe 
Per cen 


V ^ u 


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)Q »0(0 
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cqxi (u 

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6 

Table 3. — Advertisement of Non-compliances Under Minimum Wage 

Decrees, 1931 



Decree 


Date of 
advertise- 
ment 


Number of 
establish- 
ments in 
most recent 
inspection 


Number of 
records in 
most recent 
inspection 


Cases of non- 
compliances 


Per cent of 
non-compliances 




Firms 


Cases 


Firms 


Cases 


Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and 
Findings 


12 /9 /30 

4 /18 /31 

5 /9 /31 
10 /14 /31 


112 


1457 


19 


187 


17.0 


12.8 


Candy .... 


9 /22 /31 
10 /14 /31 


129 


7809 


5 


26 


3.9 


.3 


Corset .... 


10 /14 /31 


18 


712 


1 


16 


5.6 


2.2 


Druggists' Preparations 


7 /28 /31 


53 


760 


2 


16 


3.8 


2.1 


Electrical Equipment and Sup- 
plies .... 


2/14/31 
11/30 /31 


68 


6509 


2 


184 


2.9 


2.8 


Jewelry and Related Lines 


12 /31 /30 
7 /7 /31 


109 


4477 


2 


23 


1.8 


.5 


Knit Goods 


4 /6 /31 


39 


1901 


1 


30 


2.6 


1.6 


Laundry .... 


11 /30 /31 


392 


6391 


17 


353 


4.3 


5.5 


Men's Clothing and Raincoat 


7 /17 /31 
7 /28 /31 
10 /14 /31 


85 


2624 


10 


176 


11.8 


6.7 


Men's Furnishings 


3 /lO /31 
6 /12 /31 


71 


3473 


6 


386 


8.5 


11.1 


Muslin Underwear 


3 /lO /31 
3 /24 /31 
7 /28 /31 
10 /14 /31 


81 


3018 


18 


438 


22.2 


14.5 


Paper Box .... 


12 /6 /30 
1 12 /31 
7 /7 /31 
8/28 /31 


142 


3371 


11 


153 


7.7 


4.5 


Retail Stores 


12 /8 /30 
5 /20 /31 
9/15/31 


2438 


29964 


158 


1537 


6.5 


5.1 


Stationery Goods 


5 /29 /31 


71 


3747 


1 


1 


1.4 


.03 


Women's Clothing 


7/28/31 
10 /14/31 


131 


1959 


2 


30 


1.5 


1.5 



Inspections 

Decrees 

Inspection was conducted under 21 decrees. This includes, however, inspection 
on complaint, partial inspection and that in connection with other decrees. Com- 
plete inspection was made during the year under two decrees: druggists' prepara- 
tions; toys, games and sporting goods. In addition inspection was initiated under 
the following decrees in 1930 and completed in 1931: candy, laundry and men's 
clothing. 

Inspections on complaint or incidental to the regular work or reinspection prelim- 
inary to publication of non-compliances were made in one or more establishments 
under each of the following decrees: boot and shoe cut stock and findings; bread 
and bakery products; brush; canning and preserving and minor lines of confection- 
ery; corset; electrical equipment and supplies; jewelry; knit goods; men's furnish- 
ings; millinery; muslin underwear; office cleaners; paper box; retail stores; stationery 
goods and envelopes; and women's clothing. 

Reinspections 

In connection with the inspection work, wage records for tabulation were secured 
for 24,109 women and girls in 1,185 firms. In addition a large number of reinspec- 
tions were made. These included revisits to secure adjustment of non-compliances 



7 

found in the course of the regular inspection; also reinspection preliminary to 
publication in the case of firms with cases pending from previous years. These 
reinspections also represent visits to 300 establishments and checking up 3,424 
cases. ' 

In some instances several visits for various reasons are necessary in connection 
with the inspection of a single establishment. If non-compliances are found, rein- 
spection is made later to see if they are adjusted. Many times several inspection 
visits are necessary to assist in the adjustment of non-compliances. 

These numerous revisits or reinspections are not included in the establishments 
recorded in the inspection tables. In all, 2,777 establishments were visited by 
agents of the commission during the year. 

Disposition of Inspection Cases 
Disposition of Non-compliances Pending from Previous Years 

At the beginning of the fiscal year, there were outstanding from previous years 
3,424 cases of non-compliances in 300 firms. Most of these came under the retail 
store decree, 1,538 cases in 177 firms, the majority of which have been advertised 
one or more times. 

There were also 465 cases in 38 laundries; 342 cases in 13 men's furnishings estab- 
lishments; 321 cases in 11 muslin underwear establishments; 148 cases in 12 paper 
box factories; 148 cases in an electrical equipment and supplies factory; 176 in 17 
boot and shoe cut stock and findings factories; and 140 cases in 13 men's clothing 
establishments. 

The remaining cases were divided among a few firms under each of the following 
decrees: candy, canning and preserving and minor lines of confectionery; jewelry; 
knit goods; office cleaners; stationery goods and envelopes; toys, games and sporting 
goods and women's clothing. 

Reinspection was made in all of the firms with cases pending to try and secure 
adjustment; or, when this could not be effected, as a preliminary to publication. 
In connection with the advertisement of non-com.pliances, it is the poHcy of the 
commission to have reinspection made within a reasonable time prior to pubHcation. 

Adjustments 

So large a part of the cases were in firms previously published, comparatively 
few adjustments were effected. Wages were raised to meet the provisions of the 
decrees in 129 cases in 38 firms. Adjustment by changing type of work or method 
of payment or hours so that the employees were enabled to earn the minimum was 
made in 140 cases in 16 firms. Further adjustments were reported or promised in 
13 cases representing seven establishments. 

There were five employees in two establishments covered by the piece rate ruling; 
and four cases in two establishments that were covered by special licenses. It was 
found that two cases in two firms had been incorrectly recorded. 

Advertisements 

The firms advertised include 2,692 of the cases pending at the beginning of the 
year, and were distributed as follows: 176 cases in 17 boot and shoe cut stock and 
findings establishments; seven in two candy factories; 148 in one electrical equip- 
ment and supplies factory; 23 in two jewelry establishments; 30 in one knit goods 
estabhshment; 249 in 15 laundries; 34 in five men's clothing factories; 219 in five 
men's furnishings establishments; 177 in 10 muslin underwear estabUshments; 134 
in 11 paper box factories; 1,474 in 155 retail stores; 20 in one women's clothing 
establishment and one in one stationery goods and envelopes establishment. 

Cases pending 

There are outstanding at the close of the year 41 cases in four establishments 
mainly under the men's clothing decree. An outline of the distribution of these 
cases is given in Table 4. 

Disposition of Inspection Cases 
Disposition of New Cases 

In the course of the reinspection of firms with cases outstanding from previous 



8 



o 

I 



i 

8 

o 



o 

1 

Q 

I 

I 



Men's 
Furnish- 
ings 


W 


CO 


iNi-Ht |r-l 1 |05i-l|L'5| 


cj 


CO 


COCft 1 1 (N 11 OOrH 1 Oi 1 
!N 


Men's 
Clothing 


w* 


CO 


l-HlrHl 1 |IC|(MICIN 


u 


o 


1 ^ 1 (N 1 1 1 CO 1 THTftOJ 
CO »H (NCOCO 


Laundry 


w 


or 

CO 


»0(N<N«CtH rH.-IOO 1 1 »0 1 


d 


lO 


lOCOOOCO »-li-tCO 1 1 03 1 
CO i-n-l >0 rj< 


Knit 
Goods 


w 


- 




(J 


o 

CO 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 O 1 
CO 


Jewelry 

and 
Related 
Lines 


w 


<N 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (N 1 


d 


CO 


,11.1 1 1 1 1 ICO 1 


Electrical 
Equipment 
and 
Supplies 


w 




1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 


d 


00 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 « 1 


Canning 
and Pre- 
serving and 
Minor Lines 
of Confec- 
tionery 




(N 


'HrH 1 ( 1 11^,111 


d 


o 


■*C0 III 1 1 CO 1 1 1 1 


Candy 


w 




>OrH 1^1 1 1 CO 1 1 IM 1 


d 




0»H 1 >-H 1 1 1 1 1 I 
CO 


Boot and 
Shoe Cut 
Stock and 
Findings 






1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


d 


t~ 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 O 1 


Situation and Disposition 
of Cases 


Pending from previous years . 


ADJUSTMENT** 

Wages raised ...... 

Earning minimum on piece work 

Hours reduced or change of work 

Adjustment reported or promised 

Covered by piece rate ruling 

Special license, special license type or similar 

Incorrectly recorded ..... 

Left 

Firm out of business ..... 

Classification changed .... 
ADVERTISED IN 1931 .... 
PENDING 



C3s C 

V V 
§ I 

I 

■s- 

I 



Total 


W 


ii 


00-*(Nt^<N (N N CO Tj< eo to 
eoi^ CO 

<N 


U 


3424* 


csooeo»o N .-H «o M c» »H 
(Neo<-H,-i «Oi-iNO"* 

,-H,-l CO CO 


Women's 
Clothing 


w 


eo 


1 

l^lll ll-H||^| 


u 


O 

CO 


IrHIII IIOIIOI 


Toys. 
Games, 

and 
Sporting 
Goods 


w 


1 

r 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ^ 1 1 


d 




1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 ^ 1 1 


Stationery 
Goods and 
Envelopes 


w 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ^ 1 1 ^ 1 


d 


00 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 rH 1 


Retail 
Store 






OOllll IICOIIICI 


d 


1538 


(Nllll lltNII'*! 


Paper 
Box 




(N 


(N^ III 1 -H.-( 1 1 ^ 1 


d 


00 


ootj< I I r 1 •-I'H 1 1 1 
CO 


Office 
Cleaners 


w 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ^ 


d 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 t 1 1 ^ 


Muslin 
Underwear 






•oco III •-II eoco 1 o»H 


d 


CO 


t^OO III CO 1 ^-rj) 1 t^,-i 


Situation and Disposition 
of Cases 


Pending from previous years .... 


ADJUSTMENT** 

Wages raised ...... 

Earning minimum on piece work 

Hours reduced or change of work 

Adjustment reported or promised 

Covered by piece rate ruling 

Special license, special license type or similar 
case ....... 

Incorrectly recorded ..... 

Left 

Firm out of business ..... 

Classification changed .... 
ADVERTISED IN 1931 
PENDING .... 



01 

•a o 
s a 



10 



yeais, 504 new cases were found in 42 firms. The majority of these, 163 cases i 
five firms came under the men's furnishings decree. Most of the remaining case 
were in muslin underwear establishments, laundries, men's clothing, paper box an« 
women's clothing establishm^ts. 

There were some additional cases in one or more estAblishments under each of th 
following decrees: candy, electrical equipment and retail stores. 

Adjustments 

As the greater number of these cases were in firms that had never complied, ad 
justments were secured in comparatively few instances. In 19 cases in seven firm 
wag^ were raised to meet the provisions of the decree. Adjustment was promise 
in one additional case. 

In 28 cases in five establishments employees who were receiving below the mini 
mum left, and 30 firms in which there were 413 cases of non-compliance wer 
advertised. 

Cases Pending 

There were pending at the close of the year 33 cases in three firms. These includ 
28 cases in two men's clothing establishments and five cases in one muslin under 
wear establishment. 

Disposition of Cases in the Regular Inspection Work 

In 293 establishments, 2,987 cases of non-compliance were foimd. Of this num 
ber, 1,754 were settled or adjustment was promised before the close of the year 
Some of the rranaining cases will doubtless be adjusted in connection with the rein 
spections which will be made after the regular inspection work has been completed 

Adjustments 

WiOi respect to the cases settled, wages were raised for 542 women in 100 estab 
lishments. In 79 other cases women were enabled to earn the minimum on piew 
work or by reduction of hours or change of work. Adjustment was promised oi 
reported in 250 additional cases. 

There were 33 women in 13 establishments who came under the piece rate ruling 
This ruling provides that in the case of experienced operators, where the greal 
majority on a given operation are earning the mininmm or over, the rates are con 
sidered in accordance with the decree. Nine women in eight establishments wen 
covered by special license provisions. 

Cases pending 

At the dose of the year there are pending from the regular inspection work, 
1,233 cases in 99 establishments. These are mainly under decrees where the inspec- 
tion is still in progress as brush; electrical equipment and suppUes; jewelry; knit 
goods; paper box; stationery goods and envelopes; and toj^s, games and sporting 
goods decrees; or where there are new firms, as under the retail store decree. 

A number of cases pending under the clothing decrees are in establishments which 
have recently come into Massachusetts from other states and located in the textile 
centers. The low wages paid by a number of these concerns is creating a probleoL 

Summary 

The entire number of cases handled during the year include, in addition to those 
in connection with the regular inspection program, the cases pending from pre\'iou8 
years and represent approximately 28,000. The total non-compUknce cases are 
2,987 from the regular inspection work with 3,424 pending at the beginning of the 
year and 504 new cases found in the reinspection of these firms. The entire number 
is 6,915. 

Of this number, 5,608 have been settled or adjustment promised before the close 
of the year. Wagp adjustments or equivalent arrangement enabling the employees 
to earn the minimum were effected in 917 cases. In a number of additional instances 
adjustments were promised. There were 3,556 cases in 280 firms advertised. There 
are pending at the close of the year 1,307 cases. A large part of these are undo* 
decrees listed for publication. 



12 



Q « 



CO CO CO Ci 

(N 1-1 a 



. tn 

•ti'o 






IN CO 


1 1 1 






1 1 <N 




U 


So 


eoS 








' ' S 








00 




1 ^ 1 




1 1 <N 


C c 

ii «iJ 


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IN 

05—1 


(N 1 1 






1 1 


Electrical 
Equip- 
ment 
and 
Supplies 2 


w 




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^ 1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 


1 —IIN 


cJ 


25 
t^O 


<N 




2' 




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<o i 1 






1 <N 1 


Drugg 
Prepa 
tion 


u 




05 05 
«OC0 
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CO 1 1 




1 -^-^ 1 1 


1 CO 1 


* 


w 


coco 




1 1 1 




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1-1 


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(NO 
COCO 




1 1 1 




1 CO 1 1 1 


1 CO 1 






o>a> 


CD CO 








1 1 1 




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1 0-H?q 1 


1 coo 


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"m 

3 




coco 








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1 — 


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1 -H 


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INM 

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Boot and 
Shoe Cut 
Stock and 
Findings' 




coco 


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1 1 1 1 


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1^ E .^59 £ c * 

O 2 4*TJ 4J 

. <n o S: 03 ^ o 



03.2 ftx) § M Ji.s^* 

•s8t*j^^3§r 

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13 



5 
o 
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W 


1,185 
1,149 


«ceo 

00 (N 




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1 (N IN 


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1 1 (N 1 


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C ^ r" n 


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1 1 (N 1 


1 1 1 i (N 


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<© 


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Office 
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14 



The commission during the year has been giving special attention to the industries 
coming into the commonwealth especially in textile centers and paying a low rate 
of wages to employees, an outline of which was given in the report of last year under 
the heading of ''Non-compliances in new establishments". Many of these industries 
come under the provisions of the existing decrees and in one occupation, that of the 
pocket-book and leather-goods specialties, a wage board has been authorized during 
the year. 

As a result of the vigorous action of the commission through inspection, reinspec- 
tion, conferences and publications, some adjustments have been secured and in 
other instances adjustment promised. While the activities of the commission have 
borne results and give hope of ultimately securing compliance, nevertheless in spite 
of such activities the continued period of depression presents many obstacles and 
difficulties. 



r 



Zht Commontttealti) of Maiiatitttittti \C\1)1. 

s_ 



DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 



REPORT 



OF THE 



DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE 

REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 

For the Year Ending November 30, 1932 



OFFICIALS 



Commissioner 

EDWIN S. SMITH 



Assistant Commissioner 

MARY E. MEEHAN 



Associate Commissioners 

(Constituting the Division of Minimum Wage and the Board of 
Conciliation and Arbitration) 

EDWARD FISHER HERBERT P. WASGATT 

JOHN L. CAMPOS 




Publication op this Docuxbkt approved by the Commission on Administration an» Finangi 

600. 9-'38. Order 9264. 



2 . 



REPORT OF THE MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION 

Edwaed Fisher, Chairman: Herbert P. Wasgatt, John L. Campos; 
Mary E. Meehan, Acting Director 

Outline of Functions 

The duties of the Minimum Wage Commission under the law compria 
the following functions: investigating the wages of women employees i 
occupations where there is reason to believe that the wages of a suh 
stantial number are below the requirement of healthful living; establish 
ing wage boards to recommend minimum rates for women and minors 
entering wage decrees based on the recommendations of the boards; in 
specting to determine compliance with the decrees; reconvening wag 
boards to meet changes in the cost of living; and publishing the name 
of employers found violating its decrees. 

Work in 1932 

With the entry of a decree in the pocketbook and leather goods occupa 
tion, effective October 3, twenty-two decrees are now in force. The polic 
of the Commission, which has been more effectively carried out this yeai 
of keeping its investigators engaged in field work and in the office onl; 
when necessary, while resulting in some additional expense has increase 
in volume and effectiveness the work of the Commission. Active field wor3 
has been especially necessary during the year because of the reductioi 
in commodity prices and the consequent continued readjustment down 
ward of labor costs by employers coming under the provisions of th 
various decrees. Accompanying an intensive program in regular inspec 
tion work have been repeated and numerous reinspections endeavoring t 
secure compliance, also numerous inspections upon complaint; the latte 
being in some instances in occupations not covered by any decree, the in 
formation thereby secured being of value for future determination & 
to the occupations in which wage boards should be established and afford 
ing an opportunity in some instances, where ver>' low wage rates ap 
found, of calling this to the attention of the employers and endeavorinj 
to secure more reasonable wage adjustments. This has been especiall; 
true in the dry-cleaning establishments, an industry which has growi 
rapidly in recent years; also to some extent in branches of the shoe in 
dustry. 

The over-production or under-consumption, whichever term may h 
given as applicable to the existing economic situation and consequent un 
employment, and the severe competition, resulting to some extent fron 
states havi^ig.no minimum wage law, present many varied and difficul 
probJenJA ml feecuring CG«npliance with its decrees. It must be borne ii 
mSnd that these decrees, with the exception of the recent one in the pocket 
book and leather goods occupation, were established during a period whei 
business conditions were at a much higher level. This, with the chang< 
in the cost of living, has caused requests and even complaints to be mad< 
•epiitinuaily to the CoTijmissien by employers seeking a revision of iti 
qecrees,. anKJng- whom are many who in the past have complied. This ha^ 
become imperative from their point of view by reason of the necessity foi 
a readjustment in their labor cost to meet competition. In endeavoring U 
meet the present situation the Commission is daily in conference witi 
employers or their representatives, offering suggestions relative to tb 
raising of wages, changes in hours and working conditions, etc., to mee 
compliance, and granting reasonable extension of time where justifia 
"Where it seemed that with such extension discharges of employed 
could be avoided and compliance secured. Employers and employees ai 
i?^^- ^^^^ unusual problems arising by reason of the economic 
and business stagnation, and as a result not only is a heavy burden place* 



I upon the Commission in endeavoring to carry out the provisions of the 
law, but even the law itself is receiving a severe test. The employers as 
a whole are endeavoring to keep all their employees at work even when 
jjnvorking part time only, resulting in irregular hours; in many instances 
■the hours not representing the actual working time. The business condi- 
tions are such that few if any employers manufacture stock ahead, but 
are making goods "from hand to mouth", as it is commonly expressed. 
; Competitive conditions are very keen and, as stated above, employers 
\ are keeping full crews on the "share and share alike" basis when a smaller 
; crew might well be maintained. Appeals are made to employers from 
I many sources, including governmental agencies, state and federal, and 
welfare boards, requesting that as many employees as possible be kept 
i at work. 

While the Commission has authority to require employers to keep for 
I a specified, limited period, a record of the hours employed as well as the 
compensation of these employees, the Commission has exercised this 
authority with discretion as otherwise such action on its part would have 
a tendency to discourage rather than encourage employers to keep all 
their help at work even for part time only. Under the law the Commission 
has no authority to revise a wage decree except by reconvening a wage 
board or establishing a new one in an occupation, the legislature failing 
to follow the recommendation of the commission established in 1931 to in- 
1 vestigate the operation of the minimum wage law, under which recom- 
i mendation the Commission would have been given power with limita- 
tions to revise its decrees without the services of a wage board. Realiz- 
ing the exigencies of the situation relative to securing compliance with 
! its decrees by reason of the economic situation and in the face of the re- 
i duced cost of living, the Commission sought funds with which to meet 
I the expense of reconvening such of its wage boards as might be deemed 
< advisable and time would permit of, and the consolidating of other de- 
I crees, especially in the needle trades. Such funds, however, were not 
I made available. Under these circumstances the Commission has been 
t{ placed in the position, as already stated, of exercising care and considera- 
i\ tion in endeavoring to enforce its decrees, especially with those employers 
who have heretofore complied therewith. The Commission also during 
the year has been endeavoring to meet the situation referred to in its 
annual report of 1931, arising through employers coming into the com- 
monwealth and occupying, especially in the mill centers, vacant factories 
and putting into effect wage rates resulting in earnings not only very 
much below those called for by its decrees, but in many instances rates 
so low that there can be no justification whatever therefor. The Com- 
mission has published the names of these employers and is continuing its 
efforts to secure compliance. 
: The Commission is also recommending legislation, under the terms of 
which it may revise decrees in order to meet changes in the cost of living 
without the slow and expensive process of reconvening or establishing a 
new wage board, and is also seeking an extension of its authority, as re- 
i commended by the commission above referred to, whereby the Commission 
may grant a license permitting an employer of female employees who are 
suffering from physical or other defects to pay a rate below the minimum ; 
the existing law limiting such authority to instances of physical defects 
only. It must be apparent to those conversant with the operation of the 
minimum wage law that it is especially desirable in the face of the 
changes in the cost of living that the Commission should have this au- 
thority to revise its decrees. This lack of elasticity or flexibility in the 
law not only creates distrust and apprehension, but also arouses opposi- 
tion as well on the part of employers coming under the provisions of de- 
crees, thereby presenting an issue as to the effective working of the la\y. 
The same situation would exist on the part of employees if economic 
conditions warranted increases. The law is recommendatory in its effect 
and to secure its reasonably satisfactory enforcement it needs the sup- 



4 

port not only of employers and employees but of the public as well. Wher 
not responsive to an excessive rise or fall in the cost of living it creates 
a feeling of distrust and opposition not only to the law itself, but alsc 
to those engaged in its enforcement. The law itself, as already referred 
to, is receiving a severe test during this period of depression and perhaps 
the most severe since its enactment. Massachusetts is not only the onlj 
state in the East, as it is commonly stated, but also the only largely in- 
dustrial state having a minimum wage law. With the severe competition 
both from within and without the commonwealth, with the general exist- 
ing condition of part-time employment in the various industries and oc- 
cupations, and with employers keeping their full complement of help 
employed in so far as possible, serious problems of administration and 
enforcement are presented. It is such times as these during which the 
minimum wage law should demonstrate its value and worth in stabilizing 
and maintaining in so far as possible fair and equitable wage rates and 
earning levels in the light of the existing cost of living. Thus far througl 
constant contact with employers and to some extent with employees and 
their representatives, and with the exercise of judgment in the enforce- 
ment or attempted enforcement of decrees, including the granting of 
reasonable extensions of time for compliance, the Commission is of the 
opinion that the law has accomplished its purpose to a gratifying extent 
The reputable employers in occupations coming under the provisions oi 
the decrees have evidenced and expressed a desire to maintain so far aa 
circumstances permit wage rates and earnings, in the face of the change 
in the cost of living, in compliance with or approximately in compliance 
with its decrees. 

Without the minimum wage law and its resultant decrees there would 
not be this inducement or incentive or the ideals (if one may use this 
latter word) on the part of these employers which are now engendered 
by their respect for and desire to comply with all legal requirements; 
and without the law in many, if not most instances, the unscrupulous 
employer would not be under any restraint, which is maintained to some 
extent by reason of this law. 

Wage Boards 

Pocketbook and Leather Goods Industry. A wage board consisting of 
seven members, organized during the year in the pocketbook and leather 
goods occupation, completed its work on July 8, having held eight meet- 
ings, and submitted a unanimous report of its determination to the Com- 
mission. This is the only board which has been constituted during the 
period of depression and it estimated the cost of living for a self-sup- 
porting woman in the occupation at $12.50 a week, recommending that 
this be established as the minimum rate for female employees eighteen 
years of age or over, with one year's exi)erience in the occupation, at 
least one month of which has been in the particular factory, with a special 
rate of $11.25 for experienced employees under eighteen years of age and 
$10 and $8 for learners and apprentices, depending upon age. In sub- 
niitting this report this wage board for the first time took under con- 
sideration and made a recommendation relative to employees engaged in 
work requiring no skill or experience, in which an employee could be- 
come efficient in not exceeding two days. This is a problem which has 
presented itself to the Commission in enforcing its decrees in several 
occupations, concerning which conferences have been held with employers, 
and it has been a serious obstacle in securing full compliance with some 
decrees. The Commission, however, after due consideration and for 
reasons which it will not attempt to enumerate, declined to approve this 
recommendation although it was offered as a part of the determinations 
of the wage board and to some extent its insertion resulted in the unani- 
mous report which was submitted by that board. After a public hearingr 
on August 3 the Commission on August 17 approved, with the exception 
above noted, the recommendations of the wage board, to be effective 
October 3. 



rf Waste Sorting Industry 

An investigation of this industry was completed the previous year, but 
in view of the fact that the cost of the wage board in the pocketbook and 
leather goods occupation had exhausted the available funds and that, com- 
paratively speaking, not a large number of women were employed in this 
industry, the Commission did not find itself in a position to establish a 
wage board therein during the present year. 

Advertisement of Non-Compliances* 

While it is the duty of the Commission to publish the names of firms 
that fail or refuse to comply with its decrees, the Commission has con- 
tinued in its established policy of resorting to publication only after us- 
ing every reasonable effort to secure compliance; except, however, where 
there was a definite refusal or where the wage rates and resulting earn- 
ings were found so low that reasonable prospects of compliance could not 
be secured. The present year, as already pointed out, has presented to 
the Commission many and varied problems in its work of enforcing de- 
crees, calling for unusual care and attention in the face of the economic 
and business conditions, more particularly with those firms who hereto- 
' fore have been found in compliance. These latter firms the Commission 
; has found under all the circumstances to be co-operative in their efforts 
and desirous so far as possible of meeting the provisions of the decrees, 
although temporarily instances of non-compliance exist. As to the firms 
paying the low wage rates above referred to, the Commission after in- 
spection or reinspection as the case might be, has resorted to publication. 

Table 1 outlines the non-compliance publications during the fiscal year 
ending November 30, 1932. In most instances the number of firms which 
it has found necessary to publish represents only a small proportion of 
I all the firms inspected in the occupation, and the same is true of non- 
' compliance cases. However, the muslin underwear occupation this year 
as well as last represents, both as to firms and cases, by far the greater 
I number of non-compliances. Advertisement this year represents the sixth 
I publication under the paper-box decree; the fifth publication under the 
candy, men's furnishings and muslin underwear decrees; the fourth un- 
der electrical equipment and supplies and retail stores decrees; the second 
under the men's clothing and corset decrees; and the first publication 
under the bread and bakery products and the toys, games and sporting 
goods decrees. 

Inspections 

I The regular work of the Commission has been the completion during 
I the year of inspections initiated in 1931 under the following decrees: 
brush, candy, corset, electrical equipment and supplies, jewelry, knit 
goods, laundry, paper box, stationery goods and envelopes, and toys, games 
and sporting goods. Inspection has also been initiated and is still in 
progress under the following decrees: men's furnishings, muslin under- 
wear, retail stores, women's clothing and another inspection in stationery 
goods and envelopes. Late in the year insi)ection was commenced under 
the pocketbook and leather goods decree, which became effective October 
3, and is still in progress at the close of the year. In addition to the re- 
gular work there have been inspections or reinspections under each of 
the other decrees; in some instances these representing partial inspec- 
tion only; in other instances only a few establishments, the latter being 
made as a rule either on complaint or as a check-up on the part of the 
Commission or preliminary to publication for non-compliance. 

In connection with the regular inspection work wage records for ta- 
bulation were secured for 56,243 women and girls in 3524 firms. In addi- 
I tion a large number of reinspections were made. As a rule these include 



•See table 1. 



revisits to secure adjustment of non-compliances found in the course of 
the regular inspection; also reinspections preliminary to publication in 
the case of firms with cases pending from the previous year. These re- 
inspections represent visits to 389 establishments and rechecking 7811 
wage records, making a total of 64,054 in 3913 establishments. In addi- 
tion investigations have been made of firms in the following occupations 
not coming under any decree to determine the wage rates and earnings; 
branches of boot and shoe manufacturing, 49 establishments, 1361 records i 
secured; cleansing and dyeing, 17 establishments, 673 records secured; 
button manufacturing, one establishment, 22 records secured; curtain , 
manufacturing, one establishment, one record secured, making a total 
of 68 establishments and 2057 wage records. Thus making a grand totall 
of 66,111 wage records secured in 3981 establishments. 

Disposition of Inspection Cases 
Disposition of Non-compliances Pending from Previous Years 
(See Table 2) 

At the beginning of the fiscal year there were outstanding from thi 
previous years 1326 cases of non-compliance in 109 establishments. Most 
of these came under the retail store decree, 398 cases in 45 establish- 
ments, the majority of which have been advertised one or more times. 
There were also 196 cases in 17 paper box establishments, 177 cases ii 
10 candy establishments, 161 cases in two knit goods establishments and 
94 cases in nine muslin underwear establishments. The remaining cases 
were divided among the following decrees: bread and bakery products, 
brush, electrical equipment and supplies, jewelry, laundry, men's cloth- 
ing, office cleaners, stationery goods and envelopes; toys, games and 
sporting goods, and women's clothing. 

Adjtistments. A large proportion of the cases were in establishments 
previously published and comparatively few adjustments were effected. 
Wages were raised to meet the provisions of the decrees in 61 cases in 
18 establishments. Adjustments by change in work, hours, or method of 
payment whereby the employees were enabled to earn the minimum, were 
made in 51 cases in nine establishments. There were seven employees ini 
three establishments covered by the piece rate ruling, and in 179 cat 
in 24 establishments it was reported that the employees had left. 

Advertisements. The firms advertised included 696 cases in 66 estab^ 
lishments which were pending at the beginning of the year, and were 
distributed as follows: 347 cases in 45 retail stores; 147 cases in 12 
paper box establishments; 126 cases in three candy establishments; 53 
cases in one bread and bakery establishment; 16 cases in three muslin 
underwear establishments; three cases in one electrical equipment estab- 
lishment; and four cases in one toys, games and sporting goods estab- 
lishment. 

Cases Pending. There are outstanding at the close of the year 3J 
cases in 25 establishments, mainly under the knit goods decree. 



\2sk 



Disposition of New Cases Found in Firms vnth Cases Outstanding from 
Previous Years. (See Table 3) j 

In the course of the reinspection of firms with cases outstanding from 
previous years, 405 new cases were found in 19 establishments. The 
majority of these, 142 cases in three establishments, came under the] 
candy decree; the remaining cases were under the jewelry, knit goods,^ 
laundry, men's clothing, muslin underwear, paper box, retail store anc" 
stationery goods decrees. 

Adjustments. As the great number of these cases were in establish- 
nients that had never complied, adjustments were secured in compara- 
tively few instances. In four cases in three firms wages were raised tc 
meet the provisions of the decree. Adjustments by change in work, hours, 




7 



or method of payment whereby the employees were enabled to earn the 
minimum, were made in 16 cases in one establishment. Three employees 
in one establishment were covered by the piece rate ruling. In 10 cases 
in two establishments employees who were receiving below the minimum 
were reported as having left. 

Advertisements. One hundred and sixteen cases in six establishments 
were advertised, comprising 47 cases in two muslin underwear establish- 
ments, 44 cases in one candy establishment and 25 cases in three retail 
stores. 

Cases Pending, There were pending at the close of the year 255 cases 
in 12 establishments, mainly under the candy, stationery goods and en- 
velopes and knit goods decrees. 

Disposition of Cases in the Regular Inspection Work 
(See Table 4) 

1 In 1164 establishments 15,096 cases of non-compliance were found. 

1 This is by far the largest number of non-compliances ever listed in any 
year. While this is in part explained by the fact that the inspection work 
has been more than double that of the previous year, yet in reality it re- 
flects to a much greater degree the results of the business and economic 
depression as percentagely with reference to the previous year it shows 

j more than double the number of non-compliance cases ; the percentage for 
1931 being 12.4 and for 1932, 26.8. 

Adjustments. With respect to the cases settled, wages were raised for 
737 women in 206 establishments. Adjustments by change in work, hours, 

' or method of payment whereby the employees were enabled to earn the 
minimum, were made in 153 cases in 63 establishments. Adjustment was 

i promised or reported in 81 additional cases. There were 66 employees in 

; 29 establishments who came under the piece rate ruling. This ruling 
provides that in cases of experienced operators where the great majority 

i on a given operation are earning the minimum or over, the rates are ccn- 

! sidered to be in accordance with the decree. Twenty -one employees in 
17 establishments were covered by the special license provision; in 263 
cases in 106 establishments it was reported that the employees had left; 
in 19 cases in nine establishments the employees were reported to have 
been discharged or laid off. In 137 cases in 14 establishments the firm 

:was reported out of business. 

I Advertisements. Forty-four establishments with 2697 cases of non- 
< compliance were advertised during the year; including 1181 cases in 
22 muslin underwear establishments, 1061 cases in seven men's fumish- 
jings establishments, 364 cases in seven electrical equipment and supplies 
^establishments, 46 cases in two men's clothing establishments, 31 cases in 
^five paper box establishments and 14 cases in one corset establishment. 
I Cases Pending. At the close of the year there were pending in the re- 
igular inspection work 10,861 cases in 751 establishments. These are 
mainly under decrees where the inspection is still in progress, as retail 
stores, muslin underwear, pocketbook and leather goods, men's furnish- 
ings, stationery goods and envelopes and women's clothing. Many cases 
inder the clothing decree are in establishments which, as pointed out in 
he last report, came into the commonwealth from other states and located 
n textile centers. The low wages paid by many of these concerns are 
itill creating a serious problem, which the continued depression makes 
) nore difficult to deal with. 

Summary 

A survey of the work and accomplishments of the Commission shows 
wo especially interesting and important developments during the year, 
^"'irst; the greatly increased inspection work accomplished by the Com- 
aission through its investigators, including the regular inspection work, 
ases pending from previous years and reinspections, making a total of 

I 



8 

64,217 wage records, taken in 3,913 establishments. This is greatly in 
excess of the inspection work of any previous year and more than double 
that of last year. In addition, 2,057 wage records were taken in 68 estab- 
lishments in occupations not coming under the provisions of any decree. 
Second; the great increase in the number of non-compliance cases, which 
are more than double those of any previous year. This situation, aa 
hereinbefore outlined, arises to a great extent by reason of the economic 
and business conditions. The consequent effect thereof in lowering th€ 
wage rates and earnings of both men and women in all, or nearly al 
lines of employment, while depressing should not be viewed with undue 
alarm as evidencing any structural weakness in or failure on the part 
of the minimum wage law or its enforcement. However, it does evidence 
the necessity on the part of the Commission of continuing with its active 
and effective inspection work and arousing the public in so far as possi- 
ble to a realization of the existing conditions and the unfair competition 
to which reputable employers are subjected by these employers who pay 
unjust, unconscionable and destructively low wage rates. This is espec- 
ially true in some lines of the needle trades, many of these employers 
coming into the commonwealth in recent years and occupying vacant mill 
properties in textile centers. The problem of dealing with such employers 
has given and is giving the Commission serious concern. 

In addition to the tables referred to, accompanying this report is also 
a list of the wage board members in the pocketbook and leather goods 
occupation, together with the cost of living budget adopted and a copy 
of the decree established by the Commission in this occupation; also, a 
copy of the opinion of the attorney general relative to the scope of the 
word "minors" as applying to age and sex. 



Table 1. — Advertisement of Non-compliances Under Minimum Wage 

Decrees* 1932 



Industkt 


Date of 
advertise- 
ment 


Nxmiber of 
establish- 
ments in 
most recent 
inspection 


Number of 
records in 
most recent 
inspection 


Cases of non- 
compliances 


Per cent of 
non-compliances 




Firms Cases 


Firms 


Cases 


Toya, Games and Sport- 
ing Goods . 


12/15/31 


28 


972 


1 


4 


3.6 


.4 


Bread and Bakery . 


1/25/32 


53 


1168 


1 


53 


1.9 


4.5 


Retail Stores . 


2/25/32 
4/3/32 


2417 


24,359 


48 


372 


2.0 


1.5 


Candy .... 


4/20/32 


72 


4555 


3 


170 


4.2 


3.7 


Electrical Equipment and 
Supplies 


5/12/32 


57 


3507 


8 


367 


14.0 


10.5 


Men's Clothing 


7/2/32 


76 


2338 


2 


46 


i 2.6 


2.0 


Men's Furnishings . 


7/2/32 

7/13/32 

8/24/32 


68 


3376 


7 


1061 


j 10.3 


31.4 


Muslin Underwear . 


7/2/32 
7/6/32 
8/24/32 
11/17/32 
11/30/32 


86 


3363 


27 


1244 


31.4 


37.0 


Paper Box 


11/4/32 


116 


2770 


17 


178 


14.7 


6.4 


Cor3et .... 


11/30/32 


16 


558 


1 


14 


6.3 


2.5 



•This includes 696 cases in 66 establishments where non-compliances were pending from previous years; 
also. 116 new cases in 6 of these establishments. 



I 

00 

o 
A, 



1 



^1 



MubliD 

Under, 
wear 




OS 


1 O ( 1 


d 




'«'K3« 1 1 1 


Men's 
Clothing 
and 
Raincoats 






1 1 1 ^: 1 1 1 M 


o 




1 JO 1 1^1 1 to 


Laundry 




n 


-Hrt 1 1 r» 1 1 1 iv| 


d 




«-H 1 1 1 1 1 OS 


Hosiery 
and 
Knit 
Goods 






^ 1 1 1 ^ 1 1 1 N 


d 


161 


.-Hi 1 1 CO 1 1 1 ^^ 


Jewelry 

and 
Related 
Lines 






(N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


d 




(M 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 <N 


Electrical 

Equip- 
ment and 
Supplies 






^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 -H 1 


d 


00 


o 1 1 1 1 1 1 CO 1 


Candy 




o 


ton^ 1 »o 1 1 eoN 


d 




' ^ ' ' 


Brush 






1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 


d 




^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Bread 

and 
Bakery 
Products 






1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ^ 1 


d 


n 
•o 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 « 1 


Situation and Disposition 
of Cases 


Pending from previous years .... 


ADJUSTMENT 

Wages raised ....... 

Change in work, hours or method of payment 

Covered by piece rate ruling 

Incorrectly recorded ..... 

I^ft 

Firm out of bu.sineb8 ..... 

Not under decree ..... 

ADVERTISED IN 1932 

PENDING 



10 



3 



C 



I 

O 



3 I 

H 

I 



3 

o 
H 






e* «e* 




• 

n 

CO 


— — I^'*Ci?< — CiO 


= ? 


a 




M — 1 ^ 






r« I I 1 w 1 1 t 


- ♦ 

J II 






) 1 t 1 1 — 1 ^-H 






1 1 1 1 1 e« 1 ^00 


1 












: >o, , 


— I 

J L 

— X 




■c 






X 

o 




Is 






— r* I 1 1 1 2"* 




e 


«c SI : : 3C : ; r^r* 


b 

r:=£ S 


» 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 n 




00 


; ! ; 1 ; i — ) N 


1. 


a 

K 

3 
O 
> 

s 

a 

1 

c 

1 


-3 ■ 



s 

c 
c 

I- 

It 



! 31 



5 

3 



11 





a 








o 




'■ill 






1 1 1 1 1 1 d 






: 1 i : ; ; « 


1i 


;^ 




— 1 1 « » 




1 


— 1 ; — — ^ 1 


O M 

Q.C 

£» 






1 I 1 i 1 w 


d 


I* 


— 1 1 1 1 1 « 










d 


:«» 

<c 


I 1 1 1 1 r«iQ 


B.S-s 5 


» 






d 


t» 

93 


;c ro ct 1 1 t» 


>» 

b 

1 






1 1 1 1 1 1 ^ 






'?3 












•<J» 




"i £"5 c 

■-3 — 






1 1 1 1 1 i ^ 






; i ■ : ■ ! 03 


1 

1 


a 






d 


e« 


1 1 I 1 1 -^OB 


X 

iiS 
K 
-< 
\J 
&> 

o 
z 

c» 

S 
o 
e. 

Q 

a 
z 
•< 
z 
c 
? 
■< 

dc 

i 


1 

_s 

"E 

H 
c 
a 

c 
c 
s 

i 

c 
c 

Zl 


•|» . - . - 

t. 

"3= ■ ■ * * 
• fc. >» © • 



12 

Members of the Pocketbook and Leather Goods Wage Board 

Representing the Public: Mrs. Helen T. Baldwin, 16A Ashburton Place 
Boston, Mass. 

Representing the Employers: Mr. I. N. Geffen, Geffen Weene Co., Ill 
Beach St., Boston, Mass.; Mr. Hyman Mover, Boston Leather Specialties 
Co., 210 Broadway, Everett, Mass.; Mr. Richard A. Thomas, Maiden 
Leather Goods Co., 470 Atlantic Ave., Boston, Mass. 

Representing the Employees: Mr. Manuel Aruda, 34 Calvin St., Somer- 
ville, Mass.; Mrs. Ann M. Page, Bernardston Road, Greenfield, Mass.; 
Miss Elsie Walsh, 52 Ashley St., Springfield, Mass. 

Cost of Living Budget for Self-Supporting Woman in the 
Pocketbook and Leather Goods Occupation 



Adopted June 3, 1932 



Items Amounts 


Items 


Amounts 


Board and lodging . $7.75 


Church 


.15 


Clothing .... 2.00 


Self-improvement 


.20 


Laundry .20 


Vacation 


.25 


Carfares .60 


Recreation 


.40 


Doctor, dentist and oculist . .30 


Reserve for emergency 


.40 




Insurance 


.25 




Total, per Week . 


$12.50 



Minimum Wage Decrees Entered or Made Effective During 
THE Year 1932. 

Pocket-book and Leather Goods 



Workers Affected 




Mini- 
mum 
Wage 
Rates* 


Qualifications 


Date 


Class 


Age 




Decree 
Entered 


Decree 
Effective 


Experienced females of 
ordinary ability 


18 or 
over 


$12.50 


To be deemed "experi- 
enced" after reaching 
the age of 18 years and 
having had at least one 
year's experience in the 
industry, one month of 
which shall be in the 
particular plant. 


August 

17, 
1932 


October 
3, 
1932 




Under 

18 
years 


$11.25 


Learners and Apprentices: 
After six months' ex- 
perience 


Any 


$10.00 






First six months 


Any 


$8.00 









•Weekly. 



13 

, . ^ „ November 14, 1932. 

Hon. Edwin S. Smith, 
Commissioner of Labor and Industries 
Dear Sir: 

You request my opinion as to whether the word "minors" as used 
in G.L., c. 151, S. 3, is limited to females. You also request my opinion 
as to whether the word is so limited in section 7, and also as to what 
is the age limit of minors, as that word is used in section 7. 

(1) Section 3 provides for the determination by a wage board of 
the minimum wages suitable for a "female employee" and also for 
"learners and apprentices and for minors under eighteen." The word 
"minors", as here used, applies only to female minors. This follows 
from the fact that under the provisions of the two preceding sec- 
tions a wage board is appointed only as a result of an investigation 
by the minimum wage commission, and such investigation is by the 
terms of section 1 confined to "female employees." Also no provision 
is made under section 2 for representation on the wage board of any 
employee other than "female employees". Since sections 1 and 2 
apply only to female employers, section 3 is not to be construed as 
including any other class. 

(2) Separate provision is made in section 7 for the determination 
of minimum wages of minors as a class. This section provides that 
"The commission may at any time inquire into the wages paid to 
minors in any occupation in which the majority of employees are min- 
ors, and may, after giving public hearings, determine minimum wages 
suitable therefor. When the commission has made such a determina- 
tion, it may proceed in the same manner as if the determination had 
been recommended to it by a wage board". The word "minors" as 
here used applies to both male and female. 

In answer to your question as to the age limit of minors as referred 
to in this section, I would say that it is twenty-one years for male or 
female. That is the age of majority under the common law in this 
State. Section 7 is distinct from section 3, and the construction of 
the word "minors", as used in section 7, is not affected by the refer- 
ence to "minors under eighteen", contained in section 3. 

Very truly yours, 

Joseph E. Warner, 
Attorney-General. 



14 



Men's 1 
Clothing i 
and I 
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DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 



REPORT 



OF THE 



DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE 

REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 
For the Year Ending November 30, 1933 



OFFICIALS 

Commissioner Assistant Commissioner 

IEDWIN S. SMITH MARY E. MEEHAN 

Associate Commissioners 

(Constituting the Division of Minimum Wage and the Board of 
Conciliation and Arbitration) 
EDWARD FISHER HERBERT P. WASGATT 

JOHN L. CAMPOS 




Publication of this Document approve 
600. 7.'34. Order 1871. 



D BY THE Commission on Administration and Finamcb 



REPORT OF 2^ yp^MUM WAGE COMMISSION 

Edward Fisher, Chairman; Herbert P. Wasgatt, John L. Campos; 
Mary K Meehan, Acting Director 

Outline of Functions 

The duties of the Minimum Wage Commission under the law comprise the fol- 
lowing functions: investigating the wages of women employees in occupations 
where there is reason to believe that the wages of a substantial number are below 
the requirement of healthful living; establishing wage boards to recommend 
minimum rates for women and minors; entering wage board decrees based on the 
recommendations of the boards; inspecting to determine compliance with the 
decrees; reconvening wage boards to meet changes in the cost of living; publishing 
the names of employers found violating its decrees and, under the provisions of 
Chapter 220 of the Acts of 1933, the tagging of goods by manufacturers paying 
wage rates in violation of the decrees and the posting of notice by retail dealers 
selling goods so manufactured. 

Outline of Activities 

As indicated in the report for 1932, the Commission entered upon the present 
year with a heavy list of non-compliances in the various occupations coming under 
the provisions of the twenty- two decrees, by far the greater number being under the 
retail store decree. This situation, occasioned by reason of the continued depression, 
apparently reached its peak during the year. The Commission has, however, con- 
tinued in its efforts for compliance through investigation, conferences, reasonable 
extensions and the avowed intention of resorting to publication if necessary in 
order to secure compHance. In these efforts the Commission has received not only 
the co-operation and support of numerous employers in the various occupations, 
but also a decisive and encouraging response from the public, insisting that em- 
ployers put into effect wage rates at least sufficient to meet living requirements. 
Thus, coupled with an improvement in business conditions, compliance was se- 
cured in many instances and in others a most decided improvement was noted 
in the then existing wage rates, although not in all instances sufficient to meet the 
minimum rates of the decrees. While such improvement is in and of itself very 
reassuring, yet the Commission still faces the problem of continuing with its efforts 
in endeavoring to secure full compliance. Increases in wage rates have inured to 
the benefit not only of the employees and incidentally of the public, but also of 
those employers who have been anxious and desirous of complying with the decrees 
but have been handicapped by the unfair and unwarranted competition of other 
employers paying low wage rates. The enactment by Congress of the National 
Industrial Recovery Act, commonly referred to as the N. R. A., and the inaugura- 
tion of the President's Re-employment Agreement, commonly known as the P. R. A. 
or temporary code, followed in turn by the adoption of permanent codes, have pro- 
duced substantial irnprovement in business and in the conditions of the working 
people 'iboth -by m'cte^'.sing employment and raising wage rates, although not in 
all instances,* as stated above, bringing the rates to the level of the State's minimum 
wage decrees. With this v^^ry gratifying situation, however, have also arisen many 
troublesome questions and some confusion as to the relations between the codes 
and thp-mioimupa- wage-, decrees. ; ; > - 

It hds.befn generally recogmzed a'nd has been the position of the Commission 
from 'the' st^rtf that the ^l . R^ A. and codes estabhshed thereunder do not super- 
sede or suspend the minimum wage decrees and the Commission has endeavored, 
through contact and co-operation with those in charge of enforcing the codes, and 
employers as well, to harmonize or at least minimize such differences. In the matter 
of hours, the minimum wage decrees are for full time employment and are based 
upon the number of hours per week required by the employer and permitted by the 
laws of the Commonwealth. Such being the case, the Commission by reason of the 
shortening of the weekly working period under the codes in occupations coming 
under the provisions of the decrees, has ruled that the minimum wage rates are to 



3 

continue to be paid for the shorter work period. Otherwise the basic principle of 
the minimum wage law, which is that a week's wages should be sufficient to support 
the employee decently, is largely nullified. Naturally some confusion has ansen 
and time and patience have been factors in applying and endeavoring to make 
effective this ruling. 

Wage rates in many instances are lower under the codes than under minimum 
wage decrees. In this connection it must be borne in mind, as pointed out in the 
last annual report, that the decrees with one exception were established during a 
period when business conditions and wage rates generally were at a higher level, as 
well as living costs. The Commission is aware of this, and is also frequently 're-, 
minded of the fact that one purpose of the N. R. A. and the codes is to provide fair 
and uniform wage rates. Nevertheless, it is generally recognized and specifically 
stated in some codes that where the state provides a higher wage rate than the 
codes, the former is to prevail. 

Since the minimum wage law is recommendatory and not mandatory, the only 
penalty for enforcement being, previous to the enactment of Chapter 220 of the 
Acts of 1933, publication of the names of offenders, the contention is made by 
some employers, notably in the case of the chain stores, that the minimum wage 
decrees are not to be recognized as law. More detailed reference will be made to 
bhis contention later. However, in many instances, the differences in rates between 
bhe codes and the decrees are not great and many employers have readily and 
wrillingly continued to pay the rates under the decrees when higher. 

The Commission is faced with another problem arising under the retail store 
iecree. Under the code for the retail trade, minimum wage rates are based upon 
population, which basis has never been recognized under the minimum wage law 
jf this Commonwealth, the decrees applying equally to all employees in the occu- 
pation wherever employed. While the highest minimum rates under the code are 
n some respects in excess of those under the state decree, nevertheless by reason of 
the graduation downward of the rates under the code, based upon population, the 
ninimum code rates in all communities except Boston are not only below, but in 
ihe smaller communities considerably below the rates under the retail store decree, 
rhe code, however, in Article 6, Section 6, makes the following provisions: 

"Conflict with state laws. When any state law prescribed for any class of em- 
ployee of either sex a higher minimum wage than that prescribed in this article, 
no employee of such class of either sex employed within that state shall be 
paid less than such state law requires." 
The Commission has taken the attitude from the first, which apparently is sub- 
jtantiated by the provisions of this section, that the minunum rates established 
mder the retail store decree are to be paid when they are in excess of the minimum 
•ates under the code, and further, has understood that such was the attitude of 
;he Federal authorities entrusted with the enforcement of the codes. Nevertheless, 
ihe contention is made by at least some of the chain stores that this section of the 
;ode does not require that the rates established under the minimum wage decree 
ire to be paid when in excess of the minimum code rates for the reason that the 
Slassachusetts minimum wage law is recommendatory and not mandatory, the 
mly penalty for failing to comply therewith being publication or action taken under 
Chapter 220, as referred to above. Therefore, the claim is made that the decrees 
tre not a law in the meaning of that word as used in Section 6, above quoted. At 
east one of the chain stores is asking an official ruling to that effect from the au- 
-horities at Washington. However, the Commission is continuing with its investi- 
gations under this decree and at the close of the year the results of the investigatuMi, 
n so far as carried on, indicate that the chain stores as a rule in the communities 
mtside of Boston are not complying with its decrees, although presumably comply- 
ng with the code. This is a matter of serious concern and the Commission after 
sonsultation with the office of the New England Regional District Compliance 
3oard, is awaiting an official ruling from Washington pending taking further 
iction. Other issues have also arisen, the details of which the Commission at tins 
rime will not attempt to enumerate. 
No wage boards have been established during the year. 



4 



Home Work 

For some time the Commission has been faced with the situation that in some 
occupations coming under the provisions of the minimum wage decrees work was 
being performed at home by women, and as a result the following rulings were 
made: 

1929 

"When the agents are inspecting in an establishment where home work is 
given out, they should explain that the decree applies to home workers as 
well as factory workers and should ascertain what records for home workers 
are kept." 

1932 

"Voted that employers in any occupation coming within the provisions of a 
minimum wage decree be required to keep a record of the females to whom 
any so-called home work may be given. Such record shall indicate the name, 
address, occupation, rate and amount paid each, and be distinct from other 
payroll records." 

Following these rulings, the Acting Director made an investigation during 
the current year of the conditions and problems involved in this employment. 
The investigation also involved matters outside the province of the Minimum 
Wage Conmiission's work. An outline of the investigation, in so far as it relates 
to minimum wage, is herewith submitted, without tabulation of the statistical in- 
formation secured: 

Purpose. — An investigation was made during the month of January, 1933, to 
determine the extent and the earnings relative to work given out by factories to 
be done in private homes in Massachusetts. 

Procedure. — A mailing list was compiled from various sources of material. 
Questionnaires requesting information were sent to 104 firms in regard to women 
engaged in home work in connection with their establishments. 

Adequate Response. — Eighty-eight replies were received. Of this number, 
thirty-six reported the emplojonent of a total of 455 women. The number of firms 
reporting discontinuance of home work was seventeen. 

Localities. — The localities emplo3dng the greater number of home workers were: 
Boston, reporting the largest number of individual home workers, seventy-five; 
Worcester reported sixty; Northampton, fifty-nine; Dan vers, forty-nine; and 
Marlboro, thirty-seven. Other cities employ lesser numbers. 

Type of work. — For the most part the type of work may be included within the 
provisions of the Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findings, Brush, Knit Goods, 
Men's Furnishings, Muslin Underwear, Pocketbook and Leather Goods, Stationery 
Goods and Envelopes, and Toys, Games and Sporting Goods Decrees. The largest 
amounts of earnings were paid in the Pocketbook and Leather Goods, and in the 
Stationery Goods and Envelope industries. 

Earnings and Method of Payment. — Piece rates was the general method of pay- 
ment for work done by home workers. There was no way of determining the aver- 
age earnings for a definite time, as records of hours were not kept. Estimates of the 
time required to do the work were made in a few cases by representatives of estab- 
lishments. Based on these estimates, 15c, 16c, 20c, 25c, 30c, and 35c an hour was 
paid. It would seem that such estimates or records of time would not be worth 
consideration, since more than one member of the family often does the work. 
The earnings paid for a month or less within a recent period ranged from $1 to 
$543.00. In some families, where there was more than one home worker, the earn- 
ings of all were paid in a lump sum, the earnings of each worker could not be cal- 
culated. In most instances there were other sources of income. The reported 
earnings cannot be taken as usual, as there is irregularity in home work as in any 
other type of work. The earnings for the month of December were large on account 
of the Christmas trade. 

The problem of wage rates and earnings under this type of employment is one 
difficult to control, especially with reference to securing definite and accurate in- 
formation as to the period worked by these employees. The Commission is con- 
tinuing with its endeavor to have this information correctly kept and available 
upon the records of the employers coming under the provisions of its decrees. 



I 

P Advertisement op Non-Compuances 

(See Table 1) 

Having completed the investigation under the retail store decree, which has 
necessarily occupied some time by reason of the fact that a large majority of the 
communities had to be visited, publication was made on June 27 of the firms found 
to have non-comphances. This publication was the most extensive ever made by 
this Commission, both as to the number of firms, employees and communities 
affected, and also, the most expensive and was the fourth pubhcation under this 
decree. This was the only publication made by the Commission during the year, 
as with the advent of the N. R. A. and codes in process of estabUshment, accom- 
panied by a material improvement in wage rates, it seemed advisable for the pres- 
ent at least to defer further action in this respect. 

Inspections 

In addition to the regular inspection work, the Commission has made both in- 
spections and reinspections in co-operation with the federal authorities and also in 
response to occasional requests of labor departments in other states, in the latter 
case in order to secure information particularly in regard to wage rates, hours and 
earnings in firms from whom goods for public distribution were in contemplation 
of being purchased. In addition, by reason of the numerous inquiries from em- 
ployers, it has been found advisable to have the investigators acquaint themselves 
with the provisions of the codes in occupations coming under the mi nim um wage 
decrees in order to explain such differences as are found to arise between the pro- 
visions of the codes and the decrees, especially where the wage rates are higher or 
other provisions more stringent under the decrees than under the codes. 

During the year the Commission has completed inspections initiated in 1932 
under the following decrees: men's furnishings, muslin underwear, pocketbook and 
leather goods, retail stores, women's clothing and stationery goods and envelopes. 

Inspection has also been initiated under the following decrees: jewelry and re- 
lated lines, boot and shoe cut stock and findings, bread and bakery products, brush, 
candy, canning and preserving and minor lines of confectionery, druggists' com- 
pounds and proprietary medicines, electrical equipment and supphes, knit goods, 
laundry, millinery, office and other building cleaners, paper box and toys, games 
and sporting goods. Inspection has been completed in all except jewelry and re- 
lated lines. In addition to the regular work there have been inspections or rein- 
spections under each of the other decrees; as a rule either on complaint or as a check- 
up on the part of the Commission preliminary to pubhcation for non-compliance. 

In the regular inspection work, wage records for tabulation were secured for 
36,148 women and girls in 1733 firms. An unusually large number of reinspections 
were made, occasioned to some extent by the N. R. A. and in co-operation with the 
authorities in charge thereof. In addition investigations have been made of the 
following occupations not coming under any decree to determine the wage rates 
and earnings: waitresses, 53 establishments employing 968 women; rubber shoes, 
3 establishments with 704 women employees and 34 miscellaneous industries em- 
ploying 1,520 women; thus making a grand total of 55,527 wage records secured in 
2378 establishments. 

Reinspection of Inspection Cases 
Disposition of Non-Compliances Pending from Previous Years 
(See Table 2) 

At the beginning of the fiscal year there were outstanding, as appears from the 
report of the previous year, 10,861 cases of non-compliance in 751 establLshments. 
To these should be added, however, 21 cases in two establishments, madvert«ntly 
omitted. Most of these came under the retail store decree, 6,152 cases m o2o es- 
tablishments, a majority of which had been advertised before. There were also 
711 cases in 23 pocketbook and leather goods firms; 710 cases m 28 muslm under- 
wear establishments; 673 cases in nine jewelry and related Imr- its; 
529 cases in 42 laundries; 471 cases in 34 men's furnishmgs e>; 
444 cases in 13 stationery goods and envelope factories. The reniainu - 
divided among the following decrees: boot and shoe cut stock and fan 



I 



6 



and bakery, brush, candy, canning and preserving and minor lines of confectionery 
corset, druggists' compounds and proprietary medicines, electrical equipment and 
supplies, knit goods, men's clothing and raincoat, millinery, office and other build- 
ing cleaners, paper box, toys, games and sporting goods and women's clothing. 

Adjustments. — As a large proportion of these cases were in establishments 
previously published, a difficult problem was presented of securing compliance. 
However, the Commission has been reasonably successful in securing adjustments, 
and in many cases where compliance was not secured, substantial increases in wage 
rates were made. Wages were raised to meet the provisions of the decrees in 1,025 
cases in 111 establishments. Adjustments by change of work, hours or method of 
payment whereby the employees were enabled to earn the minimum were made in 
71 cases in 31 establishments. There were 23 employees in seven establishments 
covered by the piece rate ruling and in 1,642 cases in 239 establishments it was re- 
ported that the employees had left or had been laid off. One hundred seventy cases 
in 33 establishments were reported as out of business, 50 cases in 21 establishments 
were incorrectly recorded, while 58 cases in eight establishments were not under the 
decree. Adjustment was promised or reported in 112 cases in 37 establishments, 
30 cases in eight estabUshments were earning the minimum after being transferred 
to piece work. One establishment employing 14 women moved from the state; 
eight cases in five establishments were recorded as special license types and 358 cases 
of technical non-compliance were found in 56 estabhshments. 

Advertisement. — The only firms advertised were those coming under the retail 
store decree including 4,163 cases in 317 establishments. 

Cases Pending. — There were outstanding at the close of the year 3,158 cases in 
154 establishments mainly under the jewelry and related lines, muslin underwear, 
pocketbook and leather goods and retail store decrees. 

Disposition of New Cases Found in Firms with Cases Outstanding from 

Previous Years 
{See Table 3) 

In the course of reinspection of firms with cases outstanding from previous years, 
3,207 new cases were found in 245 establishments. Here again the problem of the 
retail stores, previously referred to, comes to the front as a majority of these, 1,930 
cases in 171 establishments, came under the retail store decree; the remaining cases 
were under the bread and bakery, electrical equipment and supplies, jewelry and 
related lines, knit goods, laundry, men's clothing, men's furnishings, muslin under- 
wear, paper box, pocketbook and leather goods, toys, games and sporting goods, 
stationery goods and envelopes and the women's clothing decrees. 

Adjustments. — As many of these cases were in establishments that had never 
compHed, the Commission faced difficulties in endeavoring to secure adjustments. 
In 195 cases in 23 establishments wages were raised to meet the provisions of the 
decrees. Adjustment was promised or reported in six establishments employing 
53 women, while ten employees in four establishments were covered by piece-rate 
ruling; five employees in one establishment had their hours reduced to conform 
with the decree and 12 employees in seven firms were reported as left or laid off. 
Five employees in two establishments came under the ruling of technical non- 
compliance. 

Advertisement. — Seventeen hundred and seventy-two cases in 148 retail stores 
were advertised in 1933. 

Cases Pending. — There were pending at the close of the year 1,155 cases in 59 
estabhshments, mainly under the jewelry and related lines, laundry, men's furnish- 
ings, muslin underwear, pocketbook and leather goods, retail store, stationery 
goods and envelope and women's clothing decrees. 

Disposition of Cases in the Regular Inspection Work 
{See Table 4) 

In the regular inspection work 7,932 cases of non-compliance were found in 
563 establishments. While this represents a decided improvement over that of the 
past year both as to numbers of establishments and cases, the situation is far from 
satisfactory. 



7 

Adjustrmnis. — In the cases settled wages were raised for 653 women in 90 es- 
tablishments. Adjustments by change of work, hours or method of payment 
whereby the employees were enabled to earn the minimum were made in 41 cases 
in 11 establishments. Adjustment was promised or reported in 445 additional cases 
in 78 establishments. There were 78 employees in 16 establishments who came 
under the piece-rate ruling. This ruling provides that in cases of experienced oper- 
ators where the great majority on a given operation are earning the minimum or 
over, the rates are considered to be in accordance with the decree. In six estab- 
hshments 10 employees were covered by the special license provision; in 268 cases 
in 52 establishments it was reported that the employees had left or were laid off. 
Seven establishments employing 403 women were reported as out of business". 
There were also 58 cases in 13 establishments that did not come under the decrees; 
three cases m one establishment that was incorrectly recorded and 338 cases in 
30 estabhshments that were considered as technical non-compliance. 

Advertisements. — There were 45 establishments with 934 cases of non-compliance 
that were advertised during the year. These were under the retail store decree. 

Cases Pending. — At the close of the year there were pending in the regular in- 
spection work 4,701 cases in 281 establishments. 

Conclusion 

In 1921 the Commission in its annual report recommended that the Massachu- 
setts law be made mandatory. The legislature, however, failed to enact such legis- 
lation and perhaps wisely as in 1923 the United States Supreme Court in Atkins vs. 
Children's Hospital, 261 U. S. 525, by a majority opinion held that a mandatory 
minimum wage law established in the District of Columbia was unconstitutional. 
The decision was later concurred in in several instances by both state and federal 
courts. However, the low wage rates, which have been referred to in this report 
as well as in the reports of previous years, in some lines of occupation, especially 
certain branches of the needle trades, have aroused public sentiment to a demand 
that drastic action be taken by industrial states on minimum wage legislation. As 
a result, the legislature at the session of 1933 passed an amendment to the minimum 
wage law, commonly known as the Conroy bill, being Chapter 220 of the Acts of 
1933. This bill makes provision for a more effective euforcement of the minimum 
wage decrees through requiring the tagging of articles by the manufacturer pro- 
ducing the same and posting notice of sale by the dealer selling at retail, specify- 
ing that the articles so manufactured or sold are "manufactured, in whole or in 
part, by the labor of women and minors in violation of a decree of the Commission." 
The right of the Commission to proceed under this provision is subject to some 
limitations and thus far the Commission has taken no action thereunder. During 
the year 1933 a minimum wage law, based on the "model" bill of the National 
Consumers' League, was passed in some of the eastern states; to wit. New Hamp- 
shire, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey and Ohio. This bill imposes a criminal 
penalty for failure to abide by minimum wage decrees. It is to be borne in mind 
that the codes under the N. R. A. are at present established for a limited period 
only and with the desire of the great majority of employers and the public, as well 
as labor, for continued improvement in wage rates, it seems important that changes 
should be made in the Massachusetts law to encourage and assure the establish- 
ment of better wage rates. This matter, the Commission understands, is being 
given consideration by the Commission on Interstate Compacts, authorized at the 
last legislative session. The Commission, therefore, has not attempted to submit 
any specific recommendations for legislation, but is in accord with the enactment 
of legislation which will not only correct but prevent the continuance of uneconomic 
and anti-social wage conditions in industry and employment. It must be borne m 
mind, however, that in enacting such legislation provision should be made for 
recognition of the existing minimum wage decrees, a problem which did not have 
to be faced in the states heretofore referred to, which previous thereto had no 
minimum wage law. This could be met by special provisions without interfering 
in any way with the basic principle of uniformity, which is desirable in the 
enactment of legislation. It is also a matter worthy of consideration, if au- 
thority should not be given which will allow of decrees being modified or changed 
during the life of the N. R. A. and the codes adopted thereunder without the tune- 
consuming and expensive process of summoning wage boards, so tliat with the 



8 



provisions of the codes, where economic conditions appear to warrant such a step, 
the decrees might be brought nearer into accord, thereby during the h'fe of the 
N. R. A. avoiding some of the conflict and confusion which have been previously- 
referred to in this report. A copy of Chapter 220 accompanies this report. 

CHAPTER 220, ACTS OF 1933 
An Act to provide for the more Effective Enforcement of Decrees op 
THE Minimum Wage Commission 

Section 1. Chapter one hundred and fifty-one of the General Laws is hereby 
amended by inserting after section eleven the following four new sections: — Sec- 
tion 11-A. If the commission shall at any time find, after investigation, that an 
employer engaged in manufacturing continues to violate any such decree, after 
his name has been published under section eleven, it may order such employer to 
cause to be affixed to every article thereafter manufactured in the course of such 
violation or to its container, or both, a tag, stamp, label or other device in such 
form, color and type as the commission may prescribe, stating the fact that such 
article is manufactured in whole or in part by the labor of women and minors in 
violation of a decree of the commission. Within ten days after the issuance of such 
an order to any employer he may file with the commission his objections thereto in 
writing. The commission shall, within ten days after such filing, suspend, amend, 
revoke or reaffirm such order. Refusal or failure to comply with an order of the 
commission issued under this section and in full force and effect shall be punished 
by imprisonment for not more than thirty days or by a fine of not more than five 
hundred dollars, or both. 

Section U-B. The commission may insert in any order issued under section 
eleven A, a provision that a dealer selling at retail within the Commonwealth any 
article to which, or to the container of which, is attached a tag, stamp, label or 
other device in pursuance of such an order shall keep conspicuously posted on his 
premises in such place, form, type and manner as the commission may prescribe, 
a notice that articles are for sale on said premises manufactured in whole or in part 
by the labor of women or minors in violation of a decree of the commission. A 
dealer failing to comply with such a provision shall be subject to the penalties pre- 
scribed in section eleven A. 

Section U-C. Whoever knowingly and willingly defaces, removes or destroys 
a tag, stamp, label or other device attached to an article or its container in pur- 
suance of an order of the commission issued under section eleven A, or a notice 
posted as required in section eleven B, shall be subject to the penalties prescribed 
in section eleven A. The department of labor and industries shall enforce this and 
the two preceding sections. 

Section 11-D. The commission may on its own initiative or at the request of an 
employer rescind any order issued under section eleven A, if after an investigation 
it determines such employer is complying with its decree. 

Section 2. No order shall be issued by the minimum wage commission under 
section eleven A of chapter one hundred and fifty-one of the General Laws, in- 
serted by section one of this act, affecting any employer in respect to wages paid 
by him in any occupation for which it has established a minimum wage by decree 
rendered prior to the effective date of this act, unless and until, in a proceeding 
conducted as provided in section five of said chapter one hundred and fifty-one, it 
shall have reinvestigated said wage and affirmed, modified or rescinded the same. 
{Approved May 26, 1933.) 

Table 1. — Advertisement of Non-compliances under Minimum Wage Decrees, 1933 

Retail Store Industry 



Date of advertisement June 27, 1933 

Number of establishments at most recent inspection ... 2,417 

Number of records in most recent inspection 24,359 

Cases of non-compliances: — 

Firms 362 

Cases 5,935 

Per cent of non-compliances : — 

Firms 15.0 

Cases 24.4 



•I 

1 1 

s i 

s; ^ 

1 w 

I 

2 I 

2 U 



•1 



Men's 
Clothing 

and 
Raincoat 


y « .H^^^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 eo 

S ''"SS ' ' ' ' • • ' ' '2 


Laundry 


C. E. 
529 42 
394 26 
6 1 

1 1 
1 1 

1 1 
1 1 

49 11 


Jewelry 

and 
Related 
Lines 


C. E. 

673 9 

8 1 
51 3 

23 1 
590 8 


Knit 
Goods 


C. E. 

239 4 

1 1 

1 1 

237 3 


Electrical 
Equip- 
ment 
and 
Supplies 


ttj «^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (N 

u « ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 'g 


Druggists' 
Compounds 
and Pro- 
prietary 
Medicines 


a 1''' 1 1 llll 

llll , , ,,,, 


Corset 


llll lilt 1 1 |||(N 
o S3 ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 


Canning, 
Preserv- 
ing and 
Minor 
Lines 
of Con- 
fectionery 


a 1 1 llll , , , , ,^ 

^ CO (N(N II llll 1 1 1 1 1 0> 


Candy 


C. E. 

214 4 

207 2 
2 1 

6 1 


Brush 


w ^ -^-^-^ 

U ^'^^ 1 ' ' ' 1 ' ' 'III 


Bread 
and 
Bakery 
Products 


i-i- llll 

INIIN llll .-1^ IllOO 


Boot and 
Shoe Cut 
Stock and 
Findings 


d ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 


Situation and Disposition 
OF Cases 


Cases pending from previous 

years .... 
ADJUSTMENTS 

Wages raised 

Left or discharged 

Firm out of business . 

Technical non-compliance . 

Change of work, hours, or 
method of payment 

Incorrectly recorded . 

Covered by piece rate ruling 

Not under decree 

Special license type or similar 
case .... 

Adjustment promised or re- 
ported .... 

Earning minimum on piece 
work .... 

Firm moved from State 
ADVERTISED . 
PENDING .... 



10 




11 



^ c ^ 



S5 



I IN I I IN I 
I IN I I to I 



Men's 
Furnish- 
ings 


C. E. 
279 9 

2 1 
277 8 


Men's 
Clothing 

and 
Raincoat 


H «^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 I (N 

^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Laundry 


H t;j 1 - 1 1 1 1 * 
U g ' * ' ' • Ig 


Knit 
Goods 


C. E. 
61 1 

61 1 


Jewelry 

and 
Related 
Lines 


W ^ 1 1 1 . 1 1 1^ 
u 1 1 . 1 . 1 1 1 1 


Electrical 

Equip- 
ment and 
Supplies 


C. E. 
41 1 

41 1 




y ^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 

^ « 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 « 



Q H 

n < 



.5 



■ 4-.2 



s! c = >'=^ - 

C u O ^ 7 



ac c 

Z 

£ o « £ f=ai = 



< 



Total 


bi !S w « 00 o 
U ^ 


Women's 
Clothing 


H 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 '« 

6 g 1 1 1 1 1 1 lo 


Stationery 

Goods 
and 
Envelopes 


C. E. 
254 6 


Retail 

Stores 


o 


Toys, Games 
and 
Sporting 
Goods 


y - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ^ 

J <N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Pockethook 
and 
Leather 
Goods 


^ t» 1 ^ 1 1 CO 

O o -H 00 


Paper 
Box 


N 1 1 - 1 1 1 1 
cJ ^ 1 1 « 1 1 1 1 ^ 


Situation and Disposition 
OF Casks 


Number of cases of non-compliance 

ADJUSTMENT 

Wages raised ..... 

Left or discharged .... 

Adjustment promised or reported 

Hours reduced .... 

Covered by piece rate ruling 

Technical non-compliance 

ADVERTISED 

PENDING 



12 



Men's 
Clothing 
and 


C. E. 

1,380 31 
342 22 

9 2 

13 1 

8 1 
6 1 

306 20 


Laundry > 


C. E. 

5,547 380 
548 82 

317 41 

2 2 

84 15 

34 14 

8 2 

52 8 
51 14 


Knit 
Goods I 


y OOrH _! N 1^ (N(WI|i-l|0> 


Jewelry 

and 
Related 
Lines * 


C. E. 

2,404 56 
47 12 

47 12 


Electrical 
Equip- 
ment 
and 


C. E. 

3,293 61 
1,264 25 

20 3 

39 3 

19 1 
382 1 

21 1 

783 17 


Druggists' 
Compounds 
and Pro- 
prietary 
Medicines' 


C. E. 

693 43 
136 11 

2 2 

11 4 
6 1 

11 4 
1 1 

105 4 


Canning, 
Preserv- 
ing and 
Minor 
Lines 
of Con- 
fectionery ' 


C. E. 

1,638 85 
244 38 

5 4 

40 7 
1 1 

36 11 
162 16 


Candy > 


C. E. 

4,255 75 
230 13 

123 3 

88 6 
3 1 

7 1 
9 4 


Brush 1 


C. E. 

363 13 
84 4 

1 1 

8 1 

75 2 


Bread 
and 
Bakery 
Products * 


C. E. 

1,047 48 
124 14 

5 2 
1 1 

6 3 

3 1 

4 3 

10 2 
95 6 


Boot and 
Shoe Cut 
Stock and 
rinuings * 


C. E. 

1,141 91 
505 65 

3 2 

21 3 
6 2 

4 2 
14 5 

9 1 
448 56 


Situation and Disposition 
OF Cases 


Records for tabulation and 
establishments represented 
Cases of non-compliance 
ADJUSTMENTS 
Wages raised . 
Change of work, hours, 

method of payment 
Adjustment promised or 

reported 
Covered by piece rate ruling 
Special license type or sim- 
ilar case 
Incorrectly recorded 
Left or laid off 

Pirm nut r>f himiriPQa 

Not under decree 

Technical non-compliance 
ADVERTISED . 
PENDING 



ToUl 


C. E. 

36,148 1,733 
7,932 663 

663 90 ^ 

446 78 
78 16 

10 6 
3 1 
268 62 
403 7 
68 13 
338 30 
934 46 
4,701 281 


Women's 
x^ioining * 




Toys, 
Games 

and 
Sporting 
Goods 1 


C. E. 

813 27 
236 13 

21 2 
8 1 
206 11 


Stationery 
Goods 
and 
Envelopes » 


C. E. 

1,348 30 
449 22 

37 7 
2 1 

16 3 

4 2 

38 2 
363 11 


Retail 
Store » 


C. E. 

1,220 160 
1,219 87 

96 11 

13 3 

24 10 

20 6 
6 2 

87 8 
934 46 
39 7 


Pocket- 
book and 
Leather 
Goods • 


C. E. 

316 19 
83 10 

3 1 

3 1 
1 1 

76 8 


u 

4) - 

a X 


C. E. 

2,861 132 
412 69 

3 3 

60 11 
6 4 

3 1 

26 4 

62 3 
274 38 


Office 
and 

Other 
Building 
Cleaners • 


C. E. 

2,190 363 
172 26 

14 6 

4 2 

76 13 

1 1 
67 1 
11 3 


Muslin 
Under- 
wear « 


C. E. 

1,601 23 
934 21 

64 3 
880 20 


>. 

V 

c 

is 


05Tf< 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 ^ 1 M 

W CO 

1 1 t^l llll|l-H|«0 


Men's 
Furnish- 
ings 3 


C. E. 

1,130 14 
718 16 

4 2 
49 3 

666 16 



go 

z o 
o 



c 

a; V 

<n u 

J! c 



C (O 

o>.S 



■O 



o 



o £i rt 

O ft' 
Oc/3 



«j CO on 

•r 4^ > 



*i 0* 
B C 

Ox: ■"* 

-sis 

•se&l 

V U 00 "O 

« g QO 

c c o o 
— — c W 
c c o > 
.2 .2 '5 £ 



®lfr QIottmionMipaltlf of MmsvuifviBtttB 



DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES; 



REPORT 

OF THE 

DIVIS ION OF MINIMUM WAGE 

REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 

For the Year Ending November 30, 1934 
OFFICIALS 

Commissioner Assistant Commissioner 

EDWIN S. SMITH MARY E. MEEHAN 

Associate Commissioners 

(Constituting the Division of Minimum Wage and the Board of 
Conciliation and Arbitration) 
EDWARD FISHER RAYMOND V. McNAMARA 

JOHN L. CAMPOS 




Publication of this Documknt vpprovku bv x-ih ( ..mmsston on 
600. 7-'36. Order 5042 



flKlt LlUivniM 1111 
2 

NOV 19 1935 

REPORT OF THE MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION 

Edward Fisher, Chairman; 51&Af fi^-Kl^ySfc; BOSiCtfi V. McNamara; 
Mary E. Meehan, Acting Director 

Salient Features of the New Minimum Wage Law 

Chapter 308 of the Acts of 1984 

Under the provisions of this law, which became effective September 12 and 
which supersedes the existing law except as to the 22 decrees then in effect, material 
and substantial changes are made in the terms operation, administration and en- 
forcement of this law, greater authority and responsibility being given to the Com- 
missioner of the department with a lessening of the duties and responsibilities of 
the Minimum Wage Commission. The following is a brief outline of some of the 
duties of the Commissioner. 

1. The Commissioner or his authorized agent is given authority to make 
an investigation of wages paid to women and minors and examine the records 
of the employer; or he may require the employer to furnish in writing under 
oath the desired information relative thereto. 

2. On the petition of 50 or more residents, it is the duty of the Commis- 
sioner to make an investigation of the wages paid to such employees, and if on 
information the Commissioner is of the opinion that a substantial number of 
women or minors in any occupation are receiving what is termed "oppressive 
and unreasonable wages," he may direct the Minimum Wage Commission to 
appoint a wage board. 

3. After the Commission in the performance of its duties has formed a wage 
board and approved its report and transmitted the same to the Commissioner, 
he in turn makes what is known as a "directory order," making such rates 
minimum fair wage rates in this occupation, including administrative regula- 
tions submitted therewith by the Commission. 

Note. It will be here noted that the word "decree" is no longer used in the 
law, the Commissioner issuing what is known as a "directory order" establish- 
ing fair minimum wage rates, 

4. Later, if the Commissioner has reason to believe that any employer in 
this occupation is not complying with the order, he may summons such em- 
ployer to appear and show cause why he should not be published for such 
failure, and if found not to be complying, may cause publication to be made. 

5. After a directory order has been in effect for at least 9 months, the 
Commissioner may, if in his opinion "the persistent non-observance of such 
order by one or more employers is a threat to the maintenance of fair mini- 
mum wage standards in any occupation," after notice and a public hearing, 
make such order mandatory and failure thereafter to comply with the order 
subjects the employer to punishment by fine or imprisonment or both. 

6. The Commissioner, after a minimum fair wage order, whether directory 
or mandatory, has been in effect for a year or more, may, and on petition of 
50 or more residents, shall direct the Commission to reconsider the minimum 
fair ifkge rates either through reconvening the former or appointing a new 
wag^'boarjd;' ^ ,\ , ' , • .! 

7. The Commissioner is also authorized at any time to propose to the 
Commission changes in administrative regulation. 

The fpUqw^ng js & brief outline of some of the duties and functions of the Com- 

r. If so directed' the Commissioner, a wage board is appointed by the 
Commission in an occupation and upon receipt of the report of this board, if 
not satisfactory, it may be recommended to the same board or a new board 
established. If accepted, it is published and a public hearing held. After 
the hearing the Commission may again recommend it to the board or establish 
a new wage board; but if it approves the report, submits it to the Commis- 
sioner. 



2. The Commission has the additional duty and authority to accompany 
such report with adniinistrative regulations. This is a new provision. 

3. The Commission still retains its authority to issue special licenses to 
employees whose earning capacity is impaired by age, physical or mental 
deficiency, or injury. 

4. After a directory order has been in effect for one year, on direction of the 
Commissioner, the Commission is required to reconvene or establish a new 
wage board in order to review the existing wages. 

5. On recomrnendation of the Commissioner, the Commission is also 
authorized to revise the administrative regulations of any order. 

While no attempt is being made to make even a general outline of the law, it is 
to be noted that provision is made therein for an appeal to the courts from any 
order of the Commissioner; also a requirement that the employer keep a record of 
employees, hours worked and wages paid; and penalties are provided for violation 
of the provisions of the act. 

StatiLS of Existing Decrees — 22 in Number: 

While the new law made provision under section 3 for retaining the existing de- 
crees, yet it seemed apparent that this provision was not sufficiently comprehensive 
to bring these decrees under the provisions of the new law with special reference to 
enforcement. For that reason the opinion of the Attorney General was sought and 
under date of August 27 he advised the department (1) that the existing decrees 
are to be enforced by the Minimum Wage Commission under provision of the former 
law and not by the Commissioner under provision of the new law and (2) that the 
existing decrees cannot be mandatory as provided under the new law. 

This created in the opinion of the Commission an anomalous situation, as the 
existing decrees, 22 in number, under this opinion can only be enforced by the 
Minimum Wage Commission, under the provisions of the former law, while any 
new fair minimum wage rate hereafter established would be enforced by the Com- 
missioner under provisions in the new law with its mandatory provision. 

In order to correct this situation, the department has recommended to the incom- 
ing legislature that this situation be remedied through legislation whereby these 
decrees may be brought under the mandatory and other provisions of the new law. 

Outline of Activities 

During the year the Commission, in addition to its regular inspection work, has 
continued with its activities in co-operation with the code and other federal agencies 
in securing data and making investigations relative to wage rates, hours and other 
conditions of employment. 

While at the close of the year the records of the Commission again show a lar^e 
number of non-compliance cases, this is not, at present at least, to be viewed in 
any serious light, as the rates paid in most instances represent compliance with the 
wage rates of the codes, these rates, generally speaking, being lower than those 
established under the decrees. The most noticeable instance, and one concermng 
which further reference is hereinafter made, is that of the Retail Store decree, 
where are the greater number of non-compliances. 

The advent of the N. I. R. A. and accompanying codes has not only resulted m 
raising in many instances the wage rates and bringing them more nearly in con- 
formity with the provisions of the decrees, but has also resulted in securing more 
uniformity of wage rates in the various occupations, thereby removing one ot tne 
causes of unfair competition on the part of those employers who in the past have 
persistently failed to meet the wage rates established under the decrees. 

Relation of Codes to Decrees 
Section 3 of chapter 308 of the Acts of 1934 grants authority to the Commission 
"to suspend, alter or modify the provisions of any minimum wage decree in force 
upon such effective date so as to bring the wage and other provisions of such decree 
into complete or partial conformity with similar provisions in any code or codes 
appUcable to the industry covered by said decree and ^PProved by the Presid^^^^^^ 
of the United States under the provisions of the National Industrial Recovery^^^^^^^ 
such authority to be effective only during such time as the code or codes m question 



•TV 

4 

respectively remain in effect." In endeavoring to exercise this authority some 
unforeseen and unusual difficulties and obstacles have been encountered, which 
have thus far made unnecessary or at least rendered inadvisable any immediate 
action thereunder, as indicated by the following outline. 

In the case of one decree, Laundry, there is no code in effect in the occupation. 

While in the case of each of two other decrees, Bread and Bakery and Boot and 
Shoe Cut Stock and Findings, the occupation is divided among several code^, yet | 
in each instance one branch of the occupation is not included in any code. i 

In the case of the Office and Other Building Cleaners decree, where there are two 
codes, only a portion of this occupation is covered. 

In the case of two decrees. Corset and Brush, there is in each instance a single 
code in the occupation. 

Relative to the remaining 16 decrees, while there are codes for each of the occu- 
pations, in every instance the work under the occupations is divided among two or 
more codes, and in one instance among ten, and another among thirteen codes. 

In the case of the two decrees, Corset and Brush, the code rates in each instance 
are higher than the minimum established thereunder. 

As to the other decrees and codes applicable thereto, with their varying rates i 
and provisions relative to apprenticeship, etc., no definite outline or comparison 
is attempted to be made. 

It will be readily seen from this brief outline the difficult problems presented to 
the Commission in attempting to act under the provisions of this section. In the 
case of two decrees, Corset and Brush, where the code rates are higher than those 
established under the decrees, no action seemed necessary. As to the other 
decrees, the impracticability, not to say impossibility, in most instances of alter- 
ing or modifying a decree to comply with the several codes, with their varying rates, 
etc., can readily be appreciated. Further, the Commission has not deemed it ad- 
visable to suspend a decree, as to do so would accomplish no constructive purpose. 

Under these circumstances, the Commission has therefore deemed it advisable 
to continue with its work of investigation and efforts to secure compliance; and 
also, in co-operation with the code authorities, has reported to them any failure, 
found in the course of investigation, on the part of such employers to comply with 
codes. 

Thus far, where compliance has been found with the code, although not with the 
decree, the Commission has continued with its efforts to secure compliance, and, to 
some extent, has been successful; and has not resorted to publication, as such a 
course would seem at this time inadvisable where there is compliance with the code. 

Retail Store Decree 

Relative to the issue of the conflict of laws referred to in the last annual report, 
and more particularly in respect to the Retail Trade code, which includes the occu- 
pation of retail stores under the minimum wage decree, it was then pointed out that 
under one of the sections of this code, as is the case under many other codes, it is 
prescribed that w^here the state law establishes a higher minimum than that estab- 
lished under the code, the state law is to prevail. This became particularly impor- 
tant under the Retail Store decree, as under the code the rates are based on popula- 
tion, and in all the communities outside of Boston the code rates are less, and in 
some cases considerably less, than the decree, except where in some instances the 
hours are in excess of forty per week. 

It was further stated in the last report that the Board had been informed that it 
was the attitude of the federal authorities entrusted with the enforcement of the 
codes that by reason of this section in the code the provisions of the Massachusetts 
decree should prevail where higher than the code rates. Nevertheless, it appeared 
that some of the chain stores were contending that our minimum wage law, being 
recommendatory and not mandatory, did not bring this decree within the pro- 
vision of this section, it not being, as was contended, a law in the sense that it was 
obligatory. Since then, the code authorities at Washington have made an official 
ruling supporting the contentions of these stores that this section did not apply, 
as the Massachusetts law was not mandatory. 

Nevertheless, the Commission is continuing with its efforts to secure compliance 
in so far as it is able to do so, but again points out the advisability of amending 



^ 5 

the law to bring the existing decrees under the provisions of the new law with its 
mandatory provision. 

New Wage Board 

For some time there have been complaints made of the low wage rates in the 
dry cleamng estabhshments. 

This was serious not only to the employees who were receiving in many instances 
very low wage rates, but was also a menace to the legitimate employer engaged in 
this occupation, and also to those employers coming under the pro\'isions of the 
Laundry decree, part of whose business was also that of dry cleaning, resulting in 
very unfair competition. 

For these reasons, the Commission decided that it was advisable to form a new 
wage board for the Laundry decree, enlarging the scope to include the dry cleaning 
occupation. 

No steps were taken toward this end in the early part of the year, by reason of 
the fact that the new law did not become effective until September 12. 

As a result, after that date, and after further examination, and upon recommen- 
dation made to the Commissioner of the department, the Commissioner on Novem- 
ber 1 directed the Commission to establish a wage board for this occupation. 

The board is in process of being formed at the close of the year. 

Advertisement of Non-Compliances 
(See Table 1) 

There being no code in effect in the Laundry occupation, and the Commission 
being unable to secure full compliance with the Laundry decree, publication was 
made on September 5 in the case of eight firms. This was the only publication 
during the year. 

Inspections 

During the year, the Commission has completed the inspection initiated in 1933 
under the jewelry decree. Inspection has also been initiated and completed under 
the following decrees: boot and shoe cut stock and findings; bread and bakery 
products; brush; candy; canning and preserving and minor lines of confectionery; 
corset; druggists' compounds and proprietary medicines; electrical equipment and 
supplies; jewelry; knit goods; laundry; men's clothing and raincoat; men's 
furnishings; millinery; muslin underwear; office and other building cleaners- 
paper box; pocketbook and leather goods; retail stores; stationery goods and 
envelopes; toys, games and sporting goods; and women's clothing. 

In addition, as usual, there have been inspections and reinspections under most 
of the decrees; in some cases as a result of complaints, and in others as a check-up 
on the part of the Commission to see if assurance given by employers to meet com- 
pliance had been fulfilled. There was also a check-up preliminary to publication 
under the Laundry decree. 

In the regular inspection work, wage records for tabulation were secured for 
53,907 women and girls in 2,291 firms. In addition, 6,464 reinspection records 
were taken under 20 decrees including 225 establishments, thus making a grand 
total of 60,371 cases in 2,516 firms. 

Reinspection of Inspection Cases 
Disposition of Non-Compliances Pending from Previous Years 
(See Table 2) 

At the beginning of the fiscal year there were outstanding, as appears from the 
report of the previous year, 9,014 cases of non-compliance in 494 establishments. 
A large number of these cases come under the muslin underwear decree with 1,365 
cases in 45 establishments, and men's furnishings decree with 1,212 cases in 41 

6S t)£t]D ll sluU 6 S 

There were also 957 cases in 20 electrical equipment firms; 749 cases in 23 station- 
ery goods estabHshments; 681 cases in 26 pocketbook and leather goods establish- 
ments; 610 cases in 58 retail stores; 739 cases in 24 jewelry establishments; and 
453 cases in 59 boot and shoe cut stock and findings factories. The remaining cases 
were divided among the following decrees: bread and bakery; brush; candy; 
canning and preserving and minor lines of confectionery; corset; druggists com- 



6 



pounds and proprietary medicines; knit goods; laundries; men's clothing and 
rain coat; millinery; office and other building cleaners; paper box; toys, games 
and sporting goods; and women's clothing. 

Adjustments. — As a large number of these cases were in establishments where 
difficulties in securing adjustment had prevailed in the past, a difficult problem was 
presented in securing compliance. However, the Commission has been reasonably 
successful in securing adjustments, and in many cases where compliance was not 
secured, substantial increases in wage rates were made. Wages were raised to 
meet the provisions of the decrees in 2,033 cases in 178 establishments. Adjust- 
ments by change of work, hours or method of payment, whereby the employees 
were enabled to earn the minimum, were made in 708 cases in 67 establishments. 
There were 202 employees in 8 establishments covered by the piece-rate ruling i 
and in 2,489 cases in 209 establishments it was reported that the employees had 
left, been laid off or discharged. Twenty-three establishments with 289 cases were j 
reported as out of business, and 2 cases in 2 establishments were incorrectly re- 
corded, while 85 cases in 5 establishments were not under the decree. Adjustment 
was promised or reported in 317 cases in 47 establishments. Three establishments 
employing 191 women moved from the state; 4 cases in 1 establishment were 
recorded as special license types; and 21 cases of technical non-compliance were 
found in 7 establishments. 

Advertisement. — The only firms advertised were those coming under the laun- 
dry decree, including 89 cases in 7 establishments. 

Cases Pending. — There were outstanding at the close of the year, 2,584 cases in 
174 establishments, mainly under the men's furnishings, muslin underwear, jewelry 
and related-lines, and retail store decrees. 

Disposition of New Cases Found in Firms with Cases Outstanding 
FROM Previous Years 
(See Table 3) 

In the course of reinspection of firms with cases outstanding from previous years, 
2,093 new cases were found in 125 establishments. The majority of these cases 
came under the electrical equipment, men's furnishings, and muslin underwear 
decrees. The remaining cases were under the boot and shoe; bread and bakery; 
canning and preserving; druggists' compounds; jewelry and related lines; knit 
goods; laundry; men's clothing and rain coat; paper box; pocketbook and leather 
goods; retail stores; toys, games and sporting goods; and stationery goods and 
envelopes decrees. 

Adjustments. — As many of these cases were in establishments where compliance 
had never been secured, the Commission faced difficulties in endeavoring to secure 
adjustments. In 46 cases in 9 establishments wages were raised to meet the pro- 
visions of the decrees. Adjustment was promised or reported in 9 establishments 
employing 32 women, while 58 employees in 8 establishments were covered by 
piece-rate ruling; 20 employees in 2 establishments were transferred from time to 
piece work in order to conform with the decree; and 222 employees in 5 firms were 
reported as left, laid off or discharged. One employee in 1 establishment came 
under the special license provision. 

Advertisement. — Seventeen cases in one laundry were advertised in 1934. 

Cases Pending. — There were pending at the close of the year 1,697 cases in 104 
establishments, mainly under the electrical equipment, muslin underwear, boot and 
shoe cut stock and findings, and men's furnishings decrees. Other cases were found 
under the bread and bakery; jewelry and related lines; knit goods; men's clothing 
and rain coat; paper box; pocketbook and leather goods; retail store; stationery 
goods and envelopes; and toys, games and sporting goods decrees. 

Disposition of Cases in the Regular Inspection Work 
(See Table 4) 

In the regular inspection work, 5,777 cases of non-compliance were found in 460 
establishments. This represents a decided improvement over that of the past 
year both as to numbers of establishments and cases, and it is to be further noted 
that in most instances it represents compliance with the code rates. 



W 7 

Adjustments, — In the cases settled, wages were raised for 375 women in 46 
establishments. Adjustments by change of work, hours or method of payment 
whereby the employees were enabled to earn the minimum were made in 43 cases 
m 15 establishments. Adjustment was promised or reported in 265 additional 
cases in 56 establishments. There were 350 employees in 52 establishments who 
came under the piece-rate ruhng. This ruling provides that in cases of experienced 
operators where the great majority are earning the minimum or over, the rates are 
considered to be in accordance with the decree. In 6 establishments, 7 employees 
were covered by the special license provision; in 232 cases in 23 estabUshments it 
was reported that the employees had left, were laid off, or were discharged. One 
establishment employing 1 woman was reported as out of business. There was 
also 1 case in 1 estabhshment that did not come under the decrees; 15 cases in 
2 establishments were incorrectly recorded; 10 cases in 4 establishments were 
considered as technical non-compliance; and 1 estabhshment employing 3 women 
moved from the state. 

Advertisements. — There were 4 establishments with 28 cases of non-compliance 
that were advertised during the year. These were under the laundry decree. 

Cases Pending. — At the close of the year there were pending in the regular 
inspection work 4,447 cases in 249 estabUshments. 

I Conclusion 

The enactment of what is commonly termed the Uniform Minimum Wage law, 
to which reference is made early in this report, presents, as already stated, many 
changes in the structure, procedure and enforcement of the law, the word decree 
being eliminated and substitution therefor is the directory order of the Commis- 
sioner. Further, the approach under this law in estabhshing rates is somewhat 
different than that of the former law, the act providing, in section 1, for " 'A fair 
wage,' a wage fairly and reasonably commensurate with the value of the service 
or class of service rendered"; and further providing in section 2 as follows: "It is 
hereby declared to be against public policy for any employer to employ any woman 
or minor in an occupation in this commonwealth at an oppressive and unreasonable 
wage as defined in section one and any contract, agreement or understanding for 
or in relation to such employment shall be null and void"; and making the follow- 
ing definition in section 1 : 'An oppressive and unreasonable wage,' a wage which 
is both less than the fair and reasonable value of the services rendered and less 
than sufficient to meet the minimum cost of living necessary for health." It will 
be further noted that before a mandatory order can be issued, a period of at least 
9 months must elapse, during which there is an opportunity for publication of those 
employers who fail to comply; and the mandatory order can only be issued after a 
hearing and a determination by the Commissioner that the persistent non-observ- 
ance of such order by one or more employers is a threat to the maintenance of the 
fair minimum wage standards. 

This approach seems to provide fair and ample protection and safeguards to the 
rights of those employers who are wilHng and desirous to carry out the provisions 
of the law, and affords full opportunity for adjustment to meet its requirements 
by other employers. Nevertheless, of course, the question of its constitutionality, 
even under this form, is open for presentation to the courts. What action the 
courts may take thereon cannot be forecast; but even if this mandatorj' provision 
is declared unconstitutional, the other provisions will still remain intact. 

This approach would seem to warrant the hope and belief that this mandatory 
provision meets with all constitutional requirements. 

Table 1. — Advertisement of Non-Compliances under Minimum Wage Decrees, 1934 

Laundry Industry 

Date of advertisement September 5, 1934 

Number of establishments at most recent inspection 
Number of records in most recent inspection 
Cases of non-compliances: — 
Firms 

Cases . . . 
Per cent of non-compliances: — 

Firms 

Cases 



347 
5,677 

8 

134 

2.3 
2.4 



8 



o 



.53 .S 



5 

o 



a a 5 

AX'S S 

i^rt OS 



(N .-H 



Laundry 


W CO ^ 

. CO ^(0<0 1 <-< 1 1 1 1 O 1 OS 1 

Q a> lo^^ c» 00 


Knit 
Goods 


C. E. 

373 13 

248 7 
11 4 

4 2 

72 2 

6 1 
32 2 


Jewelry 

and 
Related 

Lines 


C. E. 

739 24 

221 5 
62 12 

42 7 
14 1 

400 15 


Electrical 
Equip- 
ment 
and 
Supplies 


C. E. 

957 20 

172 7 
374 13 

116 5 
31 2 

264 10 


Druggists' 
Compounds 
and Pro- 
prietary 
Medicines 


f4-<*N'<i«ii iiiii -tii^ 

. to coco II IIIII ■* 1 1 o 

Q O «0 CO 1-t 


Corset 


^ c ^^1 1 ^1^1 1 III. 

^ ^Ol 1 OOICCI 1 1 1 1 1 


Canning. 
Preserv- 
ing and 
Minor 
Lines 
of Con- 
fectionery 


t^tO II CO 1 1 1 1 »o 1 1 1 

w ^ 

,^ ^CO II iC I 1 1 1 N 1 1 1 


Candy 


lO eo^ II IIIII 1^1^ 

Tft tO'-' II IIIII 1 »0 1 N 


Brush 


H N 1 1 IIIII 1 1 1 1 
r< to >00 II IIIII 1 1 1 1 


Bread 

and 
Bakery 
Products 


C. E. 
106 8 
41 6 

Oft 1 

10 1 
26 2 


Boot and 
Shoe Cut 
Stock and 
Findings 


05 oo»oeo 1 co»-i'-« II rH 1 1 W3 

»0 rlN CO 
. CO •»»<0>t^ 1 1-<r^C< II ■«*• 1 1 »0 

^ ■* ^ e* 



111 



.2^ 
-S So. 

00 u a « p 



g V hi 

« o) 



. o . 



« q3 => 



9 



I 



21 



5^ I 



"Si 



t^O« CO 



eooooooj o ooo 



CO 00. 



eo «>o II ^1 



II U5 I (NOO 

ooN ec « 



-•!> a w oQ 



V M 



Iglls 



eoooi 



^(N II I I I I 
II I I I I 




5" o 
C ^ o ShQ 



Laundry 


10 

CO ^ 1 1 1 ^ 1 ■-' 1 

d § - 1 1 1^ It: 1 


Knit 
Goods 


H ^ , , ^ , ^ , , 

^ 1 1 (N 1 CO 1 1 2 


Jewelry 

and 
Related 
Lines 


p4 1 1 1 1 1 — 1 in 

d g I 1 1 1 l<N 1- 


Electrical 
Equipment 
and 
Supplies 


C. E. 
549 12 

3 1 
172 1 

374 11 


Druggists' 
Compounds 

and 
Proprietary 

Medicines 


H ^ 1 1 1 1 ^ 1 1 1 

d » 1 1 1 1 o> 1 1 1 


Canning, 
Preserving 
and Minor 
Lines of 
Confectionery 


f4 CO -"^ 1 1 ^ 1 1 1 

^ Oi -Hr-. 1 1 1 1 1 


Bread 

and 
Bakery 
Products 


H ^ 1 

d S 1 1 1 1 1 • IS 


Boot and 
Shoe Cut 
Stock and 
Findings 


C. E. 
295 25 

1 1 
15 1 

2 1 

277 25 


Situation and Disposition 
OF Cases 


Number of Cases of Non-compliance 

ADJUSTMENTS 

Wages raised 

Left, laid off or discharged . 

Change in method of payment . 

Special license type .... 

Adjustment promised or reported 

Covered by piece rate ruling 

ADVERTISED 

PENDING 



Total 


C. E. 
2,093 125 

46 9 
222 6 
20 2 
1 1 
32 9 
58 8 
17 1 
1,697 104 


Toys, Games 
and 


H o 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (o 

d ^ ' ' 


Stationery 
Goods 
and 
Envelopes 


H ^111 ci^-i 1 '<«) 
00 OJ 1 1 1 eo^ 1 N 


Retail 
Stores 


Piq w 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 00 

Vj CO CO 


Pocketbook 
and 
Leather 
Goods 


U5 (N^ 1 1 1 1 1 CO 

CO »Or^ 1 1 1 1 1 
O CO —1 ^ 


Paper 
Box 


H "5 1 1 1 1 CO 1 1 
Q CO 1 1 1 1 OO 1 1 o 


Muslin 
Underwear 


00 1 1 1 .I 1 CO 1 

O -V ^ IN 
CO CO 


Men's 
Furnish- 
ings 


OS 1 -^-^ 1 1 (N 1 o> 
»c 1 cooo 1 1 « 1 a> 

U O CO-" CO 
CO <N 


Men's 
Clothing 

and 
Raincoats 


Pij CO W 1 1 1 1 1 1 «* 

^ CO CO 1 1 1 1 1 1 ?2 


Situation and Disposition 
OF Cases 






Number of Cases of Non-compliance 

ADJUSTMENTS 

Wages raised . . . . 

Left, laid off or discharged . 

Change in method of payment 

Special license type 

Adjustment promised or reported 

Covered by piece rate ruling 
ADVERTISED 

PENDING 



11 



Knit 
Goods 


C. E. 

2,196 33 
37 6 

7 1 

12 2 
10 1 

5 2 
3 1 


Jewelry 

and 
Related 
Lines 


C. E. 

1,719 77 
334 52 

85 15 
249 30 


Electrical 
Equip- 
ment 
and 

OUppilcB 


C. E. 

4,144 46 
705 15 

65 1 

14 1 
29 3 

136 1 
461 11 


Druggists' 
Compounds 
and Pro- 
prietary 
Medicines 


w ^ ' - 1 1 1- 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 
r-; ^ 1 <Niii-*iiiiiii 


Corset 


' ' ' '^'^ ' ' ' ' 1 ' I 


Canning, 
Preserv- 
ing and 
Minor Lines 
of Con- 
fectionery 


C. E. 

943 71 
21 3 

3 1 
1 1 

17 1 


Candy 


a ^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

iOQO (N <-i CON 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 
■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

eo 


Brush 


C. E. 

396 15 
15 3 

1 1 
14 2 


Bread 

and 
Bakery 
Jrroaucts 


E£i 5^ ^ , ,^ , , , , , 1^ 

N-N COIN 1 1 i-H 1 1 1 1 1 1 — 


Boot and 
Shoe Cut 
Stock and 
Findings 


C. E. 

1,417 107 
123 29 

5 3 

2 1 

12 4 
7 5 

3 2 
1 1 

93 16 



a i) 9) .3 
o J 05 g ° 



n 5 oJ » a, o S 



t) 3 

g >.■§ o 
•« o S 



$i^a 

£ o o • • 

o i sJ _ 



12 



Total 


C. E. 

53,907* 2.291* 
5,777 460 

375 46 

43 15 

265 56 
350 52 
7 6 
15 2 
232 23 
1 1 
1 1 
10 4 

3 1 
28 4 
4,447 249 


Women's 
Clothing 


C. E. 

1,800 119 
15 3 

1 1 
12 2 
1 1 

1 1 


Toys, 
Games 

and 
Sporting 
Goods 


C. E. 

417 12 
108 2 

108 2 


Stationery 
Goods 
and 

XJAl V CiU^CD 


C. E. 

3,296 69 
3 3 

3 3 


Retail 
Stores* 


C. E. 

7.277 314 
2,976 167 

1 1 
2,975 167 


Pocket- 
book and 
Leather 
Goods 


C. E. 

1,508 45 
4 3 

1 1 

1 1 

2 1 


Paper 
Box 


C. E. 

2,634 114 
55 26 

2 1 

16 5 
11 6 

26 4 


Office 
and 

Other 
Building 
Cleaners 


C. E. 

1,981 336 
93 24 

28 9 
3 1 

33 7 
1 1 

1 1 
27 5 


Muslin 
Under- 
wear 


r-i OO ■«»< ^ ieoillli»^|.-<ico 
t^-H «o <o lt*lllllN.|eoic<» 


Men's 
Furnish- 
ings 


00«O »0 t<. »»0 1 ^a> 1 1 1 1 1 1 CO 

W 05C0 ^ 

TjtCO t» o osco 1 ■*>o 1 1 1 1 1 1 O) 

O CO 


Men's 
Clothing 

and 
Raincoats 


C. E. 

2,415 82 
256 26 

18 3 

1 1 

121 11 

2 2 
110 10 


Situation and Disposition 
OF Cabbb 


Records for tabulation and 
establishments represented 
Cases of non-compliance 
ADJUSTMENTS 
Wages raised . 
Change of work, hours or 

method of payment 
Adjustment promised or re- 
ported 

Covered by piece rate ruling 
Special license type . 
Incorrectly recorded 
Left, laid off or discharged . 
Finn out of business 
Not under decree 
Technical non-compliance 
Under new management 
Firm moved from State 

ADVERTISED . 

PENDING 



o o 
"Sd'o. 

«i 
•3 • 

S 

..s 



an 

(2^ 



Pr 13 
Miss Mary E. Meehan 
Acting Commissioner 
Department of Labor and Industries 
Dear Madam: 

rT^? request my opinion as to whether, after the effective date of chapter 308. 
of Acts, 1934, the Commissioner of Labor and Industries will have power to enforce 
as a directory order" or "mandatory order" under said chapter a decree previously 
made by the Mmmium Wage Commission under G. L., c. 151, and/or whether the 
Mimmum \\ age Commission will continue to have the same power which it now 
has to enforce such a decree. 

G. L., c. 151, as it now exists, provides that the Board of Conciliation and Arbi- 
tration (the Associate Commissioners of the Department of Labor and Industries, 
G. L., c. 23, s. 7) in performing the duties required by said chapter shall be known 
as the Mimmum Wage Commission (section 1) ; that upon final approval by the 
Commission, after public hearing, of the determination of a minimum wage for 
female employees in a given occupation by a Minimum Wage Board (as consti- 
tuted under said chapter) the Commission shall enter a "decree" of its findings, and 
that the Commission may thereafter publish the names of employers whom it 
finds to be refusing to follow its recommendations (sections 4, 11). 

Section 1 of chapter 308, Acts, 1934, provides: 

"The General Laws are hereby amended by striking out chapter one hundred 
and fifty-one, as amended, and inserting in place thereof the following new 
chapter: — " 

Under this new act, if the "Commission," defined as the associate commissioners 
of the Department of Labor and Industries, accepts a report of a Wage Board 
(constituted as provided in section 4) upon the establishment of minimum fair 
wage rates for women and minors in an occupation, and after public hearing ap- 
proves it, the Commission shall transmit the report to the Commissioner of Labor 
and Industries, who shall make a "directory order" which shall define the mini- 
mum wage (section 10). If the Conamissioner believes that any employer is not 
observing "the provisions of any order made by the Commissioner under section 
10," — that is a "directory order," — he may summon such employer to show 
cause why his name should not be published as ha\ing failed to observe the pro- 
visions of such order, and after hearing the "Commissioner" may publish the name 
of such employer (section 12). After a directory order has been in effect nine 
> months, the Commissioner may, if he finds persistent violation after hearing, 
make such order "mandator}^" (section 13). Any employer paying less than the 
minimum wage under a "mandatory order" shall be punished by fine or imprison- 
ment (section 22). 

Section 3 of said chapter 308 reads in part as follows: 

"This act shall not be construed to abrogate or invalidate any proceedings 
hitherto taken or pending on its effective date under chapter one hundred and 
fifty-one of the General Laws, as in effect immediately prior to such date, or 
to alter or modify the effect of any decree or order made under the provisions 
of said chapter as so in effect, but all such proceedings may be completed in 
accordance with said chapter, and such decrees and orders shall continue to be 
in full force and effect until expressly amended, modified or revoked in accord- 
ance with chapter one hundred and fifty-one as revised by this act;" 

In answer to your questions it is my opinion that 

1. The Commissioner has no power under section 12 of chapter 308 to enforce 
a "decree" of the Minimum Wage Commission because that section expressly 
confines his power of enforcement to "any order made by the Commissioner under 
section 10," and the decrees of the Minimum Wage Commission are not made 

under section 10. „ . . 

2. Nor has the Commissioner power under section 13 to make a decree of the 
Minimum Wage Commission "mandatory." The power under section 13 to 
make an order mandatory applies by the express terms of section 13 only to di- 
rectory orders, and directory orders are defined (section 1) as orders the non- 



14 



observance of which may be published "as provided in section 12," which as before 
stated applies only to orders made "by the Commissioner under section 10." 

3. The Minimum Wage Commission will continue to have the same power to 
enforce decrees heretofore made that it formerly had, until directory orders affect- 
ing the same subject matter have been made by the Commissioner after a report 
by a wage board appointed under chapter 308. Section 3 of chapter 308 incor- 
porates by reference and so perpetuates as to existing decrees the provisions of the 
existing chapter 151 of the General Laws. It expressly permits the completion of 
pending proceedings "in accordance with said chapter," that is chapter 151 before 
the revision; also by providing in the same connection that the decrees made 
under said chapter shall continue in full force and effect until amended, modified 
or revoked under chapter 308, the statute discloses a clear intent that the Minimum 
Wage Commission shall continue to have the same power that it now has to enforce 
such decrees. 

Yours truly, 

(Signed) Joseph E. Warnbb 
August 27, 1934. Attorney General 



CHatnmonioraUt; of iiaBBartptartta 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 



REPORT 

OF THE 

DIVISION OF MINIMUM WAGE 



REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 

For the Year Ending November 30, 1935 ' 



Commissioner 

DeWITT C. DeWOLF 



OFFICIALS 



Assistant Commissioner 

MARY E. MEEHAN 



Associate Commissioners 

(Constituting the Division of Minimum Wage and the Board of 
Conciliation and Arbitration) 

)WARD FISHER RAYMOND V. McNAMARA 

JOHN L. CAMPOS 




PiTBLICATION OF THIS DOCUMENT APPROVED BV THK COMMISSION ON ADMINWT.ATION AND FlMANC* 

600. 7-'36. Order 8321. 



IF'. 2 1936 



REPORT OF THE MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION 

Edwaed Fisher, Chairman; L.. €|^^(jSj; ^Raymond V. McNamara; 
Mary E. Meehan, Acting Director 

Introduction 

With the enactment of what is commonly termed the Uniform Minimum Wage« 
Law, effective September 12, 1934, a brief outline of which was given in the report 
of the previous year, the Commission during the present year has been occupied 
not only with making inspections and securing compliance with the existing 
decrees, which do not come under the provisions of this new law, but continue 
to be in effect and enforcible under the provisions for the former law, but also 
have been faced with the problem of bringing the present decrees under the pro- 
visions of the new law in order to accomplish which it was deemed necessary to 
seek legislative authority. 

The legislature was advised by the Attorney-General that a serious constitu- 
tional question would be involved if legislation was enacted placing these decrees 
directly under the provisions of the new law. As a result chapter 267 of the acts 
of 1935 was passed, becoming effective the middle of August. Under the pro- 
visions of this chapter the Commissioner was authorized to direct the Commission 
to appoint a wage board in any occupation covered by any of the existing decrees 
without the necessity of an investigation or determination "that any substantial 
number of women or minors in any occupation are receiving oppressive and unrea- 
sonable wages. . . ^ 

Thus the opportunity is afforded through the establishment of wage boards of 
bringing all occupations now under existing decrees within the provisions of the 
new law. However, it must be borne in mind that this necessitates establishing 
a wage board as required under the provisions of the new law in each of these 
occupations. This necessarily will take considerable time and effort to accom- 
plish, as it will necessitate the formation of a wage board in each of the twenty-one 
occupations covered by the present decrees. 

As chapter 267 did not become effective until the middle of August, and while 
no definite steps could be taken towards actually establishing wage boards until 
after this date, yet the Commission prepared in advance for establishing the same 
by determining what occupations were first to be covered and making available the 
necessary information and material therefor. As a result, wage boards were 
authorized first in four occupations and later in others, the first four occupations 
being under the following decrees: Retail store, electrical equipment and supplies, 
muslin underwear, and boot and shoe cut stock and findings. 

Outline of Activities 

The present year has been not only an active but also a trying one, accompanied 
with the confusion naturally arising on the part of the employers and employees 
.in' th^, vaT^oii? occupations covered, by the existing decrees and also the public as 
w^il.. . '<This/by;re£^;3on ct the- exactraent of the new Uniform Minimum Wage Law 
which did not, as' outlined in the' report of last year, bring the existing decrees 
within its scope^ , wliich fact was not in all instances fully appreciated either by the 
employers or employees, thus placing the burden on the Commission of being 
mntinuously called upon for explanation. Also some confusion has arisen neces- 
feit4tin^ further ^^ctivitie^ pri t'hfj part of the Commission by reason of the decision 
\){ the' United ' States S'ipreme Court invalidating the N.I.R.A. and the accom- 
panying codes. Accompan5dng these activities of the board there has also been 
the regular inspection work and continued co-operation with the code and other 
federal agencies in making investigation and securing information concerning the 
wage rates, hours, and other conditions of employment. 

At the close of the year the records of the Commission again showed a somewhat 
large number of non-compliance cases although not as great as at the close of the 
previous year. Nevertheless, again this situation as pointed out in the report of 
the previous year should not be viewed in too serious a light as the wages paid in 
most instances represent compliance with the wage rates of the codes which, gen- 
erally speaking, were in many instances less than those established under the 



decrees and again special reference is inade to the retail store decree where the 
greater number of non-comphances exist by reason of the code. 

New Wage Boakds 
The laundry and dry cleaning wage board which was in process of being formed 
at the close of the previous year was later estabUshed and held its first meeting on 
April 5th holdmg m all nme meetings and submitting a unanimous report on 
June 6th based upon an hourly rate accompanied with a cost of living budget of 
$14.45 as follows: ° ^ 



Board and lodging 

Clothing 

Laundry 

Doctor, dentist and oculist 

Carfares 

Church 

Self-improvement 

Vacation 

Recreation . 

Reserve for emergency 

Mutual association dues and 

Incidentals 



insurance 



.50 
.75 
.35 
.50 
.20 
.25 
.25 
.50 
.35 
.40 
.25 
.15 



Total $14.45 



This report was accepted by the Commission and a public hearing held thereon 
after which it was approved and submitted to the Commissioner who issued a 
directory order thereon which became effective October 1st, a copy of which is 
appended to this report. 

Special credit is due the members of this wage board and the untiring efforts 
of its chairman, as this was the first board to function under the provisions of the 
new Uniform Minimum Wage Law, and, therefore, carried with it the importance 
of establishing a general basis for this and future directory orders. 

New wage boards were also authorized in the retail store, electrical equipment 
and supplies, muslin underwear and the boot and shoe cut stock and findings 
occupations and two more formed. The retail store wage board held its first 
meeting November 1st and the electrical equipment and supplies on November 
20th. The other two wage boards were in process of formation at the close of the 
year. Also other wage boards have been authorized which will be formed as 
rapidly as possible, as the previous wage boards report their determinations, it 
being, as above referred to, the determination of the Commission to have wage 
boards continuously in session until all the occupations under the existing decrees 
are placed under the provisions of the new law. 

Advertisement of Non-compliances 
By reason of the fact that during the greater part of the year the codes were 
in effect and that it was the determination of the Commission to bring the existing 
decrees under the provisions of the new law, it was not found advisable to resort 
to publication. 

Inspections 

Inspection has been initiated and completed under the following decrees: Bread 
and Bakery Products; Brush; Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findings; Candy j 
Canning and Preserving and Minor Lines of Confectionery; Corset; Druggists' 
Preparations, Proprietary Medicines and Chemical Compounds; Men's Clotliing 
and Raincoat; Millinery; Office and Other Building Cleaners; Paper Box; Pocket- 
book and Leather Goods; Retail Store; Stationery Goods and Envelopes; and 
Women's Clothing. Inspections under the following decrees are still in process at 
the close of the year: Jewelry and Related Lines; Knit Goods; Laundry- and Dr>' 
Cleaners; and Toys, Games and Sporting Goods. , , 

In addition there have been inspections and re-inspections made under a niajonty 
of these decrees for the purpose among others of checking up to see if the employers 
had fulfilled their obligations to meet compliance as promised and some as a result 



4 



of complaints, and also a check-up preliminary to establishing new wage board i 
In the report of 1933, reference was also made in some detail to the homewor 
carried on in some of the occupations covered by decrees and also the action of th 
Commission relative thereto. As a result of the inspection work, during the yea 
homework has been found in 17 firms under six decrees covering 262 records c 
employees, thus indicating the amount of work thus performed. In the regula 
inspection work wage records for tabulation were secured for 48,393 women an 
girls in 3,672 firms. In addition, 9,750 reinspections were taken in 15 decree 
including 393 establishments, this with the inspection of the homework just referre 
to, makmg a total of 58,405 cases in 4,082 firms. 

Reinspection of Inspection Cases 
Disposition of Non-compliances Pending from Previous Years 
(See Table 1) 

At the beginning of the fiscal year there were outstanding, as appears from th 
report of the previous year, 8,728 cases of non-compliances in 557 establishment! 
A large number of these cases come under the Retail Store decree with 3,34 
cases in 205 establishments, and Electrical Equipment and Supplies decree wit 
1,099 cases in 32 establishments. 

There were also 820 cases in 57 Jewelry and Related Lines firms; 1,030 case 
in 60 Muslin Underwear establishments; 575 cases in 76 Boot and Shoe Cut Stoc 
and Findings estabhshments; 765 cases in 35 Men's Furnishings establishment! 
and 359 cases in 19 Toys, Games and Sporting Goods factories. The remainin 
cases were divided among the following decrees: Bread and Bakery Product! 
Candy; Canning and Preserving and Minor Lines of Confectionery; Druggisti 
Preparations, Proprietary Medicines and Chemical Compounds; Knit Goods; Men 
Clothing and Raincoat; Office and Other Building Cleaners; Paper Box; Pocket 
book and Leather Goods; Stationery Goods and Envelopes; and "Women's Clothini 

Adjustments. — As a large number of these cases were in establishments whei 
difficulties in securing adjustment had prevailed in the past, a difficult problei 
was presented in securing compliance. However, the Commission has been reasoi 
ably successful in securing adjustments, and in many cases where complianc 
was not secured, substantial increases in wage rates were made. Wages wei 
raised to meet the provisions of the decrees in 409 cases in 108 establishment! 
Adjustments by change of work, hours or method of payment, whereby the en 
ploj^ees were enabled to earn the minimum, were made in 215 cases in 40 establisl 
ments. There were 21 employees in nine establishments covered by the piec 
rate ruling and in 2,602 cases in 282 establishments it was reported that the en 
ploj^ees had left, been laid off or discharged. Five establishments with. 81 case 
were reported as out of business, and 65 cases in seven establishments were incoi 
rectly recorded, while 10 cases in three establishments were not under the decree 
Adjustment was promised or reported in 84 cases in 11 establishments. On 
establishment employing two women moved from the state; one case in one estah 
Ushment was recorded as special license type; and 19 cases of technical nor 
comphance were found in one establishment. 

Cases pending. — There were outstanding at the close of the year, 5,219 case 
in 421 estabhshments, mainly under the Retail Store, Electrical Equipment an 
Supplies, Muslin Underwear, Men's Furnishings, and Jewelry and Related Line 
decrees. 

Disposition of New Cases Found in Firms with Cases Outstanding 
from Preidous Years 
(See Table 2) 

In the course of reinspection of firms with cases outstanding from previou 
years, 1,970 new cases were found in 222 establishments. The majority of thes 
cases came under the Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findings; Muslin Underweai 
Retail Store; and Toys, Games and Sporting Goods decrees. The remaining case 
were under the Bread and Bakery Products; Candy; Druggists' Preparations 
Proprietary Medicines and Chemical Compounds; Jewelry and Related Lines 
Knit Goods; Men's Clothing and Raincoat; Men's Furnishings; Paper Box 
and Stationery Goods and Envelopes decrees. 



Adjustments. — As mmy of these cases were in establishments where com- 
phance had never been secured, the Commission faced difficulties in endeavoring 
to secure adjustments. In six cases in one establishment wages were raised to 
meet the provisions of the decrees, while 23 emplovees in three establishments 
were covered by piece rate rulmg. One employee in one firm was reported as 
left, laid off or discharged; and two employees in one establishment came under 
the special license provision. 

Cases Pending. — There were pendmg at the close of the vear 1,938 cases in 222 
establishments, mainly under the Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findmgs; Muslin 
Underwear; Retail Store; and Toys, Games and Sporting Goods decrees. Other 
cases were found under the Bread and Bakery Products; Candy; Druggists' 
Preparations, Proprietary Medicines and Chemical Compounds; Jewelry and 
Related Lines; Knit Goods; Men's Clothing and Raincoat; Men's Furnishings; 
Paper Box; and Stationery Goods and Envelopes decrees. 

Disposition of Cases in the Regular Inspection Work 

(See Table 3) ^.^^ 

In the regular inspection work, 3,370 cases of non-compUance were found in 4^ 
establishments. This represents a decided improvement over that of the past 
year as to numbers of cases, and it is to be further noted that in most instances it 
represents compliance with the code rates. 

Adjustments. — In the cases settled, wages were raised for 60 women in 18 
establishments. Adjustments by change of work, hours or method of payment 
whereby the employees were enabled to earn the minimum were made in 45 cases 
in nine establishments. Adjustment was promised or reported in 613 additional 
cases in 141 establishments. There were 57 employees in 11 estabUshments who 
came under the piece rate ruling. This ruling provides that in cases of experienced 
operators where the great majority are earning the minimum or over, the rates are 
considered to be in accordance with the decree. In nine estabUshments, 27 em- 
ployees were covered by the special license provision; in 70 cases in 22 establish- 
ments it was reported that the employees had left, were laid off or were discharged. 
Three establishments employing 10 women were reported as out of business. 
There were also four cases in one estabUshment that did not come under the 
decree; 18 cases in two establishments were incorrectly recorded; and four cases 
in three establishments were considered as technical non-compliance. 

Cases Pending. — At the close of the year there were pending in the regular 
inspection work 2,462 cases in 317 establishments. 

Conclusion 

The confusion arising as hereinbefore referred to by reason of the enactment of 
the new Uniform Minimum Wage Law with its mandatory provision, and the fact 
that the existing decrees continue to remain enforcible under the provisions of 
the former law by which they were established, has not been without some com- 
pensating results, at least as respects the employers. As it has forcibly brought 
to the front the co-operation and support of numerous employers who, through 
contact with the Commission and the experience had under the decrees, have 
come not only to appreciate but support this legislation, many of whom, however, 
were of the opinion that the mandatory pro\dsion of the new law was also applicable 
to the existing decrees, and who, on being informed that such was not the case, 
are as insistent as the Commission to have the occupations under the existing 
decrees brought within the scope of the new law. 

This attitude has been further very forcibly evidenced by those employers 
coming under the Laundry and Dry Cleaning occupation, who desire to maintain, 
at least, the standards established under the recent Directory Order ^o. 1 m this 
occupation where, with special reference to the Dry Cleanmg branch, conditions 
accompanied with low wage rates exist, resulting in most unfau- and destructive 
competition. , . ^, • n • 

This spirit of co-operation evidenced by the employers in this as well as in the 
occupations under the decrees which the Commission is in process of bringing 
under the provisions of the new law, is not only gratifying, but also very reassur- 
ing, and augurs well for the future operation of the law sustaining as it does the 



6 

confidence which the Commission has always had that such approval and supp< 
would ultimately follow when the real advantages and accomplishments of t 
law were experienced. 

The enactment of the law in other industrial states in the east has also materia 
strengthened and stimulated this support. 

The present law makes no provision for compensation to wage board membe 
thus placing upon them not only a responsibility but calling for gratuitous serv 
as well. The spirit in which the wage board members have accepted and respond 
to this service is highly commendable and the Commission not only app: 
ciates, but also at this time takes the opportunity to publicly recognize a 
acknowledge it. 

During the coming year Directory Order No. 1 in the Laundry and Dry Cleani 
occupation will have been in force for the period required under the law to exp 
before such order can be made mandatory if failure to comply with its provisic 
necessitates that such action be taken and thus the effect of the mandatory pi 
vision will be given a trial and may result in its legality being later tested in t 
Courts. 

Laundry and Dry Cleaning Wage Board 
List of Members 
Representative of the Public 
LaRue Brown, Esquire, Chairman, 185 Devonshire Street, Boston, Massachuset 

Representatives of Employers: Representatives of Employees: 
Mr. Lawrence P. Bliss Mrs. Irene Lichty 

Bayburn Cleaners Forest Hills Laundry 

1 Broadway 19 Lanesville Terrace 

Arlington, Mass. Roslindale, Mass. 

Mr. Arthur T. Downer* Miss Margaret Monroe 

Winchester Laundries Beacon Laundry 

Converse Place 14 Lenox St. 

Winchester, Mass. Boston, Mass. 

Mr. Forrest I. Neal Mr. Harold Wright 

Old Colony Laundry B. & S. Laundry 

100 Quincy Ave. 55 Carleton St. 

Quincy, Mass. Cambridge, Mass. 

THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 
Department of Labor and Industries 
Laundry and Dry Cleaning Occupation 
Directory Order Number 1 
Minimum Fair Wage Standards for Women and Minors Employed 
in This Occupation 

Basic Wage Rates: 

1. No woman and no minor employed in the laundry and dry cleani 
occupation (except an apprentice or learner) shall be paid less than t 
following rates: 

a. Week of 35 hours or over, 30 cents per hour. 

b. Week of less than 35 hours, 33 cents per hour, providing, howev( 
that the amount paid need not exceed the total for 35 hours at tl 
basic minimum rate. 

c. Learners or apprentices, for a period not exceeding four weeks, 27 
cents per hour. 

Special Provisions: 

1. Piece rates: The wages paid piece workers shall be so adjusted that eve; 
woman or minor so employed shall earn for any given period of emplo 
ment not less than the time wages herein prescribed for such period. 

2. Waiting time: The time during which employees are required to wa 

* Served on the first and second board. 



7 

on the employer's premises and no work is provided by the employer 
shall be counted as workmg time and paid for at the individual worker's 
regular wage rate. 

Administrative Regulations 

Definitions: 

1. Laundry 

a. Any activity concerned with the washing, ironing, or processing 
mcidental thereto of any kind of fabric or laundry wares. 

b. The collection, distribution or sale of laundry service. 

c. The producing or rendering of such activity or service by the employer 
upon his own behalf or for others. 

2. Dry Cleaning 

a. Any activity du-ectly concerned with the cleaning, refreshing or 
restoration of any fabric or article of wearing apparel including press- 
mg or other work incidental thereto or performed in connection 
therewith. 

b. The collection, distribution or sale of dry cleaning service. 

c. The producing or rendering of such activity or service by the employer 
upon his own behaK or for others. 

3. Minors: Employees of either sex under twenty-one years of age. 

4. Employees: Women and minors employed in laundry and dry cleaning 
occupation. 

Regulations: 

1. Deductions 

a. Meals or lodging: No deduction shall be made for meals or lodging 
or both furnished to any employee by the employer until the employ- 
er's application for such deduction has been reviewed by the Com- 
missioner of Labor and Industries and a special permit issued and 
posted accordingly. 

b. Handicapped: No woman or minor whose earning capacity is im- 
paired by age, injury, or physical or mental deficiency shall be paid 
less than the minimum fair wage rates until application is made and a 
special license granted by the Minimum Wage Commission. 

c. Other causes: No deduction shall be made for any other cause except 
with the approval of the Commissioner. 

2. Certificate of age: Every employer shall keep on file a certificate of proof 
of age for each male minor employed in the laundry and dry clea nin g 
occupation. 

3. Records: Every employer shall keep in a form approved by the Commis- 
sion the name, address and occupation of each worker as herein defined, 
together with a record of the hours worked and the wages paid in each week 
to each worker and shall make such form and with such certification as the 
Commissioner may prescribe. 

4. Statement to employees: The employer shall give to each worker at the 
time this order becomes effective and to each new worker employed with 
the first week's pay, a wage rate sheet showing the minimum fair wage 
rate established by this order. If the employee is hired upon piece rates, 
the piece rates must be fully set out and the worker must be informed 
that the weekly compensation will not be less than the minimum fair 
wage for time workers hereby estabUshed. 

5. Posted notices: The employer shall post and maintain in a conspicuous 
place in every room in which women and minors are employed a notice 
issued by the Commissioner setting forth the provisions of this order and 
of the administrative regulations hereto applical)le and such other and 
further notices as the Commissioner may require. 

6. Ihis order shall become effective on October 1, 1935. 

Boston, Massachusetts. DeWitt C. DeWolf ^ , . ^. 

September 5, 1935. Commissioner of Labor and Industries 



5 o OS. 2 



Knit 
Goods 


jy- "5 --HCOII^IIIIIICC 


Jewelry 

and 
Related 
Lines 


C. E. 

820 57 

105 18 
115 27 
60 17 

1 1 
13 1 

526 17 


Electrical 
Equipment 
and 
Supplies 


C. E. 
1,099 32 

1,099 32 


Druggists' 
Compounds 

and 
Proprietary 

Medicines 


lilllilllll- 

O 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 lO 


Canning 

and 
Preserving 
and Minor 
Lines of 
Confectionery 


C. E. 
17 1 

17 1 


Candy 


W-^ l-llilllllll 

IINIIIIIIIIII 


Bread 
and 
Bakery 
Products 


^ T}< COCON 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M 

W 00 1-1 I-H l-H CO 


Boot and 
Shoe Cut 
Stock and 
Findings 


<0 OiO-^C^INr-illlTHrHO 

W (Neo>-i »o 

r-: »0 Ot^i-KNCO-i 1 1 1 i-(<N« 
»0 1-H !N 



o 

CM 



-2 



« 5 ■ 

_ " 0) c 
fcf oo ® ^ 



02 

W.2 

gc3 

p 



lillPI 



w^-n o S.J: « 



9 



o 
S 

2 

Q ? 

oO 

5 h 
< o 

i 



U5 -KN 



Women's 
Clothing 


-Mil- 

Q 00 lllliir^iiii^ 


Toys, 
Games 

and 
Sporting 

Goods 


p£j 2 OOSr-l 1 rl^ 1 1 1 1 1 ^ 

r< Oi OOtNt- 1 (NO 1 1 1 1 1 O 
U Ki (N(N»H lO 


Stationery 
Goods 
and 
Envelopes 


C. E. 

206 13 

5 3 
31 4 
24 1 

146 7 


Retail 
Stores 


C. E. 
3,347 205 

104 37 
1,929 180 
3 2 
82 9 

11 4 

1 1 
1,217 176 


Pocket- 
book 
and 
Leather 
Goods 


^ ^ '^(N^ 1 1 1 — 1 1 — 1 

rH OOW^ 1 1 1 1 1 « 1 ^ 

^ lO eo»o m 


Paper 
Box 


^ ^ 1 1 - 1 1 1 1 1 1 
(N (Neolie^llllllio 


Office 
and 

Other 
Building 
Cleaners 


fq"' llillll-lll^ 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 o> 1 1 1 00 


Muslin 
Under- 
wear 


C. E. 
1,030 60 

30 6 

38 5 

39 3 
1 1 

922 54 


Men's 
Furnish- 
ings 


lO rHCO— 1 (N 1 1 1 1 1 1 M 
W CO " 

„• lO (NCO-* 1 O 1 1 1 1 1 1 W 



w q S * 



p s 9 



a 

-a a s 

O 3 



iili 



ga^-g.S«Sa-§'S^aQ 



ao 

.2 

•5 * 
-§5 



a« 



© o 



Ie2 



is 

»a 



SI 



J3 a 

a 3 



10 



I 



M 2 

O e3.5 



o 

o 



CO 



Knit 
Goods 


^ 1 1 1 1 (N 

d 22 ' ' ' ' 22 


Jewelry 

and 
Related 

Lines 


y ^ 1 1 1 1 r.< 

d is ' ' ' '^5 


Druggists' 
Compounds 

and 
Proprietary 

Medicines 


d <^ ' ' ' 


Candy 


d - 1 1 1 1 


Boot and 
Shoe Cut 
Stock and 
Findings 


d g' ' ' 'g 


Bread 
and 
Bakery 
Products 


<N 1 1 1 |(N 
rA CO 1 1 1 1 CO 



.5 ■^a': 



<u Q O ^ 
U 0^ 



Total 


C. E. 

1,970 222 
6 1 

1 1 

2 1 
23 3 

1,938 222 


Toys, Games 
and 
Sporting 
Goods 


i> 1 1 1 1 

d 2 ' ' ' ' 2 


Stationery 
Goods 
and 
Envelopes 


CO 1 1 1 1 w 


Retail 
Stores 


C. E. 
1,349 163 

1,349 163 


Paper 
Box 


Q ^ 1 1 1 1 


Muslin 
Under- 
wear 


C. E. 
208 9 

22 2 
186 9 


Men's 
Furnishings 


d ?J ' ' ' 'gJ 


Situation and Disposition 
OF Cases 






Cases of non-compliance . 
Raised wages 

Left, laid off, or discharged 
Special license type 
Covered by piece rate ruling . 
PENDING . . . . 



11 



Men's 
Clothing 

and 
Raincoat 


C. E. 

2,112 76 
131 14 

23 1 
16 3 

92 10 


Laundry 
and 
Dry 
Cleaners » 


C. E. 

2,132 128 
365 41 

1 1 

1 1 
163 21 

200 18 


Knit 
Goods » 


C. E. 

1,656 23 
125 6 

14 2 
2 1 

109 3 


Jewelry 

and 
Related 
Lines i 


H ^c, ^ , , ^ ,,,,,, , 

o - 1 1 - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Electrical 
Equip- 
ment 
and 
supplies * 


H ' ' ' 1 1 I 1 1 1 l-H 
^ 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1^ 


Druggists' 
Compounds 
and Pro- 
prietary 
Medicines 


H -^"^ ' 1- ' < " 1 

OO >-H<3S 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (N 


Corset 


C. E. 

602 14 
10 2 

10 2 


Canning 

and 
Preserv- 
ing and 
Minor Lines 
of Con- 
fectionery 


C. E. 

1,005 51 
8 4 

1 1 

1 1 
6 2 


Candy 


C. E. 

4,913 73 
48 6 

7 1 

8 1 

15 3 

16 1 

2 2 


Bread 

and 
Bakery 
Products 


C. E. 

1,585 69 
80 11 

1 1 

1 1 

78 9 


Boot and 
Shoe Cut 
Stock and 
Findings 


0. E. 

1,326 93 
34 10 

4 1 

9 1 

21 9 


Situation and Disposition 
OF Cases 


Records for tabulation and estab- 
lishments represented . 

Cases of non-compliance . 

ADJUSTxMENTS 
Wages raised 

Left, laid off, or discharged . 

Change of work, hours or 
method of payment 

Adjustment promised or re- 
ported .... 

Covered by piece rate ruling . 

Incorrectly recorded 

Firm out of business 

Technical non-compliance 

Special license type 

Not under decree . 
PENDING .... 



MAY 16 ym 



REPORT OF THE MInFmUM WAGE COMMISSION 

John J. Murray, resigned; succeeded by Thomas F. Cv^i^y, Chairman- 
John L. Campos; Ra^^mond V. McNamara; 
Mary E. Meehan, Acting Director 

Outline of Functions 
The duties of the Minimum Wage Commission under the law comprise the 
following functions: investigating the wages of women and minors in occupations 
where there is reason to beheve that the wages of a substantial number are below 
the requirement of healthful U\ang; estabhshing wage boards to recommend 
minimum rates for women and minors; entering wage board decrees based on the 
recommendations of the boards; inspecting to determine comphance with the 
decrees; reconvening wage boards to meet changes in the cost of living; and pub- 
lishing the names of employers found violating its decrees. 

Introduction 

The Uniform Minimum Wage Law, effective September 12, 1934, continued in 
operation until June 25, 1936, when an emergency measure, chapter 430 of the 
General Laws, was passed and signed by the Governor of the Commonwealth. This 
act was considered essential to prevent substantial injury to the pubhc welfare; 
to provide the necessary protection to women and minors engaged in industry in 
this commonwealth; and to preserv^e public health, safety and convenience. 

The t-ext of the new law is practically the same as chapter 308, which was in 
effect in 1934 and 1935. However, the administration of work in connection with 
minimum fair wage rates for women and minors is now under the jurisdiction of the 
Department of Public Health rather than the Department of Labor and Industries. 

New minimum wage commissioners have been appointed by the Governor. 
These now include Commissioner of Labor and Industries, James T. Moriarty, 
Chairman; Commissioner of Public Health, Henry D. Chadwick, M. D., and 
Commissioner of Public Welfare, Walter V. McCarthy. Assistant Commissioner 
of Labor and Industries, Mary E. Meehan, was appointed Executive Secretarj- to 
the Commission. 

During the present year the work of the Commission has entailed not only making 
inspections and securing compliance with existing decrees and directory orders, but 
it also included the task of creating directory orders for industries still covered by 
decrees. This necessitated the forming of a separate wage board for each industry. 

Despite the changes in administration and official personnel, the routine of the 
Minimum Wage Commission has been uninterrupted. It is anticipated that during 
the coming year all occupations formerly covered by decrees will be brought within 
the scope of directory orders having mandatory provisions. 

Outline of Activities 

In the first half of the fiscal year 1936, the Minimum Wage Division functioned 
under the Department of Labor and Industries and activities were administered 
by the Minimum Wage Commission, comprised of Associate Commissioners John J. 
Murray, Chairman, John L. Campos and Raymond V. McNamara; and Assistant 
Commissioner, Mary E. Meehan, Acting Director. On April 29, 1936, John J. 
Murray resigned as chairman of the Commission, and Thomas F. Curley was 
appointed to fill the vacancy on May 1, 1936. , . , , 

During this period the usual inspections were made in order to secure conformity 
with the existing decrees. Homeworkers were checked for compliance and rein- 
spections were made in all instances of reported low wages, in an endeavor to bring 
about compliance. Investigations were made of all sweatshop conditions brougbt 
to the attention of the Commission. In most of these cases correspondence and 
interviews brought about some adjustment. . ^. i-. 

In response to petition signed by a representative group of citizens the Com- 
mission made a special investigation of the wages paid in the waste sorting 
industry. Twenty-eight firms were visited and 561 records were secured. 

As a result of requests to form wage boards for several of the occupations having 



4 



no established minimums, and in which low wage rates prevail, the Commission 
has recommended that a study be made of wages in the specified industries to 
determine whether or not the establishment of wage boards for the occupations 
would be justified. 

On June 19, 1936, Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins called a conference to 
consider problems created by the Supreme Court decision in the New York Mini- 
mum Wage Case. The Department of Labor and Industries was represented at 
this meeting by James T. Moriarty, Commissioner; Thomas F. Curley, John L. 
Campos and Raymond V. McNamara, Associate Commissioners; and Mary E. 
Meehan, Assistant Commissioner. Representatives from eleven other states also 
attended this conference. 

In view of the decision of the U. S. Supreme Court in connection with the validity 
of the New York minimum wage law, the Governor of the Commonwealth deemed 
it necessary for the General Court to pass an emergency minimum wage measure. 
Chapter 430 of the acts of 1936 was given precedence over chapter 308 of the acts 
of 1934 and the commissioners of Public Health, Labor and Industries, and Public 
Welfare were given control of minimum wage work. 

The enactment of the new law necessitated many alterations in schedules and 
other printed material. Extra help was required and the Minimum Wage Com- 
mission called upon the National Youth Administration for temporary assistance. 
In this way additional expense for outside clerical help was ehminated and the 
routine work of the Commission was continued. 

New Wage Boards 
Of the twenty-two decrees that have been in effect, four were revised under 
chapter 308 and six have been revised under chapter 430. The Commission is now 
active in completing the membership of the remaining twelve wage boards. The 
report of the Muslin Underwear Wage Board was rejected by the Commission 
because it felt that the employee members were not adequately represented at the 
meetings. A new board for this occupation is in process of formation at the present 
time. 

During the past year, wage board reports for the following occupations were 
accepted by the Associate Commissioners of the Department of Labor and Indus- 
tries: retail store, electrical equipment and supplies, and boot and shoe cut stock 
and findings. 

Although recommendations were submitted to the present Minimum Wage 
Commission during the fiscal year of 1936, directory orders for the cand}^, corset, 
brush, men's furnishings, women's clothing, and men's clothing and raincoat 
occupations do not become effective until within the period of the succeeding year. 

In every instance in which wage board reconmiendations have been accepted 
the minimum rates set forth have represented an increase over the one in effect. 

Inspections 

The work of inspection embraced all the decrees which were operative under 
the recommendatory law (chapter 151), and those directory orders which were 
admitted under the new law (chapter 430). This work involved a careful survey 
of payroll records in industries covered by decrees and directory orders. 

During the entire year minimum wage investigators inspected 1,647 establish- 
ments, taking payroU records for 42,866 women and minors. In addition 8,474 
reinspections were taken under eighteen decrees, including 210 establishments. 
This together with the inspection of home workers, made a grand total of 51,505 
records secured in 1,872 estabhshments. 

A more detailed report of the work of the Minimum Wage Commission will be 
found in the annual report of the Department of PubHc Health. 

Directory Orders 
During the year Directory Orders for the electrical equipment and supplies, 
retail store, and boot and shoe cut stock and findings industries have been estab- 
lished by the Commission. 



o 

Following are lists of the members who served on thp hn^rA. oi *u 

Electrical Equipment & Supplies Wage Board 
List of Members 
Representing the Public 
Professor Arthur N. Holcombe, Chairman, 20 Berkeley Street, Cambridge 



Representing the Employers 
W. G. Mitchell 
General Electric Company 
River Works 
Ljrnn 

William L. Muenter 
United American Bosch Company 
Springfield 

Tobe Deutschmann 
Tobe Deutschmann Company 
Canton 



Representing the Employees. 
Mrs. Florence B. Patterson 
Hygrade Sylvania Lamp Co. 
Salem 



Miss Gladys F. Fenton 
Warren Telechron Co. 
Ashland 

Matthew Campbell 
Westinghouse Electric Co. 
Springfield 



COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 
Minimum Wage Commission 
Directory Order Number 2 
Minimum Fair Wage Standards for Women and Minors Employed 
in This Occupation 

Basic Wage Rates: 

1. No women or minors employed in the electrical equipment and supplies 
industry shall be paid less than the following rates: 

1. For women of ordinary ability, not less than 35 cents per hour. 

2. For beginners, irrespective of age, not less than 30 cents per hour. 

Special Provisions: 

1. Piece rates: The wages paid piece workers shall be so adjust^^d that every 
woman or minor so employed shall earn for any given period of employment 
not less than the time wages herein prescribed for such period. 

2. Waiting time: Time during which employees are required to wait on 
employer's premises and no work is provided by the employer, shall be 
counted as working time and paid for at the individual worker's regular 
wage rate. 

Definitions: 

1. Electrical Equipment and Supplies Occupation: 

The above-named occupation covers the manufacture of such products as 
incandescent lamps, electric-hghting accessories, radios, radio part.s, mica, 
insulated we, fuses, signal and protective systems, and various kinds of 
electrical appliances and devices for household and office use. It is repre- 
sented by such products as telephone cords, fire-alarm apparatus, electric- 
light sockets, automobile lighting fixtures, spark plugs, electric irons and 
similar devices. 

2. Employees of ordinary ability: Employees, irrespective of age, who have 
worked in the industry six months, three months of which were in a par- 
ticular factory; provided that an employee who has not been employed in 

[ the occupation eight months or more and who returns U) wr)rk in a factory 

; where he or she has been previously employed, may be rated a« a beginner 

for a period of not more than one month. 

3. This order shall become effective on May 1, 1936. 



6 

Retail Store Wage Board 
List of Members 

LaRue Brown, Esquire, Chairman, 185 Devonshire Street, Boston 
Representatives of Employers: Representatives of Employees-. 

William H. Bixby Miss Bessie E. Macgibbon 

Superintendent of Personnel 46 Keeley Street 

William Filene's Sons Company Haverhill 
Boston 



Charles A. Whipple 
President 

Parke-Snow Company 
Waltham 

Edward A. Buttner 
President 
Buttner Com pan 
Plymouth 



Miss' Helen Thompson 
29 Montgomery Street 
Lawrence 



William Hutchinson 
49 Grampian Way 
Dorchester 



COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 
Minimum Wage Commission 
Directory Order Number 3 
Minimum Fair Wage Standards for Women and Minors Employed 
in This Occupation 

Basic Wage Rates: 

1. No woman or minor employed in retail stores shall be paid less than t 
following rates for a full working week: 

Class A Class B Class C 
L Experienced workers $14.50 $14.00 $13.50 

2. Inexperienced workers: 

a. Less than 1 year's experi- 
ence, or less than 19 years of 

age 13.50 L3.00 12.50 

b. Under 18 years of age . 12.50 12.00 12.00 

2. These rates shall represent the minimum fair wage rates to be paid a fu 
time employee. An employee regularly employed for 36 hours per we 
or over shall be regarded for the purpose of this order as a full-time employi 

Special Provisions: 

1. Workers who are employed for a less number of hours than that required 
full time women workers shall be paid at a rate per hour not less than th 
proportion of the full time minimum fair wage which the number of hoi 
for which such short time workers are employed bears to the number 
hours per week required of full time women workers. 

2. Waiting time: Time during which employees are required to wait on t 
employer's premises and no work provided by the employer shall be count 
as working time and paid for at the individual worker's regular wage ra 

Definitions : 

1. Retail Store Occupation : 

The above-named occupation includes all women and minors employed 
retail establishments, unless and until their specific employment is govern 
by a minimum fair wage order, decree or ruling other than this genei 
retail store decree. 

2. Classification of Communities : 

The Minimum Wage Commission has adopted a classification of comm 
nities by population groups, as in the recent Code, though fewer divisioi 
In the schedule adopted. Class A is places with over 500,000 populate 
(Boston) ; Class B is cities and towns under 500,000 and over 30,000 pop 
lation; Class C is all smaller communities. 



3. Employees of Ordinary Ability: 

An experienced employee is one not less than nineteen vears of ,iap wK. Ko 

4. This order shall become effective on October 1, 1936. 

Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findings Wage Board 
List of Members 
Representing the Public 
Prof. Carroll W. Doten, Chairman, 68 Garfield Street, Cambridge 
Representatives of the Employers: Representatives of the Employees • 

James Christie Miss Frances Cook 

Hamilton Wade Company Haley-Cate-Rockwood Company 

Brockton Everett 



Edwin C. Cotton 
Renton Heel Company 
Lynn 

Arthur A. MuUins 

Nat'l Assn. of Wood Heel Mfgrs. 

Haverhill 



Mr. Galen Bumpus 
C. S. Pierce Co. 
Brockton 

Eugene Goyette 
5 Hilldale Avenue 
Haverhill 



COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 
Minimum Wage Commission 
Directory Order Number 4 
Minimum Fair Wage Standards for Women and Minors Employed 
in This Occupation 

Basic Wage Rates: 

1. For women and minors of ordinary ability, not less than $14.70 a week. 

2. For employees who have had less than three months' experience, not less 
than $12.00 a week. 

3. These rates are based on full-time work by which is meant the full number 
of hours required by employers and permitted by the laws of the common- 
wealth. 

Special Provisions: 

1. Piece rates: The wages paid piece workers shall be so adjusted that every 
woman or minor so employed shall earn for any given period of employment 
not less than the time wages herein prescribed for such period. 

2. Waiting time: Time during which employees are required to wait on the 
employer's premises and no work is provided by the employer, shall be 
counted as working time and paid for at the individual worker's regular 
wage rate. 

Definitions: 

1. Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findings Occupation: 

The above-named occupation comprises the manufacture of such product> 
as counters, innersoles, shoe trimmings and ornaments, stays, wood and 
leather heels, shanks, rands and similar lines. 

2. Employees of ordinary ability: Employees who have had thrco nx-nths' or 
more experience in the industry. 

3. This order shall become effective on February 1. lO.T. 



tlijc Commontocaltf) of JWasiiiacbusiettJ! 



DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 

/N ^ — ^ — ; ■ 

REPORT 

OF THE 

MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION 

REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 

For the Year Ending November 3 0, 193 7 



OFFICIALS 

Commissioner Assistant Commissioner 

JAMES T. MORIARTY MARY E. MEEHAN 

Associate Commissioners 

(Constituting the Minimum Wage Commission and tlie Board ui Luiuiiiauon 

and Arbitration) 

THOMAS F. CURLEY 
Chairman 

JOHN L. CAMPOS RAYMOND V. McNAMARA 




Publication of this Document Approved bv t^e Comm.smon on Adm.n.stmt.ON and F.»as 
800. 12-'38. Order 5892. 



FEB 20 



w 



3 " 

REPORT OF THE MINIMUM WAGE 
COMMISSION 

Thomas F. Curley, Chairman; Raymond V. McNamara, 
John L. Campos; Mary E. Meehan, Executive Secretary 
Chapter 430, 1936; Chapter 401, 1937 

Outline of Functions 
The duties of the Commissioner of Labor and Industries and of the Minimum 
Wage Commission under the law comprise the following functions: 

1. The commissioner shall have the power, and it shall be his duty on the 
petition of fifty or more citizens of the commonwealth, to cause an investiga- 
tion to be made by any of his authorized representatives, of the wages paid to 
women or minors in any occupation in order to ascertain whether any substan- 
tial number of women or minors in such occupation are receiving oppressive 
and unreasonable wages. 

2. If, on the basis of information in the possession of the commissioner, with 
or without special investigation, he is of the opinion that any substantial num- 
ber of women or minors in any occupation or occupations are receiving oppres- 
sive and unreasonable wages, he shall direct the commission to appoint a wage 
board to report upon the establishment of minimum fair wage rates for such 
women or minors in such occupation or occupations. 

3. If the report is disapproved the commission shall resubmit the matter 
to the same wage board or to a new wage board. If the report is approved 
the commission shall transmit it to the commissioner, who shall issue a directory 
order which shall define minimum fair wage rates in the occupation or occu- 
pations as recommended in the report of the wage board and such directory 
order shall include the regulations as approved by the commission. 

4. At any time after a minimum fair wage order has been in effect for one 
year or more, whether during such period it has been directory or mandatory, 
the commissioner may on his own motion and shall on petition of fifty or more 
citizens of the commonwealth reconsider the minimum fair wage rates estab- 
lished therein and direct the commission to reconvene the same wage board 
or appoint a new wage board to consider and recommend whether and to what 
extent, if any, the rate or rates contained in such order should be modified. 

5. To investigate and ascertain the wages of women and minors employed 
in any occupation in the commonwealth. 

6. If the commissioner has reason to believe that any employer is not ob- 
serving any directory or mandatory order, the commissioner may, on fifteen 
days' notice, summon such employer to appear before the commissioner to show 
cause why the name of such employer should not be pubhshed as having failed 
to observe the provisions of such order. After a hearing and the findmg of non- 
observance of such order by the commissioner, he may cause to be pubhshed 
in such newspaper or newspapers within this commonwealth or m such other 
manner as he may deem appropriate, the name of any such employer or em- 
ployers as having failed in the respects stated to observe the provisions of such 
order. , , 

7. At the request of any woman or minor paid less than the minimum wage 
to which such women or minor is entitled under a mandatory nunimiim fair 
wage order the commissioner may take an assignment of such wage claim m 
trust for the assigning employee and may bring any legal action necessary to 
collect such claim, and the employer shall be required to pay the costs and sucli 
reasonable attorney's fees as may be allowed by the court. The rominissionn 
shall not be required to pay a filing fee in connection with any such action. 



Introduction 

The Uniform Minimum Wage Law, effective June 25, 1036, fontumocl in 
operation until May 29, 1937, when a new emergency law, chapter 401. act> 
of 1937, was passed and signed by the governor. A })nef outline of tlu> 10... 



4 



law was given in the pre\-iou5 report when the mininnim wage law functioned 
under the Department of Pubhc Health. 

The passing of the 1937 act followed the United States Supreme Court deci- 
sion declaring TniniTnnm wage legislation constitutional. With the enactment of 
this measure, the jurisdiction of the minimum wage law was returned to the 
Department of Labor and Industries, under the super\ision of the conmiissioner 
and the administration of the associate commissioners of the department. This 
conunission is comprised of Associate Conmiissioners Thomas F. Curley, 
Chairman,' Ylsiymond V. McXamara and John L. Campos : and Assistant Com- 
missioner Mar>- E. Meehan, executive secretary. i 

Under the provisions of this chapter the commisaoner, or his authorized 
representative, shall have full power and authority: 

1. To enter the place of business or emplovment of any employer of women 
and minors in any occupation for the purpose of examining, inspecting and 
making a transcript of any and all books, registers, pajTolls, and other records 
of any employer of women or minoi^ that in any way app)ertain to or have a 
bearing upon the question of wages of any such women or minors and for the 
purpose of ascertaining whether the orders of the commissioner have been 
and are being comphed with; and 

2. To require from such employer full and correct statements in writing 
when the commissioner, or his authorized representative, deem necessar>', of the 
wages paid to all women and minors in his employ, such statements to be under 
oath or accompanied by a written declaration that they are made under the 
penalties of perjurj-. 

3. To carr\- out the provisions of this chapter. 

In the 1937 act several important revisions were made to further increase 
the effectiveness of the law. In some instances the responsibilitv* was transferred 
to the Commissioner of Labor and Industries where previously it had been 
vested in the powers of the Minimum Wage Commission. 

The following comparative sections give an illustration of how the law has 
become more effective through the act of 1937: 

Section 13. If at any time after a directors* minimum fair wage order has 
been in effect for nine months the commission is of the opinion that the per- 
sistent non-observance of such order by one or more employers is a threat to 
the maintenance of fair minimimi wage standards in any occupation it may 
give notice of its intention to make such order mandatorv' and after such notice 
to all persons interested as it may direct, it shall hold a public hearing, not les-- 
than fifteen nor more than thirty days after such notice at which hearing al^ 
persons in favor of or opposed to such mandatorv' order may be heard bv 
After such hearing the commission, if it adheres to its opinion, may make - ::h 
directorv' order or any part thereof mandatorv' and so publish it. 

The above procedure took a great deal of time and retarded the enforcement 
of the law. As a r^t, the Massachusetts General Court in 1937 amended tloB 
provision by the follovnng section: 

Sectiox 10. If at any time after a directorv- minimum fair wage order has 
been in effect for three months the commissioner is of the opinion that persis- 
tent non-observance of such order by one or more employers is a threat to the 
maintenance of fair minimum wage rates in any occupation or occupations, the 
commissioner may make such order mandatorv' and after such order is made 
mandatory it shaU be unlawful for any employer in said occupation to employ 
women or minors for less than the rate of wage specified in said order in the 
said occupation. The commissioner shall send by mail so far as is practicable 
to each employer in the occupation in question a copy of the order, and each 
employer shall be required to post a copy of said order in each room in which 
women or minors affected by the order are employed. 

As will be noted in the provisions of the 1936 law, the agents of the ooir- 
mission, while doing inspection work, were obliged to accept the records of v 
and hours as presented to them by employers. Any legal right to interviev 
employee regarding her wages or hours during her work period was not pro- 
vided by law. 

This situation was remedied under section 17 of the 1937 statute, as follows: 



5 

Section 17. Each employer shall permit any duly authorized officer or em- 
ployee ot tne department to question any employee of such employer in the 
place of employment and during working hours in respect to the wages paid 
and the hours worked by women and minors. 

Another improvement in the provisions of the 1936 law was included in the 
act of 1937. This section relates to the compensation allowed for payment of 
wage board members. During the period from September 12, 1934 to'May 29, 
1937, wage board members were required to serve without compensation] 
although an appropriation was allowed to pay all necessary travelling expenses. 
The 1937 law remedied this section by enacting legislation which provided com- 
pensation for services rendered, as well as for their traveling expenses. 

Outline of Activities 

During the year, the Minimum Wage Commission completed its work in 
connection with the estabhshment of a minimum fair wage rate for the corset 
industry. The corset wage board was initiated the previous year. The report 
of the wage board was accepted by the commission, and the rates became effec- 
tive as a directory order on April 1, 1937. Eight new boards have been set up 
during the year, namely — stationery goods and envelopes; toys, games and 
sporting goods; druggists' preparations, proprietary medicines and chemical 
compounds; jewelry and related Hnes; bread and bakery products; paper box; 
pocketbook and leather goods; and muslin underwear, which has been changed 
to women's and children's underwear, neckwear and cotton garment. 

The reports of the stationery goods and envelopes; toys, games and sporting 
goods; women's and children's underwear, neckwear and cotton garment; and 
druggists' preparations, proprietary medicines and chemical compounds wage 
boards were accepted by the commission, and their reports became effective on 
the following dates, respectively: 

Stationery Goods and Envelopes July 15, 1937 

Toys, Games and Sporting Goods August 1, 1937 

Women's and Children's Underwear, Neckwear and 

Cotton Garments October 1, 1937 

Druggists' Preparations, Proprietary Medicines and 

Chemical Compounds March 1, 1938 

Copies of the boards' determinations will be found later in this report. 

The jewelry and related hnes wage board completed its work and submit- 
ted a report to the minimum wage commission, who returned it to the board 
for reconsideration. The commission felt that the rates established were not 
in accord with the trend of the times. Although the board has held subsequent 
meetings, a satisfactory report has not been received by the commission. 

The paper box and pocketbook and leather goods wage boards are still in session 
as this report is being written. However, as the boards have been meeting for 
some time, the commission anticipates early returns from them. 

The bread and bakery products wage board submitted a report basing its 
recommendations on the size of the locality. This is the second board to bas(> 
its findings upon locahties. The members of the board were of the opinion 
that the smaller cities and towns should be given consideration and not penalized 
by trying to compete with the large bread and cracker concern^ ''''''^ 
larger population centers. The report of the board specified 2d0,000 popula ion 
as the highest population group. Under this classification severa large c.ties^ 
where wholesale bread and cracker factories are located, were excluded. After 
taking all matters into consideration, the commission owered this s;o"P ^''"^/f ; 
fication to 100,000 and over population, and accepted the report ^vlth thi> 

^^oJf Aueust 30 1937, letters were issued by the commissioner of labor aii.l 
industrtes'" aU^^^^^^ in the laundry and dry cleaning; electrical o^^ 
and suppHes; retail store; boot and shoe cut stock and fi"^;"^^^/. ^^^"^^^'^^^^^^ 
and raincoat; candy; men's furnishinp; brush; women s cloth ng and^ 
industries advising them that on and after October J- ^"^^^^ oi 'Tch 
industries would be operating under a mandatory order, Molation of ^^h^cn 



6 



would subject the employer to the penalties required by law. As a result of 
this order, approximately 80,000 employees were brought under the provisions 
of the mandatory law. 

The commissioner also issued orders on December 1, 1937, that establish- 
ments engaged in the manufacture of stationery goods and envelopes; toys, 
games and sporting goods; and women's and children's underwear, neckwear 
and cotton garments should become mandatory on January 1, 1938. Approxi- 
mately 10,000 employees were affected by this order. 

Inspections 

Inspections have been initiated under the following orders and decrees: boot 
and shoie cut stock and findings; bread and bakery products; candy; canning 
and preserving and minor lines of confectionery; druggists' preparations, pro- 
prietary medicines and chemical compounds; electrical equipment and supplies; 
jewelry and related lines; knit goods; laundry and dry cleaning; men's clothing 
and raincoat; men's furnishings; milhnery; office and other building cleaners; 
paper box; pocketbook and leather goods; stationery goods and envelopes; toys, 
games and sporting goods; women's and children's underwear, neckwear and 
cotton garment; and women's clothing. In the case of some industries the in- 
spection was started under the provisions of a directory order. The inspection 
under the retail store order was started in 1936 and completed this year. 

Reinspections have also been made under a majority of these decrees for the 
purpose of checking to ascertain whether or not employers have fulfilled their 
obhgation to meet compliance as promised, following complaints. 

Incidental to regular inspection throughout the year, home work has been 
found in 8 firms under 4 decrees or orders, covering 145 records of employees. 

In the regular inspection work, wage records were secured for 43,744 women 
and minors in 3,066 establishments. In addition, 8,520 reinspection records 
were taken under 16 decrees, including 254 establishments. These figures, with 
the home work inspection just referred to, make a total of 52,409 records 
secured in 3,328 firms. 

Reinspection of Inspection Cases 
(Table 1) 

At the close of the fiscal year there were outstanding from the reports of 
previous years 9,678 cases of non-compliance in 1,014 establishments. About 
one-third of these cases come under the retail store order, with 3,937 cases in 580 
establishments; 1,285 cases in 76 mushn underwear establishments; and 1,240 
cases in 17 electrical equipment and supphes establishments. 

The Commission has been hampered in securing adjustment in those indus- 
tries operating under a directory order, owing to the fact that employers were 
waiting for the orders to become mandatory before accepting the minimum 
rates. Wages were raised in 193 cases in 24 estabhshm.ents. Adjustment by 
change of work, hours or method of payment, whereby employees were enabled 
to earn the minimum were made in 115 cases in 16 establishments; while 371 
women employed in 30 estabhshments w^re reported as left, laid off or dis- 
charged. There were 705 cases in 41 estabhshments where adjustments were 
promised or reported. Four cases in one establishment were covered by the 
piece rate ruhng. Twenty-eight cases were incorrectly recorded in five estab- 
lishments, and eight cases of technical non-comphance were found in two estab- 
lishments; 7,617 cases in 889 establishments were absorbed by directory or man- 
datory orders, and will be included in the regular inspection und^r the rates 
required by their respective orders. 

Cases Pending 

There were outstanding at the close of the fiscal year 637 cases pending in 
102 establishments, mainly under the knit goods; jewelry and related lines; 
bread and bakery products; and pocketbook and leather goods decrees. These 
cases were found in occupations which are still operating under the recommen- 
datory law. The remaining cases are under the canning and preserving and 



7 

minor lines of confectionery; druggists' preparations, proprietary medicines and 
chemical compounds; office and other building cleaners; and paper box decrees. 

Disposition of New Cases in Firms Having Cases Pending from 
Previous Years 
(Table 2) 

In the course of reinspection of firms with cases outstanding from previous 
years, 531 new cases were found in 36 establishments. The majority of these 
cases came under the men's furnishings and muslin underwear decrees. The 
remaining cases came under the boot and shoe cut stock and findings; jewelry 
and related lines; knit goods; laundry and dry cleaning; paper'' box; and 
pocketbook and leather goods industries. 

Adjustments: Since the rates for the boot and shoe cut stock and findings; 
laundry and dry cleaning; and men's furnishings occupations were declared 
mandatory on October 1, 1937, the cases pending from previous years will be 
absorbed in the new inspection under these orders. 

Pending: There were pending at the close of the year 64 cases in six establish- 
ments, under the jewelry and related lines; knit goods; paper box; and pocket- 
book and leather goods occupations. 



Disposition of Cases in Regular Inspection Work 
(Table 3) 

In the regular inspection work, 7,105 cases of non-comphance were found in 
1,100 establishments. This represents a larger proportion of non-compliances 
than in the past two years. This situation is explained by the fact that the 
majority of employers were waiting for the orders to become mandatory before 
adjusting their rates. 

Adjustments: In the cases settled, the wages of 724 women were increased 
in 363 establishments. Adjustments by change of work, hours or method of 
payment, whereby the emploj^ees were enabled to earn the minimum, were made 
in 62 cases in 16 establishments. Adjustment was promised or reported in 3,217 
cases in 624 establishments. There were 283 cases in 66 establishments which 
were reported as left, laid off or discharged. Eighteen cases in four firms were 
incorrectly recorded. Six establishments employing 56 women were reported as 
out of business. Five employees in two establishments were covered by the 
special hcense provision, and three employees in two establishments were con- 
sidered as technical non-compliances. 

Cases Pending: At the close of the year there were pending in the regular 
inspection work 2,737 cases in 349 establishments. 



Complaints 

Following the advent of the mandatory orders effective on October 1, 1037, 
manv complaints were received from employees who were paid less than the 
rates to which they were eligible. As a result of these complamts, ten mdustno^ 
including 23 emplovees were investigated, and adjustments were made before the 
end of the year. Among the industries where violations were found were the 
candv; electrical equipment and supplies; laundry and dry cleamng; men< 
clothing and raincoat; pocketbook and leather goods; retail store; sta lonor^ 
goods and envelopes; toys, games and sporting goods; and women s clot hiriLj 
occupations. A complaint was received from one industry which was not covere.l 

^^inhe'lbove listed complaints, 18 employees in five occupations had thoi- 
wages raised to meet the provisions of the order, of which eighty emplo>-ees wagr 
were increased retroactive to the date the order became mandatory. October 
1937 Four cases in two firms had left following the complaint and boforr 
investigation had been made. One firm was reported as out of business. 



8 

Eighteen additional complaints were also received where adjustment was not 
secured until after the end of the year. Among these were ten occupations 
employing 106 women and minors. Of these 106 cases, 70 received an increase 
in wages,%ix left before compliance could be secured, three were special license 
cases, °and in 27 cases employers promised adjustment. The above complaints 
were found in the boot and shoe cut stock and findings; canning and preserving 
and minor lines of confectionery; laundry and dry cleaning; men's clothing and 
raincoat; men's furnishings; paper box; retail store; toys, games and sporting 
goods; and women's clothing industries. One complaint was also received from 
an industry not covered by any order. 



Mandatory Orders 
During the fiscal year, directory orders were declared for ten industries, 
namely: boot and shoe cut stock and findings; men's clothing and raincoat; 
men's furnishings; candy; brush; women's clothing; corset; stationery goods 
and envelopes; toys, games and sporting goods; and women's and children's 
underwear, neckwear and cotton garment, formerly known as "muslin under- 
wear." 

Industry Directory Directory Mandatory 

Order No Order Date Order Date 

Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findings 4 Mar. 1, 1937 Oct. 1, 1937 

Men's Clothing and Raincoat 5 Mar. 1, 1937 Oct. 1, 1937 

Candy 6 Mar. 1, 1937 Oct. 1, 1937 

Men's Furnishings 7 Mar. 1, 1937 Oct. 1, 1937 

Brush 8 Mar. 1,1937 Oct. 1, 1937 

Women's Clothing 9 Mar. 1, 1937 Oct. 1, 1937 

Corset 10 Apr. 1, 1937 Oct. 1, 1937 

Stationery Goods and Envelopes 11 Jul. 15, 1937 Jan. 1, 1938 

Toys, Games and Sporting Goods 12 Aug. 1, 1937 Jan. 1, 1938 

Women's and Children's Underwear, Neck- 
wear and Cotton Garment 13 Oct. 1, 1937 



Summary 

A survey of the work accomplished by the Minimum Wage Commission during 
the year shows interesting results. When the present Minimum Wage Commis- 
sion was created. May 29, 1937, ten directory orders had been established. Since 
that time the ten directory orders have been made mandatory, and directory 
orders have been estabhshed for three additional industries. 

Actual adjustments have been made in 1,094 cases, while in 3,922 cases adjust- 
ments were promised or reported. The amount collected in retroactive pay i? 
naturally small at this time since but two months have elapsed sinoe the orders 
were made mandatory, 

Inasmuch as there are approximately 80,000 workers now covered by man- 
datory orders, and since about 420,000 employees are yet to be brought within 
the scope of other orders, the present minimum wage office force will be inade- 
quate to make a complete inspection of the wages paid to all women and minors 
within the jurisdiction of the Minimum Wage Commission. 

The assistance of the National Youth Administration which provided clerical 
help to the regular office force during the tremendous influx of work, is greatly 
appreciated. It is anticipated that during the coming year the legislature will 
recognize the need for an increase in the personnel of the present staff and provide 
for a larger permanent force of clerks and investigators. 

During the inspection visits it has been found that the great majority have 
given excellent co-operation. Many employers have expressed the opinion that 
mandatory orders are beneficial to both employers and employees since they tend 
to minimize unfair intrastate competition. 

The commission expects that during the coming year all industries formerly 
covered by decrees will be brought under the provisions of mandatory orders and 
that investigations will be completed in industries for which minimum wage rates 
have never before been established. 



9 

THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 
Minimum Wage Commission 

Corset Occupation 
Directory Order Number 10 

Minimum Fair Wage Standards for Women and Minors Employed 
in This Occupation 

Basic Wage Rates: 

No woman or minor employed in the corset occupation shall be paid less than 
the following minimum hourly rates: 

1. Experienced Workers — Not less than 29 1/6 cents an hour, or $14.00 for 
a full-time week. 

2. Inexperienced Workers — Not less than 20 5/6 cents an hour, or $10.00 
for a full-time week. 

Special Provisions: 

1. Piece Rates: The wages paid piece workers shall be so adjusted that ever>' 
woman or minor so employed shall earn for any given period of employ- 
ment not less than the time wages herein prescribed for such period. 

2. Waiting Time: Time during which employees are required to wait on the 
employer's premises and no work is provided by the employer, shall be 
counted as working time and paid for at the individual worker's regular 
wage rate. 

Administrative Regulations 

Definitions : 

1. Corset Occupation 

The above-named occupation includes any activity concerned with the 
manufacture of corsets, girdles, corset-brassiere combinations, belts, bands, 
and the manufacture of garters-to-complete-a-corset-or-foundation-gar- 
ment; and all similar related lines by or on behalf of any person, firm, 
corporation, association or other institution, including any such activity 
performed by or for the employer upon his or its behalf, or for his or its 
own purpose, or for others. 

2. Full-time Week 

These rates are based on a full-time week, by which is meant the full 
number of hours required by the employer. 



3. Experienced Employees 

Employees who have reached the age of 17 years and have been employed 
in the industry for one year. In computing experience, employment in the 
manufacture of garters-to-complete-the-foundation-garment shall not fultill 
the definition of an experienced employee on the other corset occupations, 
nor vice versa. 



4. Minors 

Employees of either sex under 21 years of age. 

5. Employees 

Women and minors employed in the corset ocnipati 



6. Directory Order 

Date effective:— April 1, 1937. 



10 

Corset Wage Board 
List of Members 
Representative of the Public 
Professor Cornelius S. Donoghue, Chairman, Holy Cross College, Worcester 

Representatives of Employers: Representatives of Employees: 

Mr. William B. Fitzgerald Mrs. Gladys LaForte 

Fitz-Well Girdle Company 31 Dover Street 

Worcester Worcester 

Mr. Everett Houghton Miss Josephine Aquino 

Standard Corset Company 80 Gage Street 

Holyoke Worcester 

Mr. Richard Olmstead Miss Mary Gorman 

Royal Worcester Corset Company 38 Shirley Sttreet 
Worcester Worcester 

THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 
Minimum Wage Commission 
Stationery Goods and Envelopes Occupation 
Directory Order Number 11 

Minimum Fair Wage Standards for Women and Minors Employed 
in This Occupation 

Basic Wage Rates: 
No woman and no minor employed in the Stationery Goods and Envelopes oc- 
cupation shall be paid less than the following minimum rates : 

A. Employees of Ordinary Ability: 

1. Experienced employees, 18 years of age and over, not less than 
" $14.50 a week; and for those establishments working over 44 hours, 

an hourly rate of not less than 33 cents. 

2. Experienced minors, under 18 years of age, not less than $13.75 a 
week; and for those establishments working over 44 hours, an 
hourly rate of not less than 31% cents. 

B. Learners and Apprentices: 

Not less than $11.50 a week; and for those establishments working 
over 44 hours, an hourly rate of not less than 26% cents. 



Special Provisions: 

Piece Rate Schedules: If the employee is hired on Piece Rates or any other 
Incentive Basis, such rates must be fully posted or available to every em- 
ployee in the room where the operations are conducted, and. the employee 
must be informed that weekly compensation will not be less than the 
MINIMUM FAIR WAGES for time workers hereby established. 

Employees' Experience Record: Every employer must, when requested by an 
employee upon leaving his employment, give to the employee a record of the 
length of service, stating the particular operations in which the employee 
has been engaged in that establishment or concern. 

Waiting Time: Time during which employees are required to wait on the 
employer's premises and no work provided by the employer shall be counted 
as working time and paid for at the individual worker's regular wage rate. 



11 

Administrative Regulations 

Definitions: 

1. Stationery Goods and Envelopes Occupation: 

This occupation includes stationery goods and envelope establishments, and 
establishments manufacturing envelopes, tablets, blankbooks, tissue paper 
products, greeting cards, card filing equipment, and miscellaneous paper 
goods. 

2. Employees of Ordinary Ability: 

An employee shall be deemed of ordinary ability who is 18 years of age or 
over and who has had either nine months' experience in any one concern 
or establishment in the industry, or nine months' experience, not neces- 
sarily continuous nor for the same employer, on any specific operation in 
the industry. 

3. Minors: 

Employees of either sex under 21 years of age. 

4. Employees: 

Women and minors employed in the Stationery Goods and Envelopes 
Occupation. 

5. Directory Order: 

Date Effective:— July 15, 1937. 

Stationery Goods a.nd Envelopes Wage Board 
List of Members 
Representative of the Public 
Professor Cornehus S. Donoghue, Chairman, Holy Cross College, Worcester 
Representatives of Employers : Representatives of Employees : 

Mr. John G. Watt Miss Mary Racine 

McKenzie Engraving Company 47 Mosher Street 

Boston Holyoke 

Mr James J. Shea Miss Florence Springsted 

P P. Kellogg Company 3 Kmg Avenue 

Springfield Westfield 

Mr. Donald E. Rust Mr. William "Sheehan 

Rust Craft Publishers, Inc. Green Street 

Boston 

THE COMMON\raALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 
Minimum Wage Commission 
Toys, Games and Sporting Goods Occupation 
Directory Order Number 12 
Minimum Fair Wage Standards for Women u.l Minor. Employed 
in This Occupation 

^ZZTJ.Tno minor employed in nnv Toys, Games and Spor.in. Goods 
Sc~on 'Zll be paid lessVn the followms mm.mum ra es. 



12 



B. Employees with six weeks' to one year's experience, not less than 32 V2 
cents an hour, or $13.00 for a 40-hour week. 

C. Employees with less than six weeks' experience, not less than 27^2 
cents an hour, or $11.00 for a 40-hour week. 

Any time worked over 40 hours shall be paid on an hourly pro rata basis. 

Special Provisions: 

Piece Rates: The wages paid piece workers shall be so adjusted that every 
woman or minor so employed shall earn for a given period of employment 
not less than the time wages herein prescribed for such period. 

Waiting Time: Time during which employees are required to wait on the 
employer's premises and no work is provided by the employer, shall be 
counted as working time and paid for at the individual worker's regular wage 
rate. 



Definitions : 

1. Toys, Games and Sporting Goods Occupation: 

Any occupation concerned with the manufacture of toys, games, kinder- 
garten supplies, and sporting goods. 

2. Employees of Ordinary Ability : 

An employee of ordinary ability is one who has had at least one year's 
experience in the occupation. 

3. Fidl Time Week: 

Any week of 40 hours shall be considered a full working week. 

4. Minors: 

Employees of either sex under 21 years of age. 

5. Employees: 

Women and minors employed in the Toys, Games and Sporting Goods 
Occupation. 

6. Directory Order: 

Date Effective:— August 1, 1937. 



Professor Bernard W. McCarthy, Chairman, Holy Cross College, Worcester 



Administrative Regulations 



Toys, Games and Sporting Goods Wage Board 
List of Members 
Representative of the Public 



Representatives of Employers : 
Mr. Robert L. Medhcott 
A. G. Spalding Company 
Chicopee 



Representatives of Employees : 
Miss Vera Day 
DuPont Viscoloid Company 
Leominster 



Mr. Donald W. Siebert 
0. W. Siebert Company 
Gardner 



Miss Ella Gebo 

Milton Bradley Company 

Springfield 



Wakefield 



Mr. Paul K. Guillow 
Paul K. Guillow Company 



Mr. Axel Backman 
32 Waterford Street 
Gardner 



13 

THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 
Minimum Wage Commission 
Women's and Children's Underwear, Neckwear and Cotton 
Garment Occupation 
Directory Order Number 13 

Minimum Fair Wage Standards for Women and Minors Employed 
in This Occupation 

Basic Wage Rates: 

1. No woman or minor employed in the Women's and Children's Underwear, 
Neckwear and Cotton Garment Occupation (house dresses, aprons, under- 
wear, etc.) shall be paid less than the following rates: 

A. Experienced Workers: Not less than $14.00 per week, or 35 cents 
per hour. 

B. Inexperienced Workers: 

(1) From three to six months' experience, not less than $10.00 
per week, or 25 cents per hour. 

(2) Less than three months' experience, not less than $8.50 per 
week, or 21^/4 cents per hour. 

2. An employee regularly employed for 40 hours per week shall be regarded 
for the purpose of this order as a full-time employee. 

Special Provisions: 

Piece Rates: The wages paid piece workers shall be so adjusted that every 
woman or minor so employed shall earn for a given period of employment 
not less than the time wages herein prescribed for such period. 

Waiting Time: Time during which employees are required to wait on the 
employer's premises and no work is provided by the employer, shall be 
counted as working time and paid for at the individual worker's regular wage 
rate. 

Administrative Regulations 

Definitions : 

1. Woman's and Children's Underwear, Neckwear and Cotton Garment 
Occupation: 

The above-named occupation comprises the manufacture of such products 
as house dresses, aprons, underwear, neckwear, children's clothing, 
and similar lines. 

2. Experienced Employees: 

Employees who have had at least six months' experience in the occupation. 

A. In the event a worker, having had at least three months' experience 
in any plant and having transferred into another line of work, that 
employee may be classified as semi-skilled. 

B. Experienced employees coming from an outside plant are subject to 
the semi-skilled class for not exceeding one month. 

C In the event a worker has been away from the industry for a period 
of three years or more, regardless of her prior skill, she re-enters the 
industry as a semi-skilled worker. 

3. Minors: 

Employees of either sex under 21 years of age. 

4. Employees: 

Women and minors employed in the Women's and Children s Underwear, 
Neckwear, and Cotton Garment Occupation. 

5. Directory Order: 

Date Effective:— October 1, 1937. 



14 

Women's and Children's Underwear, Neckwear and Cotton Garment 

Wage Board 

List oj Members 
Representative of the Public 
Mr. Sol C. Hamburger, Chairman, 260 Tremont Street, Boston 
Representatives of Employers: Representatives of Employees: 

Mr. Israel Feather Miss Mary Levin 

Sedlis Manufacturing Company Int. Ladies' Garment Workers Union 

Boston Boston 

Mr. J. Aiken Miss Anna Terry 

M. Sharaf Company 116 Tecumseh Street 

Boston Fall River 

Mr. Joseph Silin Mr. Harry Blume 

Silin Manufacturing Company Boston Royal Underwear Company 

Boston Boston 

THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Minimum Wage Commission 

Druggists' Preparations, Proprietary Medicines and Chemical 
Compounds Occupation 

Directory Order Number 14 

Minimum Fair Wage Standards for Women and Minors Employed 
in This Occupation 

Basic Wage Rates: 

No woman or minor employed in the druggists' preparations, proprietary 
medicines and chemical compounds occupation shall be paid less than the fol- 
lowing rates: 

1. Experienced Workers: Not less than 35 cents per hour. 

2. Inexperienced Workers: 

A. From six months' to one year's experience, not less than 30 cent? 
per hour. 

B. Less than six months' experience, not less than 25 cents per hour. 
All occupations connected with the manufacturing end of the business shall be 
covered by the minimum wage rates. 

Special Provisions: 
Piece Rates: The wages paid piece workers shall be so adjusted that every 
woman or minor so employed shall earn for a given period of employment 
not less than the time wages herein prescribed for such period. 

Waiting Time: Time during which employees are required to wait on the 
employer's premises and no work is provided by the employer, shall be 
counted as working time and paid for at the individual worker's regular wage 
rate. 

Administrative Regulations 

Definitions: 

1. Druggists' Preparations, Proprietary Medicines and Chemical Compounds 
Occupation: 

The above-named occupation includes the manufacture of salves, lini- 
ments, emulsions, talcum powders, sachets, cosmetics, perfumes, toilet 
waters, cold creams, hair restorers, cough syrups, pills, druggists' sup- 
plies, headache powders, troches, tooth powders, elixirs, ointments, 
tinctures, and similar lines. 



15 

2. Experienced Employees: 

Employees who have had at least one year's experience in the occupa- 
tion. 

3. Minors: 

Employees of either sex under 21 years of age. 

4. Employees: 

Women and minors employed in the druggists' preparations, proprie- 
tary medicines and chemical compounds occupation. 

5. Directory Order: 

Date Effective:— March 1, 1938. 

Druggists' Preparations, Proprietary Medicines and Chemical Compounds 

Wage Board 

List of Members 
Representative of the Public 
Cornelius A. Parker, Esq., Chairman, 68 Devonshire Street, Boston 
Representatives of Employers: Representatives of Employees: 

Mr. John Dawes Miss Alice Dupee 

Moore & Company 34 Leverett Street 

Worcester Boston 

Dr. Jesse Schneider Miss Mary M. Lynch 

Brewer & Company 1117 Pleasant Street 



Worcester East Weymouth 

Mr. Ralph R. Patch Mr. Raym 

E. L. Patch Company 25 Hudsor 

Stoneham Somerville 



il 



16 



>> >> £ 





in 

00 


(N 1 CO 1 




d 




1 (M 1 


1 c«; CO 
oico 

CO 



Knit 
Goods 


C. E. 

275 12 

i) 3 

3 1 
263 11 


Jewelry 

and 
Related 

Lines 


C. E. 

319 34 

44 2 
8 1 

41 5 1 
174 62 


Electrical 
Equipment 
and 
Supplies 


C. E. 
1,240 17 

48 4 
3 2 
483 2 

22 2 

3 1 
681 n 


Druggists' 
Compounds 
Proprietary 

Medicines 
md Chemical 
Compounds 


W ^ 1 1 1 1- 1 1 If 

d ^ 1 1 1 1 - 1 1 1 - 


Corset 


C. E. 
49 1 

49 1 


Canning 
and 
Preserving 
and xMinor 
Line" of 
Confectionery 


^ ox 1 1 1 > 1 1 1 1 c 

d 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' 12 


Candy 


^ CO ^ ,^ , , , 1^ , 

d - 1 - 1 1 1 1 - 1 


Bread 

and 
Bakery 
Products 

C. E. 

88 5 

88 5 


Boot and 
Shoe Cut 
Stock and 
Findings 


C. E. 
458 84 

1 1 

3 1 

1 I 
G 3 
447 78 



• -a 

o 

b 

• o 

a 
•a 

c 

• ea 



u <o C ^, 
^ O ^ T3 



^ ^ ® 03 j, 

, 22 2 « c k^ii 



00 

d 5d 



n lo >o f 00 00 ^ 

05 <-! o (N CO 

rH •-I r- po CO CO 



Women's 
Clothing 


H ^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 , 

,c f 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 f 1 
U CO cc 


Toys, 
Games 
and 


C. E. 
154 18 

4 1 
150 18 


Stationery 
Goods 
and 
Envelopes 


C. E. 
211 i:^ 

3 1 
208 12 


Retail 
Stores 


C. E. 

3,937 580 

4 2 
78 13 

7 I 
1 1 

3,846 567 


Pocket- 
book 
and 

I,eather 
Goods 


H «> ' ! 1 1 1 1 1 00 

CO 1 1 1 1 1 1 00 1 »o 
Oh- CO 


Paper 
Box 


jvj f 1 CO 1 1 1 CO 1 CT> 

d ^ - 1 f 1 1 1 , 2 


Office 
Cleaners 


W ^ . 1 1 1 , , , l-H 

^ IN 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 W 


Muslin 
Under- 
wear * 


C. E. 
1,285 76 

25 3 

57 6 
69 11 

1 1 

224 7 
909 61 


Men's 
Furnish- 
ings 


C. E. 

606 43 

23 1 

3 2 
18 4 

4 1 

57 3 
501 41 


Men's 
Clothing 

and 
Raincoat 


C. E. 
125 11 

1 1 
15 1 
4 1 

105 16 



a 



o 
£ 
o 



III 

< 



• !» 2 aj 

s 3 o 
<o^S 



5 S-o 



17 



s? o 
o 



Pocketbook 
and 
Leather 
Goods 


K ^ 1 - 

6 2 '2 


Paper 
Box 




MusHn 
Underwear ' 


C. E. 
153 10 

153 10 


Men's 
Furnishings 


C. E. 

276 8 

276 8 


Laundry 

and 

Dry 
Cleaning 


Vj (N C<1 


Knit 
Goods 


^ ^ 1 - 

r-; 1 Tf< 
Vj (M <N 


Jewelry 

and 
Related 

Lines 


d S '2; 


Boot 
and 

Shoe 
Cut Stock 

and 
Findings 


d ' 



!2; >■ 



5^ 
CO 

1^ 



^ 03 
CO « 



•I" 

•2 

si 
o 
O 



i: 



Men's 
Furnish- 
ings 


C. E. 

2,884 23 
632 14 

71 4 

59 3 

20 2 
206 6 

3 1 

273 4 


Men'a 
Clothing 
and 
Raincoats ' 


C. E. 

650 11 
393 14 

37 3 
17 3 

70 4 
14 1 

255 11 


Laundry 
and 
Dry 
Cleaners ' 


C. E. 

992 162 
91 52 

2 2 
1 1 

26 19 
62 32 


Knit 
Goods 1 


C. E. 

227 3 
23 1 

21 1 
2 1 


Jewelry 

and 
Related 
liines ' 


C. E. 

1,648 17 
57 5 

13 2 
44 3 


Electrical 
Equip- 
ment 
and 
Supplies 1 


C. E. 

283 5 
145 3 

13 2 
9 1 

37 1 
86 1 


Druggists' 
Prepara- 
tions, Pro- 
prietarj"- 
Medicines 

Chemical 
Compounds 


y ceo 11 1 1 , 1 1 
^ 11 1 - 1 1 1 1 


Canning 

and 
Preserv- 
ing and 

of Con- 
fectionery 1 


»0^3 .-Hi l(NIII|.-i 
.< (NC: 1 1 1 1 1 1 «0 


Candy > 


C. E. 

1,180 27 
29 4 

6 1 

22 2 


Bread 

and 
Bakery 
Products 


1^ OON 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 

0\0i 11 1 1 1 1 1 1 <N 

d 2 


Boot and 
Shoe Cut 
Stock and 


C. E. 

706 62 
273 39 

26 5 

1 1 

121 22 

72 12 


Situation and Disposition 
OF Casks 


Records for tabulation 
Cases of non-compliance . 

ADJUSTMENTS: 
Wapes raised 

Left, laid off or discharged 
Change of work, hours or 

method of payment 
Adjustment promised . 
Incorrectly recorded 
Firm out of business 
Special license type 
Technical non-compliance 
PENDING .... 



18 



Total 


,-:coo cnto cc tJ( (n (n os 
o^.-i CO <o e>5 

* 

.<-«j<»o Tj<eo (N 00 ?c "5 to 
U-^O (NOO co>-<»H»o to 

eor-^ CO <m' 


Women's 
Clothing 1 


00 O 0^ 1 CO 1 1 1 1 ^ 

r-«OCO -^O |OOIIII»C 
Ot}<0 CO »c 


Women's 

and 
Children's 
Underwear, 
Neckwear 
and 
Cotton 
Garments • 


c. n 

3,234 31 
119 8 

1 1 

16 2 

12 1 

22 3 

68 5 


Toys, 
Games 

and 
Sporting 
Goods ' 


C. E. 
569 7 
238 4 

7 2 
231 2 


Stationery 
Goods 
and 
Envelopes ^ 


C. E. 
1,457 33 
174 12 

89 3 

25 3 
2 1 

58 5 


Retail 
Store 


C E 
27.687 ■ 2.55.3 
4,747 899 

441 338 
149 49 

29 12 
2,556 534 

2 2 
56 6 

3 2 
1,511 257 


Pocket- 
book 
and 

Leather 

VjOOQS ' 


pq'i'XN II 1 1 1 I 1 1 (N 
,-;^o II 1 1 1 1 1 1 «5 


Paper 
Box 1 


HOOCO II 1 IN 1 1 1 1 rl 

r-coeo II 1 (N 1 1 1 1 ^ 


Office 
Cleaners i 


r-;t^O II 1 t>. 1 1 1 1 CO 

n'coco II 1 (N 1 1 1 1 ■'J' 
^oco CO 




H>C(N II 1 1 1 1 1 '-• 
Qt^iM II 1 '-H 1 1 1 1 


Situation and Disposition 
OF Cases 


Records for tabulation 
Cases of non-compliance 

AD.IUSTMENTS: 

Wages raised .... 

Left, laid off or discharged 

Change of work, hours or method 
of payment .... 

Adjustment promised 

Incorrectly recorded 

Firm out of business 

Special license type . 

Technical non-compliance 
PENDING .... 



o 



■2« 



Clje Commontoealtf) of iWasgacljusettg 



.DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 

REPORT 

OF THE 

MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION 

REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 

For THE Year Ending November 30, 1938 



OFFICIALS 

Commissioner Assistant Commissioner 

JAMES T. MORIARTY MARY E. MEEHAN 



Associate Commissioners 

(Constituting the Minimum Wage Commission and the Board of Concihation 

and Arbitration) 

THOMAS F. CURLEY 
Chairman 

JOHN L. CAMPOS RAYMOND V. McNAMARA 




PUBLICATION 0. THIS DOCUMKNT ApPROVEO BV THK COMMISSION OS AOM . N .STE.T.ON .NO 

800. 3-'40. D-877. 



FEB 7 1941 

STATE HOUSE, BOSTON 



REPORT OF THE MINIMUM WAGE 
COMMISSION 



Thomas F. Curley, Chairman; Raymond V. McNamara, John L. Campos, 
Mary E. Meehan, Executive Secretary 

Chapter 430, 1936; Chapter 401, 1937 

Outline of Functions 

The duties of the Commissioner of Labor and Industries and of the Minimum 
Wage Commission under the law comprises the following functions: 

1. The commissioner shall have the power, and it shall be his duty on the 
petition of fifty or more citizens of the commonwealth, to cause an investiga- 
tion to be made by any of his authorized representatives, of the wages paid to 
women or minors in any occupation in order to ascertain whether any substan- 
tial number of women or minors in such occupation are receiving oppressive 
and unreasonable wages. 

2. If, on the basis of information in the possession of the commissioner, with 
or without special investigation, he is of the opinion that any substantial num- 
ber of women or minors in any occupation or occupations are receiving oppres- 
sive and unreasonable wages, he shall direct the commission to appoint a wage 
board to report upon the establishment of minimum fair wage rat€S for such 
women or minors in such occupation or occupations. 

3. If the report is disapproved the commission shall resubmit the matter 
to the same wage board or to a new wage board. If the report is approved 
the commission shall transmit it to the commissioner, who shall issue a director>- 
order which shall define minimum fair wage rates in the occupation or occu- 
pations as recommended in the report of the wage board and such directory 
order shall include the regulations as approved by the commission. 

4. At any time after a minimum fair wage order has been in effect for onr 
year or more, whether during such period it has been directory of mandatory, 
the commissioner may on his own motion and shall on petition of fifty or more 
citizens of the commonwealth reconsider the minimum fair wage rates estab- 
lished therein and direct the commission to reconvene the same wage board 
or appoint a new wage board to consider and recommend whether and to what 
extent, if any, the rate or rates contained in such order should be modified. 

5. To investigate and ascertain the wages of women and minors employed 
in any occupation in the commonwealth. 

6. If the commissioner has reason to beheve that any employer is not ob- 
serving anv directorv or mandatorv order, the commissioner may, on fifteen 
days' noticiB, summon such employer to appear before the commissioner to show 
cause why the name of such employer should not be published as having failed 
to observe the provisions of such order. After a heanng and the finding of non- 
observance of such order by the commissioner, he may cause to be published 
in such newspaper or newspapers within this commonwealth or in such other 
manner as he may deem appropriate, the name of any such employer or em- 

' ployers as having failed in the respects stated to observe the provisions of such 
order. 

7. At the request of any woman or minor paid less than the minimum wage 
to which such woman or minor is entitled under a mandatory minimum fair 
wage order the commissioner may take an assignment of such ^vage Haim n 
trust for the assigning employee and may bring anv legal 

coUect such claim, and the employer shall be required to pay the cost^s and sucl 



4 



reasonable attorney's fees as may be allowed by the court. The commissioner 
shall not be required to pay a filing fee in connection with any such action. 

Under the provisions of this chapter the commissioner, or his authorized 
representative, shall have full power and authority: 

1. To investigate and ascertain the wages of women and minors employed in 
any occupation in the commonwealth: 

2. To enter the place of business or employment of any employer of women 
and minors in any occupation for the purpose of examining, inspecting and 
making a transcript of any and all books, registers, payrolls, and other records 
of any employer of women or minors that in any way appertain to or have 
bearing upon the question of wages of any such women or minors and for the 
purpose of ascertaining whether the orders of the commissioner have been and 
are being compUed with; and 

3. To require from such employer full and correct statements in writing 
when the commissioner, or his authorized representative, deem necessary, of ; 
the wages paid to all women and minors in his employ, such statements to be | 
under oath or accompanied by a written declaration that they are made under j 
the penalties of perjury. I 

4. To carry out the provisions of this chapter. 

Legislation in 1938 
The Emergency Minimum Wage law, which became effective on May 29, 1937, 
has been in effect for eighteen months. During this period the Commission has 
been successful in securing satisfactory results. The Commission did feel, how- i 
ever, that legislation should be enacted to prevent any attempt to evade the 
law. Consequently, a bill was filed with the General Court to forestall this 
possibility. Following is a copy of the act as passed: — 

Section nineteen of chapter one hundred and fifty-one of the General 
Laws, as appearing in section one of chapter four hundred and one of the 
acts of nineteen hundred and thirty-seven, is hereby amended by adding at 
the end the following new paragraph: — 

(4) No person shall, for purpose of evading this chapter, establish any 
arrangement or organization in his business, by contract, lease or agreement, 
whether written or oral, whereby a woman or minor who would otherwise be 
an employee of such person does not have the status of an employee. If the 
commissioner is of the opinion that any person has established an arrangement 
or organization in violation of this paragraph, after a public hearing, due notice 
whereof shall have been given, and at which a reasonable opportunity to be 
heard has been afforded to such person, he may order such person to cease 
and desist from such violation; and such an order shall be subject to review 
under section fourteen in the same manner and to the same extent as any 
decision of the commissioner under this chapter. Any person so ordered to 
cease and desist who fails to comply therewith for thirty days after such order 
has been served upon him shall be punished by a fine of not less than one 
hundred dollars or by imprisonment for not less than ten nor more than 
ninety days, or both such fine and imprisonment. (Approved April 26, 1938). 

Outline of Activities 

At the close of the 1937 fiscal year, three wage boards were still in session, 
namely, those for the bread and baker^^ products, pocketbook and leather 
goods and paper box industries. The recommendations for these boards were 
accepted by the Commission. The determinations of the bread and bakery ; 
products and pocketbook and leather goods industries became effective as 
directory orders on May 1, 1938, and those for the paper box industry on ; 
August 1, 1938. 

Wage boards were established for the millinery; knit goods; canning and , 
preserving, minor lines of confectionery and food preparations; office and other 
building cleaners; and beauty culture occupations. 

The millinerj^ and the canning and preserving, minor lines of confectionery 
and food preparations wage boards have submitted their reports, which have 



o 

been accepted by the Commission and declared Hirppfnr.. cc 
October 1, 1938, and December 1, 1938, respeti^dy ^^^'^^^ 

The boards for the office and other building cleaners knit crnn^« nr.ri u . 
culture occupations are still in session at the closrnf t^^ fi ' ' ^^J^V*-'' 
in these reports is due to the fact thJ thp hlrl '"''^ ^'^^'\ 

further suc'h problems as Ite at\he ^ubll^Tet^^^^^^^ ^^"^^^^^ 

Ihe Commission is also setting up a wage board for ih^ ^ i ^ , 

rhteVe'n^d^onhTS"'''^ '''' ^"^^ ^"-'"^^ were S in" roc'crd" 
man°dato;y'dSes:- °^ occupations and their directory and 



Occupation 
Bread and Bakery Products 
Pocketbook and Leather Goods 
Paper Box .... 
Millinery ... 
Canning and Preserving, Minor 
Lines of Confectionery and Food 
Preparations . . 



Directory Date 
May 1, 1938 
May 1, 1938 
Aug. 1, 1938 
Oct. 1, 1938 



Dec. 1, 1938 



Mandatory Date 
Nov. 1, 1938 
Nov. 1, 1938 
Nov. 2, 1938 



Investigation in 1938 
Beauty Culture 

An investigation in the beauty culture industry was made in the spring 
of 1938. Payroll transcripts were taken for the payroll period Februar>^ to 
June, 1938. Records were secured for 555 women employed in 126 shops. 
The tabulation of the records showed that rates varying from $7.00 to $25.00 
were paid for a full working week. As a result of this investigation the Com- 
mission voted to form a wage board for the beauty culture occupation; and 
authorized letters sent to all employers as well as a large number of employees 
in the industry, requesting nominations for wage board members. The board 
convened for its first meeting on October 26, 1938, and is in session at the 
present time. 

Inspections 

Inspections which were initiated follo\nng the ■ declaration of mandator\' 
provisions were continued during 1938. These inspections included the follow- 
ing occupations: boot and shoe cut stock and findings; bread and baker>' 
products; candy; druggists' preparations, proprietary medicines and chemical 
compounds; electrical equipment and supplies; laundry and dry cleaning; men's 
clothing and raincoat; men's furnishings; paper box; pocketbook and leather 
goods; retail store; stationery goods and envelopes; toys, games and sporting 
goods; women's and children's underwear, neckwear and cotton garment; and 
women's clothing. Inspections were also made in occupations that were operat- 
ing under directory orders or decrees as follows: canning and preserving, minor 
lines of confectionery and food preparations; jewelry and related lines; knit 
goods; millinery; and office and other building cleaners. Inspection under 
the corset industry was initiated during the year and is still in process at tlie 
close of the fiscal year. 

Disposition of Cases of Non-Compliance in the Regular Inspection Work- 
in the regular inspection work 5,464 cases of non-compliance were found in 

465 establishments. This represents a great improvement over the conditions 

found last year, and is doubtless due to the mandator\- orders which became 

effective during the year. 

Adjustment: In the cases settled, wages were raised for 929 employees in 

166 estabhshments. Two hundred and three employees in 67 firms either left, 



6 



or were laid off or discharged. Adjustment by change of work, hours or method 
of payment whereby the employees were able to earn the minimum rate, were 
made in 189 cases in 25 establishments. Adjustment was promised or reported 
in 1,453 additional cases in 160 establishments. Twelve employees in 6 firms 
were incorrectly recorded. Seven firms employing 153 women were reported 
as out of business. Seventeen employees in seven establishments were covered 
by the special license provisions. There were 19 employees in four establish- 
ments covered by the piece rate ruling. This ruling provides that in the case of 
experienced operators where the great majority are earning the minimum or 
over, the rates are considered in accordance with the order. Three employees 
in three firms were considered as technical compliance. 

Cases Pending: At the close of the year, 2,486 cases were pending in 96 
establishments. 

Reinspections 

Reinspections have also been made under the majority of decrees to ascertain 
whether or not comphance has been effected as promised, following complaints. 

In addition to the regular and reinspection visits, home work has been found 
in eight firms employing 193 employees in the boot and shoe cut stock and 
findings; men's furnishings; pocketbook and leather goods; stationery goods 
and envelopes; and toys, games and sporting goods occupations. Incidental 
to the above visits, 19 firms employing 1,017 women and minors were visited, 
which were not covered by any order or decree. 

In the regular inspection work, wage records were secured for 46,814 women 
and minors in 1,848 establishments. In addition, 9,698 reinspection records 
were taken under thirteen orders, including 323 establishments. These figures 
include home work inspections and occupations visited that were not covered 
by any order, making a total of 57,722 records in 2,198 establishments. 

Complaints 

During the year complaints were registered with the Commission from 161 
employees who received less than the minimum rate to which they were entitled 
under the provisions of the minimum wage law. All of the cases were in- 
vestigated and some form of adjustment secured. Among the industries where 
\dolations were found are the boot and shoe cut stock and findings; bread and 
bakery products; candy; canning and preserving, minor lines of confectionery 
and food preparations; jewelry and related lines; knit goods; laundry and dry 
cleaning; men's clothing and raincoat; men's furnishings, millinery, office and 
other building cleaners ; paper box ; pocketbook and leather goods ; retail stores ; 
stationery goods and envelopes; toys, games and sporting goods; women's 
clothing; and women's and children's underwear, neckwear and cotton garment. 

Adjustments were made in the above-mentioned complaints as follows: 51 
employees in 16 establishments had their wages increased to meet the minimum; 
two employees in two establishments had their hours reduced to comply with 
the rates received; one employee reached a satisfactory settlement with her 
employer without the aid of the Commission; six firms employing ten workers 
were reported out of business at the time of inspection; eleven establishments 
employing 18 employees reported or promised adjustments; complaints were 
found not to be justified upon inspection in 17 cases in six estabhshments ; 
eleven employees in six establishments were reported as left or discharged; 21 
employees in nine establishments were found to be receiving the minimum at 
inspection; and eight cases in six establishments were pending further inspec- 
tion at the close of the year. Twenty-two complaints were received from 
employees in 21 firms that were not covered by any order or decree. A table 
showing the above mentioned adjustments will be found later in the report. 



7 



o 
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'8 



Retroactive Wages 
Subsequent to the declaration of the ten mandatory orders in October 1937, 
the Minimum Wage Commission has been very successful in collecting retro- 
active wages as the result of complaints received. Following is a table showing 
the occupations in which claims were settled on the retroactive basis. 



Minimum Wage Claims Settled on Retroactive Basis 

1938 



Industry 

Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findings 
Bread and Bakery Products 
Laundry and Dry Cleaning 
Men's Clothing and Raincoat 
Retail Store 
Women's Clothing 
Paper Box .... 



Number 


Number 


Total Amount 


of Firms 


of Employees 


Collected 


1 


8 


$233.06 


1 


1 


20.00 


2 


4 


174.85 


2 


2 


50.00 


16 


18 


803.06 


2 


2 


50.01 


1 


2 


12.32 


25 


37 


$1,343.30 



Orders Issued 

During the fiscal year, directory orders were declared for six occupations 
covered by minimum wage rates, namely: druggists' preparations, proprietary 
medicines and chemical compounds; bread and bakery products; pocketbook 
and leather goods; paper box; millinery; and canning and preserving, minor 
hnes of confectionery and food preparations. Four of these six orders — ■ 
druggists' preparations, proprietary medicines and chemical compounds; bread 
and bakery products; pocketbook and leather goods; and paper box — were 
made mandatory at the expiration of the three months' directory order period. 
Following is a table hsting orders and their effective dates: 



Industry 

Druggists' Preparations, Proprietary 
Medicines and Chemical Compounds 
Bread and Bakery Products . 
Pocketbook and Leather Goods 

Paper Box 

Millinery 

Canning and Preserving, Minor Lines 
of Confectionery and Food Prep- 
arations 



Directory 
Order Date 



Mar. 1, 1938 
May 1, 1938 
May 1, 1938 
Aug. 1, 1938 
Oct. 1, 1938 



Dec. 1, 1938 



Mandatory 
Order Date 



Nov. 1, 1938 
Nov. 1, 1938 
Nov. 1, 1938 
Nov. 2, 1938 



Summary 

A survey of the work accomplished by the Minimum Wage Commission 
shows interesting results. 

The work of bringing the old decrees within the provisions of the mandatory 
law was continued. Five directory orders were established and seven were 
made mandatory. Of these seven, three orders had been accepted as directory 
orders during 1937. 

The Commission secured actual adjustments in 1,516 cases as the result of 
inspection, while adjustment was promised or reported in 1,393 cases. The 
amount collected in retroactive pay was substantially larger than last year, 
since the law covers more orders with mandatory provisions. 

With the inclusion of nine additional orders since the last report, it is 
estimated that approximately 120,000 employees are covered by the orders now 
in effect. 

The Legislature, realizing the importance of adequate enforcement of the 
minimum wage law, voted to grant the Commission two additional agents for 
the advancement of the inspection work. Provision was also made for ad- 
ditional office workers. 



9 

The enactment of the federal Fair Wage and Hours law has been helpful 
in eliminating child labor. It has raised the standards of wages and hours in 
those industries which are not yet covered by Massachusetts minimum wage 
orders. The federal enactment does not supersede the Massachusetts minimum 
wage law. The higher scale of wages and the shorter working week take 
precedence. 

The Commission expects during the coming year to continue the work of 
establishing wage boards and bringing new occupations under their jurisdiction. 

Chronology of Minimum Wage Legislation and Court Decisions - 

May 11, 1911. Resolution providing for the appointment of a commission 
to investigate the wages of women and minors and to report on the advi.sability 
of establishing minimum wage boards. (Acts and Resolves of 1911, chapter 71.) 

January 10, 1912. Report of Commission on Minimum Wage Boards to 
Legislature recommending establishment of permanent Commission. (House 
Bill No. 1697 of 1912.) 

June Jf., 1912. Enactment of measure establishing Minimum Wage Com- 
mission and providing for the determinations of minimum wages for women 
and minors. (General Laws, chapter 151.) 

March 21 1913. Amendment to facilitate the gathering of information 
relative to the wages of women and minors. (General Laws, chapter 151, 
section 8.) 

May 19, 1913. Amendment to increase the powers and further define the 
duties of the Minimum Wage Commission. (General Laws, chapter 151, 
sections 3, 4 and 10.) 

April 17, 1914. Amendment relative to the determination of minimum wages 
for women and minors. (General Laws, chapter 151, sections 2, 4, 8 and 10.) 

June 2, 1916. Amendment to establish certain qualifications for members 
of the Minimum Wage Commission. (General Acts of 1916, chapter 303.) 

December 12, 1917. Argument of test case involving constitutionality of 
Minimum Wage Law. (Holcombe v. Creamer, 231 Mass. 99.) 

September 24, 1918. Decision of Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts 
upholding constitutionahty of Minimum Wage Law. (Holcombe v. Creamer, 
231 Mass 99.) 

April 3 1919. Amendment to provide for filling vacancies on wage boards. 
In effect July 2, 1919. (General Laws, chapter 151, sections 1 and 2.) 

April 4 1919. Amendments to require employers to keep records of the 
working hours of women and minors in certain cases, and to provide for the 
posting of notices of hearings, nominations for wage boards, and of decrees of 
the Minimum Wage Commission. In effect July 3, 1919. (General Laws, 
chapter 151, sections 8 and 14.) j j • • 

July 23 1919 Act to organize in departments the executive and administra- 
tive funct^ions of the Commonwealth. By this act the Minimum Wage Com- 
mission was abolished and its functions traiisferred to the three associate 
commissioners of the Department of Labor and Industries, who are designated 
the Minimum Wage Commissioners when deahng with minimum wage matters, 
and the W of Concihation and Arbitration when dealing Nnth conciliation 
matters. (General Laws, chapter 23.) 

December 1 1919. Consohdation act in effect. r . • 

Febmaru2b 1920. Amendment to allow the Commission more freedom m 
the choi7ofwage board members. In effect May 21, 1920. (General Laws. 

'^Amil 50^'/plJ!'\mendment to allow Commis.sion, upon petition of either 
emXers or employees, or if in its opinion such 'Y^^TVpffeTt'^X^^^ 
convene the wage board or establish a new wage board. In effect July 2J, 19.0. 

^^/rl^T/i ^X"n\menTraU^^ Commission on Unemployn.ent. 
Unempl—t' Compensation and the Minimum Wage, to study minimum 
wage law^^^^^^ whether the law should be amended, made mandatory 

or repealed. (Chapter 43, Resolves of 1922.) 



10 



February 9, 1928. Report of Commission on Unemployment, Unemployment 
Compensation and the Minimum Wage, recommending in majority report that 
law be continued in its present form until such time has elapsed as will demon- 
strate whether or not the legislation has justified its mission. 

February 9, 1923. Minority report recommending that the law be made 
mandatory. (House BiU No. 1325 of 1923.) 

June 7, 1923. Test case brought against the "Boston Transcript" to de- 
termine constitutionality of sections 12 and 13 of chapter 151 of the General 
Laws requiring newspapers to publish the Commission's notices, and purport- 
ing to exempt the Commission and newspapers from action for damages for 
pubhcations. (Commonwealth v. Boston Transcript Company, 249 Mass. 477.) 

June 12, 1924. Decision of Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts de- 
claring sections 12 and 13 of chapter 151 of the General Laws unconstitutional, 
reaffirming constitutionality of the law in its essential provisions as in decision 
in 1918, and stating that opinion of the United States Supreme Court of the 
District of Columbia, declaring minimum wage law unconstitutional, does not 
apply to Massachusetts law, since that law is reconamendatory. (Common- 
wealth V. Boston Transcript Company. 249 Mass. 477.) 

April 5, 1933. The act further penahzing certain employers who fail to keep, 
or unlawfully refuse to permit the inspection or examination of certain registers 
and records under Minimum Wage Law. (General Laws, chapter 110.) 

May 26, 1933. Act to provide for the more effective enforcement of decrees 
of Minimum Wage Commission. After manufacturer's name has been pubhshed 
for violation of decree, the Commission may require employer to attach label 
or tag stating goods manufactured in violation of Minimum Wage Law. 
(General Laws, chapter 220.) 

September 12, 1934- First mandatory Minimum Wage Law carrying pro- 
visions for the imposition of penalties for violations. (General Laws, 
chapter 308.) 

May 17, 1935. Act relative to minimum wage decrees rendered prior to the 
effective date of the present law authorizing the establishment of mandatory 
minimum fair wage standards for women and minors. (General Laws, chapter 
267.) 

June 6, 1936. Second Minimum Wage Law (Department of Public Health). 
(General Laws, chapter 430.) 

May 29, 1937. Third Minimimi Wage Law enacted returning the administra- 
tion of the law to the Department of Labor and Industries. (General Laws, 
chapter 401.) 

April 26, 1938. Act prohibiting the evasion of the Minimum Fair Wage for 
Women and Minors Law. (General Laws, chapter 237.) 

THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 
Minimum Wage Commission 
Bread and Bakery Products Occupation 

Mandatory Order Number 15 

Minimum Fair Wage Standards for Women and Minors Employed 
in This Occupation 

Basic Wage Rates : 

No woman and no minor employed in any bread and bakery products 
establishment shall be paid less than the following rates: 

A. Not less than $14.00 a week in cities with 100,000 and over population. 

B. Not less than $13.00 a week in cities and towns with 25,000 to 100,000 
population. 

C. Not less than $12.00 a week in cities and towns with less than 25,000 
population. 

These rates are based on full-time work, by which is meant the full number 
of hours required by employers and permitted by the laws of the conmaon- 
wealth. 



11 

Special Provisions: 

Piece Rates: The wages paid piece workers shall be so adjusted that ever>' 
woman or mmor so employed shall earn for a given period of employment 
not less than the time wages herein prescribed for such period. 
Waiting Time: Time during which employees are required to wait on the 
employer's premises and no work is provided by the employer, shall be 
counted as working time and paid for at the individual worker's regular 
wage rate. 

Administrative Regulations 

Definitions : 

1. Bread and Bakery Products Occwpation 

The above-named occupation includes the manufacture of bread, cakes, 
crackers and all other bakery products. 

2. Minors 

Employees of either sex under 21 years of age. 

3. Employees 

Women and minors employed in the bread and bakery products occupa- 
tion. 

4. Mandatory Order 

Date effective: — November 1, 1938. 



Bread and Bakery Products Wage Board 
List of Members 

Representative of the Public 
Mr. Sol C. Hamburger, Chairman, 260 Tremont Street, Boston 

Representatives of Employers: Representatives of Employees: 
Miss Evelyn M. Bourgeois Mr. P. J. Leonard 

Weston's Bakeries 392 Centre Street 

Waltham Jamaica Plain 

Mr. A. Clinton Abbott Miss Gertrude Lindstrom 

Friend Bros. 209 Beech Street 

Melrose Belmont 

Mr. Charles E. Potter Miss Millicent Coughlin 

National Biscuit Company 6 Atlantic Avenue 

Cambridge Maiden 

THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 
Minimum Wage Commission 

POCKETBOOK AND LEATHER GoODS OCCUPATION 

Mandatory Order Number 16 

Minimum Fair Wage Standards for Women and Minors Employed 
in This Occupation 

Basic Wage Rates: , , .i . 

No woman and no minor employed in the pocketbook and leather goods 
occupation shall be paid less than the followmg rates: 
A Not less than 35 cents an hour, or $14.00 for a week of 40 hours, with 

three or more months' experience. , . 

B Not less than 261/4 cents an hour, or $10.50 for a week of 40 hours, 
with less than three months' experience. 
Any time worked over 40 hours shaU be paid for on an hourly pro rata basis. 



12 

Special Provisions: 
Piece Rates: The wages paid piece workers shall be so adjusted that every 
woman or minor so employed shall earn for a given period of employment 
not less than the time wages herein prescribed for such period. 

Waiting Time: Time during which employees are required to w^ait on the 
employer's premises and no work is provided by the employer, shall be 
counted as working time and paid for at the individual worker's wage rate. 

Administrative Regulations 

Definitions : 

1. Pocketbook and Leather Goods Occupation 

The above-named occupation includes the manufacture of pocketbooks, 
bags, brief cases, leather and imitation leather goods, suit cases, trunks, 
card cases, desk sets, dog collars and similar lines. 

2. Experienced Employees 

Employees who have had at least three months' experience in the 
occupation. 

3. Minors 

Employees of either sex under 21 years of age. 

4. Employees 

Women and minors employed in the pocketbook and leather goods 
occupation. 

5. Mandatory Order 

Date effective: — November 1, 1938. 

Pocketbook and Leather Goods Wage Board 
List of Members 

Representative of the Public 

Professor Carroll W. Doten, Chairman, 68 Garfield Street, Cambridge 

Representatives of Employers : Representatives of Employees : 

Mr. Jacob Glasker Mrs. Josephine Antonellis 

Corliss Manufacturing Company 38 Beal Street 

Boston Winthrop 

Mr. Raphael Mutterperl Mrs. Hattie McMackin 

Fairhaven Corporation Lancaster 
New Bedford 

Mr. I. Schwartz Mr. Walter M. Ryan 

Knight Leather Company 49 High Street 

Boston Chnton 

THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 

Minimum Wage Commission 

Paper Box Occupation 

Mandatory Order Number 17 

Minimum Fair Wage Standards for Women and Minors Employed 
in This Occupation 

Basic Wage Rates: 

No woman and no minor employed in the Paper Box occupation shall be 
paid less than the following rates: 
A. Employees of ordinary ability, not less than 35 cents per hour. 



13 

B. Inexperienced Employees :~Less than six months' experience, not less 
than 30 cents per hour. 

Special Provisions: 

Piece Rates: If the employee is hired on Piece Rates or any other Incentive 
Basis, such rates must be fully posted or available to every employee in the 
room where the operations are conducted, and the employee must be informed 
that weekly compensation will not be less than the Minimum Fair Wages 
for time workers hereby established. 

Employees' Experience Record: Every employer must, when requested by 
an employee upon leaving his employment, give to the employee a record of 
the length of service, stating the particular operations in which the employee 
has been engaged in that establishment or concern. 

Waiting Time: Time during which employees are required to wait on the 
employer's premises and no work is provided by the employer shall be counted 
and paid for as working time. Piece workers during waiting time should be 
paid the highest minimum rate established; for other workers, their regular 
hourly rate. 

Administrative Regulations 

Definitions : 

1. Paper Box Occupation 

This occupation includes establishments manufacturing set-up, folding 
and corrugated boxes. It includes plants manufacturing for the trade, 
as well as for their own consumption. 

2. Employees of Ordinary Ability 

An employee shall be deemed of ordinary abihty who has had at least 
six months' experience in the occupation. 

3. Occupations 

All occupations connected with the manufacturing end of the business 
shall be covered by the Minimum Wage Rates. 

4. Minors 

Employees of either sex under twenty-one years of age. 

5. Employees 

Women and Minors employed in the Paper Box Occupation. 

6. Mandatory Order 

Date effective:— November 2, 1938. 



Paper Box Wage Board 



List of Members 
Representative of the Public 
Professor Bernard S. McCarthy, Chairman, 363 Cambridge Street, Worcester 



Representatives of Employers: 
Mr. Harry Posner 
Worcester Paper Box Company 
Medford 

Mr. James F. Reynolds 
Stone & Forsyth 
Everett 

Mr. Edward Churchill 

W. L. Douglas Shoe Company 

Brockton 



Representatives of Employees. 
Mr. Joseph Dart 
Journal Building 
Boston 

Mr. Edward Mangum 
31 Easton Avenue 
Pittsfield 

Miss Mary Burt 
315 Harvard Street 
Cambridge 



14 

THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 
Minimum Wage Commission 

Millinery Occupation 
Directory Order Number 18 

Minimum Fair Wage Standards for Women and Minors Employed 
in This Occupation 

Basic Wage Rates: 
No woman and no minor employed in the Millinery occupation shall be paid 
less that the following rates: 

1. Front Shop 

A. Not less than 35 cents an hour after 10 weeks' employment in the 
trade. 

B. Not less than 25 cents an hour for learners and apprentices during 
the first 10 weeks' employment in the trade. 

2. Back Shop 

Not less than 35 cents an hour. 

Special Provisions: 

Piece Rates: The wages paid piece workers shall be so adjusted that every 
woman or minor so employed shall earn for a given period of employment 
not less than the time wages herein prescribed for such period. 
Waiting Time: The time which an employee spends on the premises after 
reporting for work and before he or she is released by the employer or re- 
quested to report at any future hour, shall be regarded as waiting time and 
shall be included in computing total hours worked within the week. 

Administrative Regulations 

Definitions : 

1. Millinery Occupation 

The above-named occupation includes: 

A. The front shop, which manufactures all ladies', misses' and children's 
head wear (whether trimmed or untrimmed and of whatsoever 
material) manufactured or produced by blocking, operating, cutting 
or moulding, making, trimming, and all similar operations, and the 
finishing of men's and women's wool and fur felt hat bodies in the 
front shop. 

B. Workers on men's and women's wool and fur felt hat bodies in so- 
called back shop. 

C. Office employees and non-productive workers. 

2. Employees of Ordinary Ability 

Women and minors having more than 10 weeks' experience in the trade, 
excepting in the cases of employees whose earning capacities are impaired 
and are within the definition given ix^ Section 9 of Chapter 401 of the 
Acts of 1937. 

3. Minors 

Employees of either sex under 21 years of age. 

4. Employees 

Women and minors employed in the MiUinery occupation. 

5. Directory Order 

Date effective:— October 1, 1938. 



15 

Millinery Wage Board 



List of Members 
Representative of the Public 
Cornelius A. Parker, Esq, Chairman, 68 Devonshire Street, Boston 



Representatives of Employers 
Mr. Alfred T. Barr 
Merrimac Hat Company 
Amesbury 

Mr. Ira Singer 

Singer Capeline Company 

Boston 

Mr. George I. Tofias 
J, Tofias & Bros. 
Medfield 



Representatives of Employees 
Miss Celia Draisen 
18 Angell Street 
Dorchester 

Mrs. Frances Neves 
60 Lyman Street 
Holyoke 

Mr. Benjamin C. Roberts 
291 High Street 
Holyoke 



THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 
Minimum Wage Commission 

Canning and Preserving, Minor Lines of Confectionery and 
Food Preparations Occupation 

Directory Order Number 19 

Minimum Fair Wage Standards for Women and Minors Employed 
in This Occupation 

Basic Wage Rates: 

No woman and no minor employed in the Canning and Preserving, Minor 
Lines of Confectionery and Food Preparations occupation shall be paid less 
than the following rates: 

1. Employees of ordinary ability, not less than $14.25 for a week of 44 hours, 
or 32.4c an hour, after the first six months' employment. 

2. Learners and apprentices, not less than $11.00 for a week of 44 hours, 
or 25c an hour. 



Special Provisions: 
Piece Rates: The wages paid piece workers shall be so adjusted that ever}- 
woman or minor so employed shall earn for a given period of employment 
not less than the time wages herein prescribed for such period. 

Waiting Time: The time which an employee spends on the premisee after 
reporting for work at the employer's request and before he or she is released 
by the employer or requested to report at any future hour in any one day 
shall be regarded as waiting time and shall be included in computing total 
hours worked within the week. 



Administrative Regulations 

Definitions: 

1. Canning and Preserving, Minor Lines of Confectionery and Food Prep- 
arations Occupation 
The above-named occupation includes: 

A. All occupations connected with the manufacture of the product. 

B. All non-productive workers. 

C. All clerical workers. 



16 



2. Employees of Ordinary Ability 

Women and minors who have had at least six months' experience in a 
given occupation in any manufacturing estabhshment within the scope 
of the Order, shall be considered of ordinary ability. 

3. Minors 

Employees of either sex under 21 years of age. 

4. Employees 

Women and minors employed in the Canning and Preserving, Minor Lines 
of Confectionery and Food Preparations occupation. 

5. Directory Order 

Date effective: — December 1, 1938. 

Canning and Preserving, Minor Lines of Confectionery and 



Cornelius A. Parker, Esq., Chairman, 68 Devonshire Street, Boston 



Food Preparations Wage Board 



List of Members 



Representative of the Public 



Representatives of Employers 
Dr. Henry Borg 
Murray Company 
Boston 



Representatives of Employees : 
Miss Eleanor Carangelo 



378 North Street 
Boston 



Mr. Joseph Keating 
Gorton-Pew Fisheries 
Gloucester 



Miss Mary Cronin 
6 Greenville Court 
Somerville 



Mr. Lucien H. LaRue 
Joseph Middleby Company 
Boston 



Miss Mary Cullen 
152 River Street 
Cambridge 



17 



Men's 
Clothing 
and 
Raincoats' 


C. E. 

2,725 93 
605 38 

72 13 

in a 

ly O 

3 3 
169 12 

342 11 


Laundry 
and 
Dry 


C. E. 

5,828 393 
92 54 

50 26 
5 4 

21 14 
1 1 

3 1 
12 9 


Knit 
Goods* 


H ' ' 

^ ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' 


Jewelry 

and 
Related 
Lines' 


H ^ 

• r;2 II llll 1 1 1 (N 


Electrical 
Equipment 
and 


C. E. 

2,988 22 
13 5 

2 1 

9 3 

2 1 


Druggists' 
Prepara- 
tions, Pro- 
prietary 
Medicines 

and 
Chemical 
Compounds* 


CO-* II 1 N 1 1 1 1 1 (N 
OO II 1 it5 1 1 1 1 1 i-l 


Corset 


05ca 1 ^ 1 1 111^ 

OCC OOCS 1 M 1 1 1 1 1 — 


Canning 
and 
Preserving, 
Minor Lines 
of Con- 
fectionery 

and 
Food Prep- 
arations' 


C. E. 

124 8 
22 2 

22 2 


>> 
a 
O 


Wi-i CO 1 1 1 1 -1 1 

«o 1 1 1 1 — 1 1 -< 


Bread 
and 
Bakery 
Products' 


C. E. 

345 23 
136 10 

1 1 

124 4 

1 1 
10 4 


Boot and 
Shoe Cut 
Stock and 
Findings' 


C. E. 

1,982 159 
533 64 

221 28 
73 20 

14 4 
138 17 

4 2 

1 1 

4 1 
78 12 


Situation and Disposition 
of Casbs 


Records for tabulation 
Cases of non-compliance . 

Wages raised .... 
Left, laid off or discharged 
Change of work, hours or method 

of payment .... 
Adjustment promised or reported 
Incorrectly recorded 
Firm out of business 
Special license type or similar 

case ..... 
Technical non-compliance 
Covered by piece.rate ruling 
Pending ..... 



18 



1 

Total ] 


C. E. ' 

46,814* 1,848*' 
5,464 465 \ 

929 166 ' 
203 67 j 

189 25 i 
1,453 160 ■ 
12 6 i 
153 7 

17 7 
3 3 
19 4 . 
2,486 96 


Women's 
Clothing' 


C. E. 

1,787 85 
250 20 

93 12 
27 7 

96 2 
16 3 

18 4 


Women's 

and 
Children's 
Underwear, 
Neckwear 

Cotton 
Garments' 


C. E. 

9,150 78 
1,884 32 

95 4 

1 1 

356 13 
125 2 

2 1 

3 1 
1,302 14 


Toys, 
Games 

and 
Sporting 
Goods' 


C. E. 

925 26 
46 11 

1 1 

45 10 


Stationery 
Goods 
and 

Msu T Miv^l^a 


C. E. 

2,665 39 
42 8 

20 5 
6 2 

16 3 


Retail 
Stores' 


W coco CON TJ* -H 
CO-H 

05CM oor^ Ncoooco i (n i co 
C3CMt^coeo>ocopi Tf< 

co" 


Pocket- 
book 
and 
Leather 
Goods' 


C. E. 

1,440 22 
284 17 

1 1 
85 8 
3 1 

195 7 




C. E. 

845 39 
166 13 

11 2 
9 1 

70 7 
1 1 

1 1 

74 3 


Office 
and 

Other 
Building 
Cleaners' 


C. E. 

245 27 
101 4 

31 2 
70 2 


Millinery" 


C. E. 

1,662 17 
73 6 

69 5 
14 1 


Men's 
Furnish- 
ings' 


C. E. 

3,747 80 
595 28 

112 9 

18 3 
140 12 

12 3 

9 1 
282 6 


Situation and Disposition 
OP Cases 


Records for tabulation 
Cases of non-compliance . 

Wages raised .... 
Left, laid off or discharged 
Change of work, hours or method 

of payment 
Adjustment promised or reported 
Incorrectly recorded 
Firm out of business 
Special license type or similar 

Technical non-compliance 
Covered by piece rate ruling . 
Pending .... 



c a 

n 

a « 

* c 
.2 S 



O. o) 

- St* 



GLnmmxttmtuhii of dlajasarlptH^ttB 



DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 

REPORT 

OF THE 

MINIMUM WAGE COMMISSION 

REPRINT FROM THE ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRIES 

For the Year Ending November 30, 1939 



OFFICIALS 

Commissioner Assistant Commissioner 

JAMES T. MORIARTY MARY E. MEEHAN 

Associate Commissioners 

(Constituting the Minimum Wage Commission and the Board of Conciliation 

and Arbitration) 

CHARLES H. COLE 
Chairman 

LEWIS R. HOVEY JOHN L. CAMPOS 

Director of Minimum Wage Division 

KATHERINE A. FOLEY 

Executive Secretary to Minimum Wage Commission 

MARY E. MEEHAN 




Publication of this Document Approved b. the Co.n.ission on Administration and Financ 



800—8-40—3425. 



JAN 22 1941 

REPORT OF TH^ MINlMUlM WAGE COMMISSION 

Charles H. Cole, Chairman; Lewis R. Hovey, John L. Campos. 
Mary E. Meehan, Executive Secretary; 
Katherine a. Foley, Director. 

Chapter 430, 1936, Chapter 401, 1937 

Outline of Functions 

The duties of the Minimum Wage Commission under the law comprise the 
following functions : Investigating the wages of women and minors in occupa- 
tions where there is reason to believe that the wages of a substantial number 
are below the requirement of healthful living; establishing wage boards to 
recommend minimum rates for women and minors entering wage board orders 
based on the recommendations of the boards ; inspecting to determine compliance 
with the orders issued; reconvening wage boards to meet the changes in cost 
of living; publishing the names of employers found violating its orders, and 
collecting retroactive wages where it was found that employees had not 
been paid in accord with the order under which they were employed. 

Changes in Personnel of the Division 

Mr. Lewis R. Hovey of Haverhill was appointed by Governor Saltonstall 
to fill the vacany of Mr. Raymond V. McNamara who resigned to accept another 
position. Mr. Hovey will act as representative of the employers on the Minimum 
Wage Board. 

Mrs. Katherine A. Foley of Lawrence was appointed as Director of the 
Minimum Wage Division on December 20, 1938. Prior to thiis appointment, 
the administration of Minimum Wage work has been under the direction of 
the Assistant Commissioner who acted as the Executive Secretary of the 
Commission. 

Legislation in 1939 

The Minimum Wage Law which was enacted in 1937, has been in effect for 
two years. During this period the Commission has secured very satisfactory 
results under its mandatory provisions. However, it has been necessary to 
enact further legislation to assist in securing further compliance with the 
Commission's orders. During 1939, the following amendment was passed: 

Chapter 275. — An Act relative to evidence of the establishment of 
minimum fair wage rates. 

Chapter one hundred and fifty-one of the General Laws, as appearing in 
section one of chapter four hundred and one of the acts of nineteen hundred 
and thirty-seven, is hereby amended by inserting after section twenty the follow- 
ing new section: — Section 20 A. In any prosecution under section nineteen 
or in any action or suit under section twenty, a copy of a mandatory order 
covering any occupation, together with a certificate attesting the correctness 
of the copy and setting forth that on the date of such certificate such order is 
in force, signed by the commissioner and the genuineness of the signature 
attested by the state secretary in accordance with section seventy-six of chapter 
two hundred and thirty-three, shall be competent evidence equally with the 
original order, and shall be prima facie evidence that the provisions of this 
chapter relative to the establishment of minimum fair wage rates in such 
occupation were complied with prior to the making of such order, and that 
such order has continued in full force and effect up to the date of such certificate. 
(Approved June 9, 1939.) 



Outline of Activities 

Wage Boards ^ 
At the close of 1938 fiscal year, three wage boards were still in session 
namely : knit goods, office and other building cleaners and the beautv culture 
occupations Following the public hearing on the recommendations oT the 
boards, the Minimum Wage Commission accepted the reports and declared the 
industries to be operating as directory order, on the following dates, respectively: 

Directory Order Date 

a'c^.u t.- m.- • ^, March 1, 1939 
Office and Other Building Cleaners . . June 1 1939 

Beauty Culture September 1,1939 

The millinery, canning and preserving, minor lines of confectionery and food 
preparations, and knit goods occupations, which had been functioning as direc- 
tory orders for the required three months' period, were made mandatory on the 
following dates, respectively: February 1, March 2, and June 2, 1939. 

A new wage board was established for the jewelry and related lines in- 
dustry. This is the second board established for this industry under the 
mandatory order. The Commission accepted the report of the board and declared 
it a directory order on August 1, 1939. 

The rates for experienced employees, as well as learners and apprentices, 
special provisions and definitions, will be found later in this report for the 
above-mentioned order. 

There are now twenty-three occupations covered by minimum wage orders, 
twenty of which are operating under mandatory order. 

Inspections 

Inspections, initiated last year, have been continued during the present year 
under the following orders: boot and shoe cut stock and findings, bread and 
bakery products, candy, canning and preserving, minor lines of confectionery 
and food preparations, corset, druggists' preparations, proprietary medicines and 
chemical compounds, electrical equipment and supplies, knit goods, laundry and 
dry cleaning, men's clothing and raincoat, men's furnishings, millinery, office 
and other building cleaners, paper box, pocketbook and leather goods, retail 
store, stationery goods and envelopes, toys, games and sporting goods, women's 
and children's underwear, neckwear and cotton garment, and women's clothing. 

Reinspections have also been made under many of these orders for the pur- 
pose of checking to ascertain whether or not employers have fulfilled their 
obligations to meet compliance as promised. 

In connection with the regular inspection work, home work has been found 
in 11 firms under 4 orders, covering 148 records of employees. In addition to 
the above inspections, records were also taken for 1602 employees employed 
in 23 establishments that were not covered by any minimum wage order. 

In the regular inspection work, wage records were secured for 42, 447 women 
and minors in 2337 establishments. In addition, 62,964 reinspection records 
were taken under 16 orders, including 215 establishments. These figures, in- 
cluding home workers and those for industries not covered by any minimum 
wage order make a total of 2586 firms visited and 107,161 records secured. 

Disposition of Cases of Non-Compliance Pending from Previous Year 

(See Table 2.) 

At the beginning of the year there were outstanding from the previous year 
2 486 cases of non-compliance in 96 establishments. The majority of these 
cases came under the women's and children's underwear, neckwear and cotton 
garment, men's clothing and raincoat, and men's furnishings occupations^ There 
were also 195 cases in 7 pocketbook and leather goods establishments, 78 cast- 
in 12 boot and shoe cut stock and findings firms, 74 in 3 paper box factoricv 
70 cases working in 2 office and other buildings, and 46 cases in 12 retail storo. 



4 



The remaining cases were divided among a few firms under each of the 
following orders : bread and bakery products, candy, canning and preserving, 
minor lines of confectionery and food preparations, corset, druggists' prepara- 
tions, proprietary medicines and chemical compounds, electrical equipment and 
supplies: jewelry and related lines, laundry and dry cleaning, millinery, and 
women's clothing. 

Adjustment: The Commission has been very successful in bringing about 
some form of adjustment in its non-compliance cases. Wages were raised for 
517 employees in 34 firms. Adjustment was promised or reported for 420 
employees in 20 establishments. Three hundred and forty-eight employees in 
31 establishments were reported as left, laid oft or discharged. Adjustment by 
change of work, hours or method of payment, whereby employee was enabled 
to earn the minimum, was made in 43 cases in 5 firms. There were 3 employees 
in 3 firms who were incorrectly recorded, and one employee was covered by 
the piece rate ruling. Two employees in 1 firm were issued special license 
permits, and 3 establishments with 11 employees were reported as out of 
business. One hundred and ninety-two employees in 12 firms would be absorbed 
by the first inspection under the directory or mandatory order. Retroactive 
wages for 804 employees in 10 firms were collected by the Commission. 

Pending: At the close of the fiscal year the adjustment of 145 cases in 15 
firms was still pending. These cases were found mainly in the pocketbook and 
leather goods industry with 103 cases in 5 firms, and the boot and shoe cut stock 
and findings occupation with 22 cases in 4 firms. The rest of the pending cases 
were found in the laundry and dry cleaning, men's clothing and raincoat, retail 
store, and women's and children's underwear, neckwear, and cotton garment 
occupations. 

Disposition of New Cases of Non-Compliance Found in Firms 
Having Cases Pending from Previous Year 

(See Table 3.) 

In the course of reinspection of cases pending from the previous year, 346 
new cases of non-compliance were found in 13 establishments. The majority 
of these cases, 245 in 2 firms, came under the provisions of the pocketbook 
and leather goods order. The remaining cases were distributed among the boot 
and shoe cut stock and findings, men's clothing and raincoat, and women's and 
children's underwear, neckwear, and cotton garment industries. 

Adjustment : With respect to the cases settled, wages were raised for fort>' 
employees in 4 firms. Adjustment was promised or reported for 261 employees 
in 5 firms, and 39 employees in 5 firms were reported either to have left, been 
laid off or discharged. One employee was issued a special license permit. 

Pending cases: At the close of the fiscal year there were five cases pending 
in the pocketbook and leather goods industry. 

Disposition of Cases of Non-Compliance in the Regular 1939 Inspection 

(See Table 4.) 

In the regular inspection work, 7,322 cases of non-compliance were found 
in 687 establishments. 

Adjustment : In the cases settled, wages were raised for 761 employees in 168 
establishments. Adjustment was promised or reported for 1,535 employees in 
345 establishments. In 103 firms 290 employees were reported to have left, 
been laid off or discharged, while 37 employees in 19 firms had their work, 
hours or method of payment changed, which enabled them to earn the minimum. 
Fifty-two employees in 15 firms were incorrectly recorded. Two firms employ- 
ing 35 women were out of business, while 19 employees in 15 firms were 
issued special license permits. One employee was covered by the piece rate 
ruling, and one was considered a technical non-compliance. 



5 



In connection with its inspection work, the Commission collected retroactive 
wages for 2,907 employees in 49 establishments. Of these, 2,121 were employees 
in 18 women's and children's underwear, neckwear, and cotton garment firms 
373 employees were engaged in 5 men's clothing and raincoat establishments! 
248 employees were in 4 men's furnishings establishments, 148 employees were 
working in 8 women's clothing establishments, and 17 employees were found 
in 14 retail stores. 

Pending: At the close of the fiscal year 1,684 cases were pending in 90 
establishments. 



Complaints 
(See Table 1.) 

Complaints were received from 325 employees stating that they were 
receiving rates below the minimum to which they were entitled under the 
various minimum wage orders. 

Upon investigation by the Minimum Wage Commission, it was found that 
the majority of cases, 203 in number, were being paid below the minimum; 
nine were being illegally paid or were having illegal deductions taken from 
their pay; while in 113 cases the records of hours were not being properly 
kept by the employer or he refused to show them to the investigator. 

Adjustment : Thirty-six cases had their wages raised to meet the required 
minimum; in 154 cases adjustment was promised or reported; in 29 cases the 
complaint was unjustified; by changing the hours, work or method of payment, 
seven employees were enabled to earn the minimum; four employees were 
issued special license permits; one employee had left her employment before 
inspection was made by the Commission ; eleven complaints were not covered by 
any minimum wage order ; in four cases the agent of the Commission could not 
locate the firm and at the close of the fiscal year, six cases are still pending. 

In the case of 73 complaints, retroactive wages were collected by the com- 
plainants. 



Conferences 



The Executive Secretary was given authority by the Commissioner of Labor 
and Industries, and the Mmimum Wage Commission to hold conferences in an 
effort to adjust retroactive wage claims between employers and employees. 
In addition to these conferences there were numerous interviews and telephone 
calls regarding adjustments of registered complaints. 

As a result of the conferences mentioned ninety percent of the cases were 
settled without resorting to court action. Twenty-eight thousand, two hundred 
and fifty-six dollars and five cents were secured in retroactive wages covering 
the following occupations : Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findings, Bread and 
Bakery Products; Laundry and Dry Cleaning, Men's Clothing and Raincoat. 
Men's Furnishings, Women's Clothing, Women's and Children s Underwear, 
Neckwear and Cotton Garments and Retail Stores. 

Retroactive Wages 
As a result of the complaints received in the Commission's office in connection 
with their regular inspection work, and also as a result of the figures secured 
^h^ugh a special inspection in the clothing trade, retroactive wages were 
secured in the following occupations:— 

^ , Amount 
Industry ,. < i7fu^ 

Boot and Shoe Cut Stock and Findings . . • • ^> -+/o.()o 



Bread and Bakery Products 
Laundry and Dry Cleaning 
Men's Clothing and Raincoat 
Men's Furnishings . 



83.00 
256.89 
13,826.94 
856.31 



6 



Women's Clothing 

Women's and Children's Underwear, Neckwear and Cotton 



349.02 



Garment 
Retail Store 



9,089.32 
3,317.91 



$28,256.05 



Summary 



A survey of the work and accomplishments of the Commission shows two 
especially interesting developments during the year : — First, the greatly in- 
creased inspection work accomplished by the Commission through its investi- 
gators included regular inspection work, reinspections, home workers, and 
inspections where employees were not covered by any of the Commission's 
orders, making a total of 107,161 records. This is greatly in excess of the 
records taken last year. Second: — the marked increase in the amount of 
retroactive wages collected for underpaid employees. During 1938, $1,343.30 
was collected in comparison with $28,256.05 in 1939. The bulk of the retroactive 
wages were collected from clothing firms as a result of a special investigation. 

With the inclusion of four additional wage orders since the last report, it is 
estimated that approximately 150,000 women and minors are covered by mini- 
mum wage orders. 



paid less than the following rates : 

1. Employees of ordinary ability, not less than 36 cents an hour, after 36 
weeks' employment in the industry. 

2. Inexperienced employees, not less than 25 cents an hour, for the first 
36 weeks' employment in the industry. 

Any employee regularly employed for forty (40) hours per week shall be 
regarded for the purpose of this order as a full-time employee. 
Special Provisions: 
Piece Rates: The wages paid piece workers shall be so adjusted that every 
women or minor so employed shall earn for a given period of employment 
not less than the time wages herein prescribed for such period. 
Waiting Time: Time during which employees are required to wait on the 
employer's premises and no work is provided by the employer, shall be counted 
as working time and paid for at the individual worker's regular wage rate. 



Definitions: 

1. Knit Goods Occupation: 

The above-named occupation includes all branches of the Knit Goods 
industry with the exception of staple lines of hosiery and underwear, but 
this exception shall not apply to lines used for athletic purposes or to 
staple lines such as bathing suits, tights and infants' garments. 

2. Experienced Employees: 

Women and minors who have had 36 weeks' or more employment in the 
industry shall be considered experienced. 



WAGE ORDERS 



Knit Goods Occupation 
Mandatory Order Number 20 




Administrative Regulations 



7 

3. Minors: 

Employees of either sex under 21 years of age. 

4. Employees: 

Women and minors employed in the Knit Goods occupation. 

5. Mandatory Order: 

Date effective :— June 2, 1939. 



Knit Goods Wage Board 
List of Members 
Representative of the Public 
John W. Morgan, Esq., Chairman, 23 Central Avenue, Lynn 



Representatives of Employers. 
A. Paul Cohen 
Suffolk Knitting Mills 
Lowell 

George K. Gordon 
Revere Knitting Mills 
Maiden 

E. T. Malone 

Malone Knitting Mills 

Springfield 



Representatives of Employees: 
Jesse Lane 
18 Stuart Street 
Boston 

Miss Winifred Bailey 
47 Crescent Road 
Needham Heights 

Miss Elizabeth Vozella 
20 Henley Street 
Medford 



Office and Other Building Cleaners Occupation 
Directory Order Number 21 

Minimum Fair Wage Standards for Women and Minors Employed 
in This Occupation 

Basic Wage Rates: 

The minimum rate of wages for female employees and minors in the Office 
and Other Building Cleaners Occupation shall be not less than 40 cents an 
hour. 

Special Provisions: 

Waiting Time: The time which an employee spends on the premises after 
reporting for work and before he or she is released by the employer or re- 
quested to report at any future hour, shall be regarded as waiting time and 
shall be included in computing total hours worked within the week. 

Administrative Regulations 

Definitions : 

1. Office and Other Building Cleaners Occupation: 

The scope of the above-named occupation includes office and other build- 
ings. 

2. Minors: 

Employees of either sex under 21 years of age. 

3. Employees: 

Women and minors employed in the Office and Other l^uiMini: Clcatu-rs 
occupation. 

4. Directory Order: 

Date effective :— June 1, 1939. 



8 



Office and Other Building Cleaners Wage Board 
List of Members 
Representative of the Public 
Virgil DiGuito, Esq., Chairman, 21 Flint Street, Somerville 



Representatives of Employers: 
Russell Codman, Jr. 
Codman & Codman 
Boston 

Ralph E. Whitney 

C. W. Whittier Company 

Boston 

Robert Huelin 
DeBlois & Maddison 
Boston 



Representatives of Employees: 
Mrs. Elizabeth Ryan 
38 Neptune Road 
East Boston 

Robert Everitt 

321 Tremont Street 

Boston 

Mrs. Martha Doherty 
40 Elm Street 
Charlestown 



Jewelry and Related Lines Occupation 
Directory Order Number 22 

Minimum Fair Wage Standards for Women and Minors Employed 
in This Occupation 

Basic Wage Rates: 

No woman and no person under twenty-one years employed in any occupation 
in the manufacture of jewelry, watches, clocks, silverware, optical goods and 
related lines as hereinafter defined shall be paid less than the following 
minimum rates : 

A. 33c an hour — August 1, 1939 to July 31, 1940, inclusive. 

B. 35c an hour — on and after August 1, 1940, for employees with ex- 
perience of two months' or over in the industry. 

C. 33c an hour — on and after August 1, 1940, for employees having 
less than two months' experience in the industry ; but in no event shall 
the number of persons employed at less than 35c per hour exceed ten 
per cent of the average total number of employees employed during the 
preceding thirty days by the employer. 

Special Provisions: 

1. Piece Rates: The wages paid piece workers shall be so adjusted that 
every woman or minor so employed shall earn for any period of employ- 
ment not less than the time wages herein prescribed for such period. 

2. Waiting Time: Time during which employees are required to wait on 
the employer's premises and no work is provided by the employer, shall 
be counted as working time and paid for at the individual worker's 
regular wage rate. 



Administrative Regulations 



Definitions : 

Jewelry and Related Lines Occupation: 

The above-named occupation covers the manufacture of such products 
as jewelry, jewelry novelties, jewelry findings, whether made of metal, 
wood, glass, plastic materials or other substances, when such findings 
are produced for and distributed through the jewelry, silverware or 
optical industries, silverware, watches, clocks, optical goods, including 
sun glasses and related lines. 



Experienced Employees: 

Mtw'"" ^"""^ '"'^^''^''^ ^'"'"'^'^ '"^ ''^"'"^ ^^""^ occupation. 

Employees of either sex under 21 years of age. 
Directory Order: 

Date effective: — August 1, 1939. 

Jewelry and Related Lixntes Wage Board 
List of Members 
Representative of the Public 
LaRue Brown, Esq., Chairman, 15 State Street, Boston 
Representatives of Employers: Representatives of Employees: 

Royal Parkinson Thomas F. Dyer 

American Optical Company 59 Chestnut Street 

Southbridge Providence, Rhode Island 

Frank E. Nolan Mrs. Ruth Perry 

Saart Bros. 159 Pleasant Street 

Attleboro Attleboro 

Joseph Rioux Charles F. Smith 

Bliss Bros. 79 Tiffany Street 

Attleboro Attleboro 

Beauty Culture Occupation 
Directory Order Number 23 

Minimum Fair Wage Standards for Women and Minors Employed 
in This Occupation 

Basic Wage Rates: 

No woman and no minor employed in the Beauty Culture occupation shall 
be paid less than the following rates: 

1. Full Time: 

A. Hairdressers, not less than $16.50 a week. 

B. Operators, not less than $14.50 a week. 

C. Manicurists, not less than $14.50 a week. 

D. Maids and Appointment Clerks, not less than $14.50 a week. 

E. For the first three months' employment in the industry, not less than 
$12.50 a week. 

Any week of 48 hours shall be considered a full zcorking iveek. 

2. Part Time: 

F. All part time hairdressers shall be paid at the rate of not less than 
50c per hour for each hour worked and in no case for less than four 
consecutive hours in any one day. 

G. All part time operators or manicurists shall be paid at the rate of 40c 
per hour for each hour worked and in no case for less tiian four con- 
secutive hours in any one day. 

Part time employees are those zuho are employed not less than four 
consecutive hours. 

Special Provisions: 

Waiting Time: Time during which employees are required to wait on the 
employer's premises and no work is provided by the employer, shall be counted 



10 



as working time and paid for at the individual worker's regular wage rate. 
Experienced Operators: Any operator who has held an operator's license 
for a period of one year shall be paid at the rate of $16.50 a week. 
Permit Workers: Any unlicensed operator working under a permit issued 
by the licensing authority shall be considered an operator and shall be paid 
an operator's wages. 

Commission Workers: Any employee working on a strictly commission 
basis shall be paid pro rata of the minimum wage to which she is entitled 
under her specific classification group, for a day of eight hours or a working 
week of forty-eight hours. 

Equipment: Sissors, cuticle cutters, hand clippers, eyebrow tweezers and 
marcel irons shall be furnished by the employees. All other supplies and 
equipment necessary for the performance of any service of any branch of 
the beauty culture industry shall be furnished by the employer. 
Tips: Tips are not to be construed as part of the weekly wage. 

Administrative Regulations 

Definitions : 

1. Beauty Culture Occupation: This occupation includes all service or 
operations used or useful in the care, cleansing or beautification of the 
skin, nails or hair, or in the enhancement of personal appearance, and 
also services or operations incidental to such care, cleansing, beautifi- 
cation or enhancement, as in the General Laws pertaining to Hairdressers, 
Chapter 428, Acts of 1935, amended in 1936 and 1937. 

2. Hairdresser: A person registered as a hairdresser with the Board of 
Registration of Hairdressers, engaged in hairdressing or in any of the 
branches of beauty culture service. 

3. Operator: A person registered with the Board of Registration of Hair- 
dressers and engaged in hairdressing or in any of the branches of beauty 
culture service under the supervision of a registered hairdresser. 

4. Manicurist : A person registered as a manicurist with the Board of 
Registration of Hairdressers and performing no other service of beauty 
culture than manicuring. 

5. Maid and Appointment Clerk: A person employed as a maid or appoint- 
ment clerk in a beauty culture establishment. 

6. Employees: Women and minors employed in the beauty culture occu- 
pation. 

7. Minors: Employees of either sex under twenty-one years of age. 

8. Directory Order: Date effective: — September 1, 1939. 



Beauty Culture Wage Board 
List of Members 
Representative of the Public 
John P. A'Hearn, Chairman, 38 Weston Street, Brockton 



Representatives of Employers: 
Miss Alice Rose Cyr 
Olympia Building 
Brockton 

Mrs. Lottie H. Harriman 
31 Bank Street 
North Adams 

Lawrence D'Angelo 
26 West Street 
Boston 



Representatives of Employees: 
Miss Esther L. Callahan 
31 Central Street 
Waltham 

Miss Ada Harriman 
92 Capen Street 
Milton 

Miss Saima Holmes 
5 Pleasant Street 
Worcester 



11 



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«^^-|-, 1,1, 

. s s?; 1 1 llll 


K - .-5 


oj ^ 1 ' life* 


Laundry 

and 

Dry 
Cleaning 


M " 1 I I i 1 M-^ 

- — [ 1 II II 1- 

O 


llll 


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. :i 1 i 1 ! 1 1 ! s^f II 

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U 


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• 

u 
o 
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, , S 1 [ ! f f ( 1 551 M 


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— £ 


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13 



C55 

ex. 
s 

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««3 



m "2 «^ --"^ 



Women's 
Clothing 


w " 1 1 1 1 1 i-l 


Women's and 
Children's 
Underwear, 
Neckwear and 
Cotton 


C. E. 
1,302 14 

310 7 
231 8 
19 2 

725 6 
2 1 

15 2 


Retail 
Stores 


. CM rr!CM-N [oai—' cNiCN 
W - 1 1 1 i 


Pocketbook 
and 
Leather 
Goods 


C. E. 
195 7 

1 1 
91 2 

103 5 


Paper 
Box 


a 1 : : ; M ri 1 1 

u ^ IN ' 1 ' 1 ;t ' ' ' 


Office and 

Other 
Building 
Cleaners 


C. E. 

70 2 

70 2 


Millinery 


C. E. 
14 1 

14 "T 



2 2 
H ^ 

2 « 
Is 




14 



Table 3. — Disposition of N^ezc Cases in Finns Where Cases Were Pending 

From Prez'ioiis Year. 



Women's 
and Children's 

Situation and Disposition Boot and Men's Pocketbook Underwear, 

of Cases Shoe Cut Clothing and Neckwear, and 

Stock and and Leather Cotton 

Findings Raincoats Goods Garments Total 



CE CE CE CE CE 

Cases of Non-compliance . 49 4 14 3 245 2 38 4 346 13 
Adjustment 

Wages raised ... 14 1 1 1 — — 25 2 40 4 
Adjustment promised or re- 
ported .... 21 4 — — 240 1 — — 261 5 

Left, laid-off or discharged .14 1 132 — — 123 39 5 

Special License Permit . — — — — — — 1 1 1 1 

Pending .... — — — — 5 1 — — 5 1 



/ 



15 



o 



"i 



I 



Laundry 
and Dry 
Cleaningi 


C. E. 

2,148 251 
159 80 

OS 1 A 
1 1 

110 54 
10 6 

3 2 
1 1 


Knit 

Goodsl 


C. E. 

2,254 34 
200 16 

7 2 

100 10 
1 1 

4 1 
1 1 

87 ~4 


Electrical 
Equipment 

and 
Suppliesl 


C. E. 

1,552 9 
369 8 

252 2 

20 4 
30 1 

2 1 
65 2 


Druggists' 
Preparations 
Proprietary 
Medicines 
Chemical 
Compoundsi 


w ^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ^ 
^ 1 1 1 M 1 1 r 


O 

U 


C. E. 

368 9 
22 3 

1 1 

21 2 


Canning 
and 
Preserving, 
Minor Lines 
of Con- 
fectionery 

and 
Food Prep- 
arationsl 


C. E. 

281 19 
31 6 

1 O 1 

21 5 


Candyl 


C. E. 

2,229 50 
12 4 

5 2 

4 2 
3 1 


Brush 


w - II ri 1 1 1 1 1 
6 -'^ ^ II n 1 1 1 1 1 


Bread 

and 
Bakery 
Productsl 


C. E. 

1,428 66 
34 14 

12 3 

7 5 

5 3 

1 1 

6 2 

3 3 


Boot and 
Shoe Cut 
Stock and 
Findings! 


C. E. 

1,247 63 
147 25 

Ad 1 1 

48 8 
44 11 

3 1 
1 1 

1 1 
6 4 



11 



"5 c ju 
u o o 2 u - v.a <« A 



0. 



16 



Total 


C. E. 

42,447 2,337 
7,322 687 

761 168 

1,535 345 
290 103 

37 19 
52 15 
35 2 
19 15 
1 1 
2,907 49 
1 1 
1,684 90 


Women's 
Clothingi 


C. E. 

2,462 92 
403 46 

54 16 

90 18 
24 8 

3 2 
1 1 
31 1 
1 1 

148 8 

51 6 


Women's 

and 
Children's 
Underwear, 
Neckwear 
and Cotton 
Garmentsi 


C. E. 

4,984 88 
2,620 38 

150 9 

111 10 
73 12 

9 5 
2,121 18 
156 7 


Toys and 
Games and 
Sporting 
Goodsl 


C. E. 

1,317 29 
297 5 

17 3 

280 2 


Stationery 
Goods and 
Envelopesi 


C. E. 

2,610 42 
53 11 

9 4 
17 4 

4 1 
23 2 


Retail 
Storesi 


C. E. 

8,896 1,251 
810 313 

97 72 

556 166 
63 46 

11 9 
8 4 

4 4 

17 14 
1 1 
S3 31 


Pocketbook 
and 
Leather 
Goodsl 


C. E. 

881 36 
490 13 

7 2 
190 9 

293 ~3 


Paper 
Boxi 


C. E. 

1,782 90 
65 21 

9 6 

44 13 
4 3 

1 1 

7 ~4 


Office 
and other 
Building 
Cleanersi 




Millineryl 


C. E. 

1,831 23 
72 13 

22 4 
48 7 

1 1 


Men's 
Furnish- 
ings ^ 


C. E. 

1,035 24 
746 21 

25 6 

44 8 
7 3 

1 1 
248 4 
421 3 




Records for Tabulation . 
Cases of Non-compliance 

Adjustment 
Wages raised 

Adjustment promised or re- 
ported .... 
Left, laid-off, or discharged . 
Change of work, hours, or 

method of payment . 
Incorrectly recorded 
Firm out of business . 
Special license type 
Covered by piece rate ruling 
Retroactive wage payment 
Technical non-compliance 
Pending 



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